visitors to patients


Summary: Patients' guests and rules for visiting.

Top Publications

  1. Latva R, Lehtonen L, Salmelin R, Tamminen T. Visits by the family to the neonatal intensive care unit. Acta Paediatr. 2007;96:215-20 pubmed
    ..In contrast, more practical limitations such as geographical distance and other children to be taken care of had greater effect on the visiting frequency for fathers. ..
  2. Latva R, Lehtonen L, Salmelin R, Tamminen T. Visiting less than every day: a marker for later behavioral problems in Finnish preterm infants. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2004;158:1153-7 pubmed
    ..Less frequent visits may also indicate factors influencing the parent-child relationship in a way that leads to subsequent behavioral problems. ..
  3. Franck L, Spencer C. Parent visiting and participation in infant caregiving activities in a neonatal unit. Birth. 2003;30:31-5 pubmed
    ..Neonatal unit staff should consider factors that may influence parental visiting and explore strategies to improve parental involvement in caregiving. ..
  4. Griffin T. A family-centered "visitation" policy in the neonatal intensive care unit that welcomes parents as partners. J Perinat Neonatal Nurs. 2013;27:160-5; quiz 166-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Neonatal intensive care unit nurses may be accustomed to a more strict policy, needing communication tools and strategies to collaborate with parents and implement a family-centered "visitation" or welcoming policy. ..
  5. Johansson I, Fridlund B, Hildingh C. What is supportive when an adult next-of-kin is in critical care?. Nurs Crit Care. 2005;10:289-98 pubmed
    ..Recommendations for future practice are presented. ..
  6. Thalanany M, Mugford M, Mitchell Inwang C. Visiting adult patients in intensive care: the importance of relatives' travel and time costs. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2006;22:40-8 pubmed
    ..The main out-of-pocket expense was that related to travel. More empirical work is needed across different settings to obtain more generalisable estimates of out-of-pocket expenses and time foregone. ..
  7. Thibeau S, Ricouard D, Gilcrease C. Innovative technology offers virtual visitation for families. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2012;43:439-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Innovative technology such as webcams offers virtual visitation, which holds potential to improve parent-infant bonding and reduce parents' self-perceived stress. ..
  8. Taylor A. Exploring patient, visitor and staff views on open visiting. Nurs Times. 2008;104:30-3 pubmed
    ..Patients, visitors and staff preferred set visiting times. They also felt some flexibility needed to be built around these set times. ..
  9. Moura H, Costa V, Rodrigues M, Almeida F, Maia T, Guimaraes H. End of life in the neonatal intensive care unit. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66:1569-72 pubmed
    ..Despite an increase in the withholding and withdrawing of therapeutic activities and improvements in pain management and family support, many neonates still receive curative and aggressive practices at the end of life. ..

More Information


  1. Knutsson S, Bergbom I. Nurses' and physicians' viewpoints regarding children visiting/not visiting adult ICUs. Nurs Crit Care. 2007;12:64-73 pubmed
    ..The differences in views show that the dynamics are complicated and this could be attributed to a lack of a common view of care, which prevents family-centred care that includes children from being practised. ..
  2. Grabowski D, Mitchell S. Family oversight and the quality of nursing home care for residents with advanced dementia. Med Care. 2009;47:568-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research will need to address whether families with greater oversight tend to make decisions that promote worse quality of care, or whether worse quality of care promotes greater family oversight. ..
  3. Gill J, Kumar R, Todd J, Wiskin C. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: awareness and perceptions. J Hosp Infect. 2006;62:333-7 pubmed
    ..10). Fifty-two percent of doctors felt that they were at risk compared with 13% of domestic employees. In conclusion, this study showed a high level of awareness among the general public and healthcare workers alike. ..
  4. Bramwell R, Weindling M. Families' views on ward rounds in neonatal units. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2005;90:F429-31 pubmed
    ..Units should consider: the information they have for parents about ward rounds; the possibility that consultations may be overheard; the opportunities for parents to communicate with the clinical team. ..
  5. Cohen B, Hyman S, Rosenberg L, Larson E. Frequency of patient contact with health care personnel and visitors: implications for infection prevention. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf. 2012;38:560-5 pubmed, the frequency, type, and duration of contacts made by health care workers, other hospital staff, and visitors to patients in acute care settings were documented...
