hiv long term survivors


Summary: Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.

Top Publications

  1. Alexander L, Aquino DeJesus M, Chan M, Andiman W. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication by a two-amino-acid insertion in HIV-1 Vif from a nonprogressing mother and child. J Virol. 2002;76:10533-9 pubmed
    ..Further studies of these sequences might provide information regarding contributions of Vif structure and/or function to HIV-1 virulence. ..
  2. Tilton J, Luskin M, Johnson A, Manion M, Hallahan C, Metcalf J, et al. Changes in paracrine interleukin-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of antigen load. J Virol. 2007;81:2713-25 pubmed
    ..In addition, defects in function and phenotype of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are not readily discernible in the context of antiretroviral therapy but rather are similar to responses to other viruses. ..
  3. Pereyra F, Addo M, Kaufmann D, Liu Y, Miura T, Rathod A, et al. Genetic and immunologic heterogeneity among persons who control HIV infection in the absence of therapy. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Even low-level viremia among HIV controllers was associated with measurable T cell dysfunction, which has implications for current prophylactic vaccine strategies. ..
  4. Imami N, Pires A, Hardy G, Wilson J, Gazzard B, Gotch F. A balanced type 1/type 2 response is associated with long-term nonprogressive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection. J Virol. 2002;76:9011-23 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that a balanced type 1/type 2 profile correlates with successful long-term control of HIV-1. ..
  5. Migueles S, Osborne C, Royce C, Compton A, Joshi R, Weeks K, et al. Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008;29:1009-21 pubmed publisher
    ..They also demonstrate that lytic granule contents of memory cells are a critical determinant of cytotoxicity that must be induced for maximal per-cell killing capacity. ..
  6. Dyer W, Learmont J, Geczy A, Sullivan J. High frequency of nonprogression 20 years after transfusion-transmitted human immunodeficiency virus type-1 infection. Transfusion. 2004;44:1397-8 pubmed
  7. Birch M, Learmont J, Dyer W, Deacon N, Zaunders J, Saksena N, et al. An examination of signs of disease progression in survivors of the Sydney Blood Bank Cohort (SBBC). J Clin Virol. 2001;22:263-70 pubmed
    ..The three LTNP have maintained normal low levels of activated CD8 T cells and strong HIV-specific proliferative responses to HIV-1 p24, which are associated with control of viral replication. ..
  8. Migueles S, Laborico A, Imamichi H, Shupert W, Royce C, McLaughlin M, et al. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict human immunodeficiency virus replication is not caused by loss of recognition of autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol. 2003;77:6889-98 pubmed
    ..Qualitative features of the virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell response not measured by current assays remain the most likely determinants of the differential abilities of HLA B(*)5701(+) LTNPs and progressors to restrict virus replication. ..
  9. Somasundaran M, Sharkey M, Brichacek B, Luzuriaga K, Emerman M, Sullivan J, et al. Evidence for a cytopathogenicity determinant in HIV-1 Vpr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99:9503-8 pubmed
    ..This study suggests the presence of a determinant of in vivo cytopathogenicity within HIV-1 Vpr and further indicates that viral replication can be uncoupled from cytopathicity in vitro and in vivo. ..

More Information


  1. Sun Y, Iglesias E, Samri A, Kamkamidze G, Decoville T, Carcelain G, et al. A systematic comparison of methods to measure HIV-1 specific CD8 T cells. J Immunol Methods. 2003;272:23-34 pubmed
    ..These results have important implications for the choice of immunological methods to evaluate CD8 T cells responses to vaccines. ..
  2. Okulicz J, Marconi V, Landrum M, Wegner S, Weintrob A, Ganesan A, et al. Clinical outcomes of elite controllers, viremic controllers, and long-term nonprogressors in the US Department of Defense HIV natural history study. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1714-23 pubmed publisher
    ..042). Definitions of controllers and LTNPs describe distinct populations whose differing clinical outcomes improve with the stringency of criteria, underscoring the need for comparability between study populations. ..
  3. Bello G, Casado C, Sandonis V, Alonso Nieto M, Vicario J, Garcia S, et al. A subset of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 long-term non-progressors is characterized by the unique presence of ancestral sequences in the viral population. J Gen Virol. 2005;86:355-64 pubmed
  4. Gorry P, McPhee D, Verity E, Dyer W, Wesselingh S, Learmont J, et al. Pathogenicity and immunogenicity of attenuated, nef-deleted HIV-1 strains in vivo. Retrovirology. 2007;4:66 pubmed
  5. Gray L, Churchill M, Sterjovski J, Witlox K, Learmont J, Sullivan J, et al. Phenotype and envelope gene diversity of nef-deleted HIV-1 isolated from long-term survivors infected from a single source. Virol J. 2007;4:75 pubmed
  6. Brashers D, Neidig J, Cardillo L, Dobbs L, Russell J, Haas S. 'In an important way, I did die': uncertainty and revival in persons living with HIV or AIDS. AIDS Care. 1999;11:201-19 pubmed
    ..Implications for prevention, practice, research and theory are presented and suggestions for education and assistance are offered. ..
  7. Dyer W, Kuipers H, Coolen M, Geczy A, Forrester J, Workman C, et al. Correlates of antiviral immune restoration in acute and chronic HIV type 1 infection: sustained viral suppression and normalization of T cell subsets. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002;18:999-1010 pubmed
    ..This study uniquely demonstrates that dual-PI regimens are superior in achieving these levels of virological control and immune restoration in both chronic and acute infection, compared with single-PI or non-PI regimens. ..
  8. Mikhail M, Wang B, Saksena N. Mechanisms involved in non-progressive HIV disease. AIDS Rev. 2003;5:230-44 pubmed
  9. Mahalanabis M, Jayaraman P, Miura T, Pereyra F, Chester E, Richardson B, et al. Continuous viral escape and selection by autologous neutralizing antibodies in drug-naive human immunodeficiency virus controllers. J Virol. 2009;83:662-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Strong ANAb responses directed against autologous Env variants are present in long-term chronically infected individuals, suggesting a role for these responses in contributing to the durable control of HIV replication. ..
  10. Geczy A, Kuipers H, Coolen M, Ashton L, Kennedy C, Ng G, et al. HLA and other host factors in transfusion-acquired HIV-1 infection. Hum Immunol. 2000;61:172-6 pubmed
  11. Kelleher A, Long C, Holmes E, Allen R, Wilson J, Conlon C, et al. Clustered mutations in HIV-1 gag are consistently required for escape from HLA-B27-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses. J Exp Med. 2001;193:375-86 pubmed
    ..Outgrowth of CTL escape viruses required high viral loads and additional, possibly compensatory, mutations in the gag protein. ..
  12. Verity E, Zotos D, Wilson K, Chatfield C, Lawson V, Dwyer D, et al. Viral phenotypes and antibody responses in long-term survivors infected with attenuated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 containing deletions in the nef and long terminal repeat regions. J Virol. 2007;81:9268-78 pubmed
    ..Despite the presence of strong neutralizing antibodies in a number of SBBC members, disease progression was not prevented, and each cohort member studied displayed a unique outcome of infection with nef-attenuated HIV-1. ..
  13. Bello G, Casado C, Garcia S, Rodriguez C, del Romero J, Carvajal Rodriguez A, et al. Lack of temporal structure in the short term HIV-1 evolution within asymptomatic naïve patients. Virology. 2007;362:294-303 pubmed
    ..These results support the existence of distinct patterns of env evolution in untreated HIV-1-infected patients. ..
  14. Braibant M, Brunet S, Costagliola D, Rouzioux C, Agut H, Katinger H, et al. Antibodies to conserved epitopes of the HIV-1 envelope in sera from long-term non-progressors: prevalence and association with neutralizing activity. AIDS. 2006;20:1923-30 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the antigenicity of the "silent face" of gp120 that exposes the 2G12 epitope should be analysed in more detail, to find ways to induce broadly neutralizing antibodies. ..
  15. Shen C, Gupta P, Wu H, Chen X, Huang X, Zhou Y, et al. Molecular characterization of the HIV type 1 vpr gene in infected Chinese former blood/plasma donors at different stages of diseases. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008;24:661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show that vpr may not play an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis in different stages of Chinese patients and may have important implications in developing vpr-related treatments suitable for HIV-1-infected PBDs. ..