  6. Sachs N, Nulud P, Loeb G. Virtual Visit: improving communication for those who need it most. Stud Health Technol Inform. 2003;94:302-8 pubmed
    ..Preliminary response has been very encouraging. Future plans include extended focus group research, collaboration to integrate improved video transmission schemes, and in-home testing by seniors to gauge long-term user response. ..
  7. Perlin D, de Oliveira S, Gomes G. [The child at the neonatal intensive care unit: the impact of the mother's first visit]. Rev Gaucha Enferm. 2011;32:458-64 pubmed
    ..It is necessary that mothers be supported by the healthcare staff during the visit, strengthening their emotional link with their children. ..
  8. DeWitt L, Albert N. Preferences for Visitation in the PACU. J Perianesth Nurs. 2010;25:296-301 pubmed publisher
    ..After categorizing visitors into two groups based on blood line ties, close family preferred a one-time visit and distant relatives/friends preferred a verbal report 30 minutes after PACU arrival (P = .015). ..
  9. Howlett M, Alexander G, Tsuchiya B. Health care providers' attitudes regarding family presence during resuscitation of adults: an integrated review of the literature. Clin Nurse Spec. 2010;24:161-74 pubmed publisher
    ..If an institution elects to implement an FP policy or evidence-based practice guideline, it must carefully consider the many provider, patient, family, and system-level factors that can hinder or promote the success of this initiative. ..
  10. Westerkamp T. Spiritual rounds. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2007;64:2495 pubmed
  11. Latour J, Haines C. Families in the ICU: do we truly consider their needs, experiences and satisfaction?. Nurs Crit Care. 2007;12:173-4 pubmed
  12. Rozdilsky J. Enhancing sibling presence in pediatric ICU. Crit Care Nurs Clin North Am. 2005;17:451-61, xii pubmed
  13. Jolley J. Separation and psychological trauma: a paradox examined. Paediatr Nurs. 2007;19:22-5 pubmed
    ..Oral history data from 30 participants were recorded, content analysed and validated by the participants. ..
  14. Ferrara G, Ramponi D, Cline T. Evaluation of Physicians' and Nurses' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Compliance With Family Presence During Resuscitation in an Emergency Department Setting After an Educational Intervention. Adv Emerg Nurs J. 2016;38:32-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Ongoing staff education will heighten awareness to FPDR, make the staff more comfortable with families being present, and will presumably continue to increase invitations for FPDR. ..
  15. MacKinnon D. 'Amusements are provided': asylum entertainment and recreation in Australia and New Zealand c.1860-c.1945. Clio Med. 2009;86:267-88 pubmed
    ..This chapter reconstructs these practices in twenty public and three private asylums from this period by examining a diverse range of sources, including archives, histories of asylums and newspaper articles. ..
  16. Tang C, Chung F, Lin M, Wan G. Impact of patient visiting activities on indoor climate in a medical intensive care unit: a 1-year longitudinal study. Am J Infect Control. 2009;37:183-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Patient visiting activity impacts the indoor air quality of the ICU environment, especially in terms of coarse particle concentrations. Periodic monitoring of ventilation system efficiency is needed to ensure optimal indoor air quality. ..
  17. Prosser L, Townsend M, Staiger P. Older people's relationships with companion animals: a pilot study. Nurs Older People. 2008;20:29-32 pubmed
    ..Results back assertions in the literature that companion animals foster relationships by giving people opportunities to interact with others, but further study is needed to verify the link. ..
  18. Ihlenfeld J. Should we allow children to visit ill parents in intensive care units?. Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 2006;25:269-71 pubmed
    ..Nurses are invited to send in their own comments and to provide their experiences regarding having children visit patients in intensive care units. ..
  19. Modarres Nejad V. Couples' attitudes to the husband's presence in the delivery room during childbirth. East Mediterr Health J. 2005;11:828-34 pubmed
    ..Most women (88.4%), men (82.1%) and couples (76.9%) had positive attitudes to the husband's presence in the delivery room. Providing facilities to accommodate husbands and training for their presence in the delivery room is recommended. ..
  20. Blot F, Foubert A, Kervarrec C, Laversa N, Lemens C, Minet M, et al. [Can children visit their relatives in an adult ICU?]. Bull Cancer. 2007;94:727-33 pubmed
    ..Based on these promising results, the new policy has definitively been adopted in our unit. We propose that children ought to be allowed to visit a parent in the ICU and that this policy warrants evaluation in other types of units. ..
  21. Voutilainen P, Backman K, Isola A, Laukkala H. Family members' perceptions of the quality of long-term care. Clin Nurs Res. 2006;15:135-49 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the need for formulating ward policies and training the nursing staff to allow increased family involvement and to support it in an appropriate way. ..
  22. Mangini Bocchi S, Silva L, Monti Juliani C, Spiri W. Family visitors and companions of hospitalized elderly and adults: analysis of the experience from the perspective of the nursing working process. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2007;15:304-10 pubmed
  23. Peruta C. A change of heart: my experience with family presence. RN. 2007;70:44-8 pubmed
  24. Nyqvist K, Anderson G, Bergman N, Cattaneo A, Charpak N, Davanzo R, et al. State of the art and recommendations. Kangaroo mother care: application in a high-tech environment. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:812-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Implementation of the original KMC method, with continuous skin-to-skin contact whenever possible, is recommended for application in high-tech environments, although scientific evaluation should continue. ..
  25. Reinarz J. Receiving the rich, rejecting the poor: towards a history of hospital visiting in nineteenth-century provincial England. Clio Med. 2009;86:31-54 pubmed
    ..Views of hospital governors and medical staff varied with medical specialism, hospital finances, and a host of other factors. ..
  26. Bardell T, Brown P. Smoking inside Canadian acute care hospitals. Can Respir J. 2006;13:266-8 pubmed
    ..Many Canadian hospitals continue to allow smoking inside their facilities. There is considerable variation in hospital smoking policies across the country. ..
  27. Schaffartzik W. [Typical medical problems at the end of life: experiences in the intensive care unit]. Z Evid Fortbild Qual Gesundhwes. 2008;102:141-4 pubmed
    ..This is the only way for the medical practitioner to meet his/her obligation towards the patient. ..
  28. Rieker M. Con: Should parents be present during their child's anesthesia induction?. MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs. 2007;32:73 pubmed
  29. Critchell C, Marik P. Should family members be present during cardiopulmonary resuscitation? A review of the literature. Am J Hosp Palliat Care. 2007;24:311-7 pubmed
    ..In this article, we review the current status of family-witnessed resuscitation and provide recommendations on the development of hospital policies for family-witnessed resuscitation. ..
  30. Norton C, Dimon A, Richards R, Kelly S, Frey I. The introduction of family presence evidence-based practice into a baccalaureate nursing curriculum. Crit Care Nurs Q. 2007;30:364-71 pubmed
    ..Comparisons between pretest and posttest scores revealed an increase in the acceptance of family presence as a priority in nursing care of the critically ill. ..
  31. Aldridge M, Clark A. Making the right choice: family presence and the CNS. Clin Nurse Spec. 2005;19:113-6 pubmed
  32. Liu V, Read J, Scruth E, Cheng E. Visitation policies and practices in US ICUs. Crit Care. 2013;17:R71 pubmed publisher
    ..Wide variability in visitation policies suggests that further study into the impact of ICU visitations on care and outcomes remains necessary to standardize practice. ..
  33. Weslien M, Nilstun T, Lundqvist A, Fridlund B. When the unreal becomes real: family members' experiences of cardiac arrest. Nurs Crit Care. 2005;10:15-22 pubmed
    ..Because their experiences vary widely, the encounter has to be developed through a comforting, sympathetic and respectful dialogue in consideration for individuals' preferences. ..
  34. Plouffe J, Cooper H, Fraser K, Launder S. Health care providers' perceptions of family presence during pediatric resuscitation. Dynamics. 2010;21:26-7 pubmed
    ..In 2010, the post-implementation survey supported the evidenced-based practice guideline had achieved its goal of integration into practice. ..
  35. Linnarsson J, Bubini J, Perseius K. A meta-synthesis of qualitative research into needs and experiences of significant others to critically ill or injured patients. J Clin Nurs. 2010;19:3102-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This kind of description might be helpful in taking on this delicate task and might also serve as a body of knowledge to influence clinical practice guidelines and nursing interventions in this field. ..
  36. Calais E, Dalbye R, Nyqvist K, Berg M. Skin-to-skin contact of fullterm infants: an explorative study of promoting and hindering factors in two Nordic childbirth settings. Acta Paediatr. 2010;99:1080-90 pubmed publisher
  37. Fridh I, Forsberg A, Bergbom I. Family presence and environmental factors at the time of a patient's death in an ICU. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2007;51:395-401 pubmed
    ..The study also highlights the risk of underestimating the needs of patients without a next of kin at their bedside at the time of death. ..