  16. Pires A, Hardy G, Gazzard B, Gotch F, Imami N. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy during recent HIV-1 infection results in lower residual viral reservoirs. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004;36:783-90 pubmed
  17. Bailey J, O Connell K, Yang H, Han Y, Xu J, Jilek B, et al. Transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from a patient who developed AIDS to an elite suppressor. J Virol. 2008;82:7395-410 pubmed publisher
    ..The results strongly suggest that through direct and indirect mechanisms, CD8(+) T cells in some ES control HIV-1 isolates are capable of causing profound immunosuppression. ..
  18. Migueles S, Laborico A, Shupert W, Sabbaghian M, Rabin R, Hallahan C, et al. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nat Immunol. 2002;3:1061-8 pubmed
    ..In addition, the relative absence of these functions in progressors may represent a mechanism by which HIV avoids immunological control. ..
  19. Sandonis V, Casado C, Alvaro T, Pernas M, Olivares I, Garcia S, et al. A combination of defective DNA and protective host factors are found in a set of HIV-1 ancestral LTNPs. Virology. 2009;391:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..These HIV controllers presented a combination of deleted viral genomes and host protective factors. ..
  20. Rhodes D, Ashton L, Solomon A, Carr A, Cooper D, Kaldor J, et al. Characterization of three nef-defective human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains associated with long-term nonprogression. Australian Long-Term Nonprogressor Study Group. J Virol. 2000;74:10581-8 pubmed
    ..All three strains of virus had envelope sequences characteristic of macrophagetropic viruses. These findings further indicate the reduced pathogenic potential of nef-defective viruses. ..
  21. Boaz M, Waters A, Murad S, Easterbrook P, Vyakarnam A. Presence of HIV-1 Gag-specific IFN-gamma+IL-2+ and CD28+IL-2+ CD4 T cell responses is associated with nonprogression in HIV-1 infection. J Immunol. 2002;169:6376-85 pubmed
    ..Accumulation of specific CD28(-)IL-2(+) helpers and loss of IFN-gamma(+)IL-2(+) CD4 T cells may compromise specific CD8 responses and, in turn, immunity to HIV. ..
  22. Churchill M, Chiavaroli L, Wesselingh S, Gorry P. Persistence of attenuated HIV-1 rev alleles in an epidemiologically linked cohort of long-term survivors infected with nef-deleted virus. Retrovirology. 2007;4:43 pubmed
    ..In addition, attenuated rev alleles may contribute to viral attenuation and long-term survival of HIV-1 infection in a subset of SBBC members. ..
  23. Julg B, Pereyra F, Buzon M, Piechocka Trocha A, Clark M, Baker B, et al. Infrequent recovery of HIV from but robust exogenous infection of activated CD4(+) T cells in HIV elite controllers. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:233-8 pubmed publisher
  24. Ferre A, Lemongello D, Hunt P, Morris M, Garcia J, Pollard R, et al. Immunodominant HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are common to blood and gastrointestinal mucosa, and Gag-specific responses dominate in rectal mucosa of HIV controllers. J Virol. 2010;84:10354-65 pubmed publisher
  25. Miura T, Brumme Z, Brockman M, Rosato P, Sela J, Brumme C, et al. Impaired replication capacity of acute/early viruses in persons who become HIV controllers. J Virol. 2010;84:7581-91 pubmed publisher
    ..These data suggest that viral dynamics during acute infection have a major impact on HIV disease outcome. ..
  26. Naar King S, Parsons J, Murphy D, Kolmodin K, Harris D. A multisite randomized trial of a motivational intervention targeting multiple risks in youth living with HIV: initial effects on motivation, self-efficacy, and depression. J Adolesc Health. 2010;46:422-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Delivering interventions in the community using an outreach model may improve access. Analysis of subsequent time points will determine effects on actual behavior change. ..
  27. Lopez M, Soriano V, Lozano S, Ballesteros C, Cascajero A, Rodes B, et al. No major differences in the functional profile of HIV Gag and Nef-specific CD8+ responses between long-term nonprogressors and typical progressors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2008;24:1185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..LTNP show higher levels of CD8(+) responses against polyclonal stimuli than progressors. However, HIV-specific CD8(+) responses do not differ between them except for a more preserved ability of cells from LTNP to expand in vitro. ..
  28. Usami O, Xiao P, Ling H, Liu Y, Nakasone T, Hattori T. Properties of anti-gp41 core structure antibodies, which compete with sera of HIV-1-infected patients. Microbes Infect. 2005;7:650-7 pubmed
    ..69 and 98.6) but also against oligomeric gp41 specific epitope (binding site of mAb T26). ..
  29. Thorpe R. 'Doing' chronic illness? Complementary medicine use among people living with HIV/AIDS in Australia. Sociol Health Illn. 2009;31:375-89 pubmed publisher
    ..The article is based on 18 qualitative interviews with people living with HIV/AIDS who were using complementary medicine. ..
  30. Kato T, Ieki R, Saito E, Ota T, Yuasa K, Iguchi M, et al. A long-term survival case of small cell lung cancer in an HIV-infected patient. Jpn J Clin Oncol. 2005;35:349-52 pubmed
    ..However, the simultaneous antiretroviral agents and combination chemotherapy was successful. Such treatment may be effective despite an otherwise poor prognosis, including HIV infection. ..
  31. Rodes B, Toro C, Paxinos E, Poveda E, Martinez Padial M, Benito J, et al. Differences in disease progression in a cohort of long-term non-progressors after more than 16 years of HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2004;18:1109-16 pubmed
    ..A substantial proportion of LTNP show low-level virus replication and progressive loss of CD4 T cells over time. Progressive immunologic damage seems to be directly associated with some degree of virus replication and T-cell activation. ..
  32. Xu X, Xing H, Gong W, Chen H, Si C, Wang Y, et al. [Preliminary investigation on the relation between clinical progress and anti-small monomolecular peptides antibody in individual infected with HIV]. Zhonghua Shi Yan He Lin Chuang Bing Du Xue Za Zhi. 2002;16:286-7 pubmed
    ..It is strong suggestion for anti-R7V to obstruct the replication of virus by interfering the connection between HIV with CCR5 or CXCR4 and so it impossible HIV entering to CD4+ T cells. ..
  33. Zhao Y, Chen M, Wang B, Yang J, Elder R, Song X, et al. Functional conservation of HIV-1 Vpr and variability in a mother-child pair of long-term non-progressors. Virus Res. 2002;89:103-21 pubmed
    ..The functionally defective Vpr identified in the mother-child pair of LTNPs are likely to be unique and may possibly contribute to the slow disease progression. ..
  34. Gillespie G, Kaul R, Dong T, Yang H, Rostron T, Bwayo J, et al. Cross-reactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes against a HIV-1 p24 epitope in slow progressors with B*57. AIDS. 2002;16:961-72 pubmed
    ..B*5701+ and B5703+ donors demonstrate broad functional cross-reactivity to both common and rare variants of a dominant p24 epitope, which could be relevant to the association of B*57 alleles with slow progression to AIDS. ..
  35. Froebel K, Raab G, D Alessandro C, Armitage M, MacKenzie K, Struthers M, et al. A single measurement of CD38CD8 cells in HIV+, long-term surviving injecting drug users distinguishes those who will progress to AIDS from those who will remain stable. Clin Exp Immunol. 2000;122:72-8 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the considerable added value of the CD8+CD38+ cell percentage over the CD4 count alone, in predicting HIV clinical progression. ..
  36. Blankson J, Gallant J, Siliciano R. Proliferative responses to human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antigens in HIV-1-infected patients with immune reconstitution. J Infect Dis. 2001;183:657-61 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that, in some patients with advanced HIV-1 infection, treatment with HAART can lead not only to significant increases in CD4 cell counts but also to the restoration of HIV-1-specific responses. ..
  37. O Connell K, Brennan T, Bailey J, Ray S, Siliciano R, Blankson J. Control of HIV-1 in elite suppressors despite ongoing replication and evolution in plasma virus. J Virol. 2010;84:7018-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Interestingly, there was little continual evolution in CTL epitopes, and we detected de novo CTL responses to autologous viral mutants. Thus, some ES control viremia despite ongoing replication and evolution. ..
  38. Grierson J, De Visser R, Bartos M. More cautious, more optimistic: Australian people living with HIV/AIDS, 1997-1999. Int J STD AIDS. 2001;12:670-6 pubmed
    ..Australian PLWHA have a complex relationship with their ARV medication that is likely to change over time as their HIV disease progresses and new treatments become available. ..
  39. Bottarel F, Bonissoni S, Lucia M, Bragardo M, Bensi T, Buonfiglio D, et al. Decreased function of Fas in patients displaying delayed progression of HIV-induced immune deficiency. Hematol J. 2001;2:220-7 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Fas-resistance in long-term non-progressors may be due to inherited alterations of the Fas signaling pathway and may be a novel factor in delayed progression. ..