  38. Reeves E, Timmons S, Dampier S. Parents' experiences of negotiating care for their technology-dependent child. J Child Health Care. 2006;10:228-39 pubmed
    ..This study highlights the need to gain insight into parents' experiences, in order that nurses can provide care in a way negotiated to suit the individual family. Suggestions for further research in this area are offered. ..
  39. Om A. The value of family in postoperative recovery. J Perianesth Nurs. 2008;23:3-4 pubmed publisher
  40. Smith L. 'The keeper must himself be kept': visitation and the lunatic asylum in England, 1750-1850. Clio Med. 2009;86:199-222 pubmed
    ..An effective national system of regulation was finally created in 1845, with Commissioners in Lunacy required to provide formal visitation to all public and private asylums. ..
  41. Moore H. Witnessed resuscitation: staff issues and benefits to parents. Paediatr Nurs. 2009;21:22-5 pubmed
    ..This article will considers the background of witnessed resuscitation, as well as the views of both staff and relatives involved. The research will be evaluated and implications for practice explored. ..
  42. Zaforteza Lallemand C, García Mozo A, Quintana Carbonero R, Sánchez Calvín C, Abadía Ortiz E, Albert Miró Gayà J. [Opening the intensive care unit to families: what do the professionals think?]. Enferm Intensiva. 2010;21:52-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ICU professionals are reluctant to open their units, but accept the extension of current visiting hours. The physical structure of the unit is perceived as a major barrier. ..
  43. Michaud C, Paquin M, Allard M. [Is a healing sleep possible in intensive care?]. Perspect Infirm. 2006;3:10-4, 16-8 pubmed
  44. Calleja P. Caring for families during critical illness: a reflective case study. Emerg Nurse. 2007;15:28-31 pubmed
  45. Vavarouta A, Xanthos T, Papadimitriou L, Kouskouni E, Iacovidou N. Family presence during resuscitation and invasive procedures: physicians' and nurses' attitudes working in pediatric departments in Greece. Resuscitation. 2011;82:713-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In view of the increasing evidence on the advantages of this practice, we recommend implementation of relevant educational programs and institutional guidelines and policies. ..
  46. Blom H, Gustavsson C, Sundler A. Participation and support in intensive care as experienced by close relatives of patients: a phenomenological study. Intensive Crit Care Nurs. 2013;29:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Health-care professionals, especially critical care nurses, need to create an atmosphere that invites relatives to participate in the care provided at an ICU. ..
  47. Evans L. Feasibility of family member presence in the OR during breast biopsy procedures. AORN J. 2008;88:568-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Family presence in the OR during breast biopsy procedures is considered a novel initiative. The results of this study indicate that the feasibility of instituting this intervention would be challenged by system barriers. ..
  48. Fallis W, McClement S, Pereira A. Family presence during resuscitation: a survey of Canadian critical care nurses' practices and perceptions. Dynamics. 2008;19:22-8 pubmed
    ..The willingness of nurses in critical care to support FPDR suggests the need for more formal policies in hospitals and the development of algorithms to facilitate this process. ..
  49. Giannini A. Open intensive care units: the case in favour. Minerva Anestesiol. 2007;73:299-305 pubmed
    ..It is a decision which requires doctors and nurses to rethink their relationships with patients and their families, which calls for original solutions for each individual situation, and which should be subject to periodic checks. ..
  50. Monticelli M, Boehs A. [Families in the overnight stay unit of the hospital: between informal and instituted]. Rev Esc Enferm USP. 2007;41:468-77 pubmed
  51. Agård A, Maindal H. Interacting with relatives in intensive care unit. Nurses' perceptions of a challenging task. Nurs Crit Care. 2009;14:264-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The study provides important knowledge to clinicians, educators and managers on how to educate and supervise ICU-nurses to support their efforts to interact proficiently with relatives. ..
  52. Minchella A, Onde O, Vernes E, Perrat G, de La Coussaye J, Sotto A. [Pandemic influenza: training in the Nîmes university hospital]. Med Mal Infect. 2009;39:116-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, this exercise should lead to corrective actions and to completing the various training sessions initiated in other institutions. ..
  53. Fumagalli S, Boncinelli L, Lo Nostro A, Valoti P, Baldereschi G, Di Bari M, et al. Reduced cardiocirculatory complications with unrestrictive visiting policy in an intensive care unit: results from a pilot, randomized trial. Circulation. 2006;113:946-52 pubmed