  40. Rangel H, Garzaro D, Rodríguez A, Ramírez A, Ameli G, Del Rosario Gutiérrez C, et al. Deletion, insertion and stop codon mutations in vif genes of HIV-1 infecting slow progressor patients. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:531-8 pubmed
    ..Although vif defects do not seem to be a frequent feature in SPs, this study illustrates the importance of analysing this gene, in addition to the multiple factors associated with the long-term non progression to AIDS. ..
  41. Blankson J. Effector mechanisms in HIV-1 infected elite controllers: highly active immune responses?. Antiviral Res. 2010;85:295-302 pubmed publisher
    ..This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010. ..
  42. Nou E, Zhou Y, Nou D, Blankson J. Effective downregulation of HLA-A*2 and HLA-B*57 by primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates cultured from elite suppressors. J Virol. 2009;83:6941-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, a diminished ability of viral isolates from ES to evade HIV-specific immune responses probably does not contribute to the control of viral replication in these patients. ..
  43. Valdez H, Carlson N, Post A, Asaad R, Heeger P, Lederman M, et al. HIV long-term non-progressors maintain brisk CD8 T cell responses to other viral antigens. AIDS. 2002;16:1113-8 pubmed
    ..An improved understanding of these mechanisms will help to gain insight into protective antiviral immunity as well as to the means whereby these viruses impair host defenses. ..
  44. Christopherson C, Kidane Y, Conway B, Krowka J, Sheppard H, Kwok S. PCR-Based assay to quantify human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Microbiol. 2000;38:630-4 pubmed
    ..164). A quantitative DNA assay will provide an additional tool to gain insight into the natural history of infection and the continued efficacy of potent antiretroviral therapies. ..
  45. Moog C. Immune responses that correlate with HIV-1 protection?. AIDS. 2008;22:1461-2 pubmed publisher
  46. Vázquez E. 15th International AIDS Conference. News on treatment and social issues. Monotherapy, clean needles, and more. Posit Aware. 2004;15:24-6 pubmed
  47. Shi B, Philpott S, Weiser B, Kuiken C, Brunner C, Fang G, et al. Construction of an infectious HIV type 1 molecular clone from an African patient with a subtype D/C Recombinant Virus. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2004;20:1015-8 pubmed
    ..This infectious HIV-1 subtype D/C recombinant molecular clone obtained from a Kenyan long-term survivor promises to be useful to study pathogenesis and vaccine design. ..
  48. Peraire J, Miro O, Saumoy M, Domingo P, Pedrol E, Villarroya F, et al. HIV-1-infected long-term non-progressors have milder mitochondrial impairment and lower mitochondrially-driven apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells than typical progressors. Curr HIV Res. 2007;5:467-73 pubmed
    ..Mitochondrial damage is associated with increased PBMC apoptosis in patients with active HIV-1 replication (TP). These abnormalities are slight or not present in LTNP. ..
  49. Chui C, Cheung P, Brumme C, Mo T, Brumme Z, Montaner J, et al. HIV VprR77Q mutation does not influence clinical response of individuals initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006;22:615-8 pubmed
    ..1). The high prevalence and the lack of association with pretherapy clinical parameters in this cohort argue against an association of R77Q with LTNP status. These results do not support an association between R77Q and HAART response. ..
  50. Limou S, Coulonges C, Herbeck J, Van Manen D, An P, Le Clerc S, et al. Multiple-cohort genetic association study reveals CXCR6 as a new chemokine receptor involved in long-term nonprogression to AIDS. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:908-15 pubmed publisher
    ..CXCR6 is a chemokine receptor that is known as a minor coreceptor in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection but could participate in disease progression through its role as a mediator of inflammation. ..
  51. Oliva J. Labour participation of people living with HIV/AIDS in Spain. Health Econ. 2010;19:491-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Policies to improve the well-being of HIV-positive individuals should not be limited to any one sector as their needs require strategies with a multidisciplinary approach. ..
  52. Roman F, Karita E, Monnet A, Lambert C, Fontaine E, Allen S, et al. Rare and new V3 loop variants in HIV-1-positive long-term non-progressors from Rwanda. AIDS. 2002;16:1827-9 pubmed
    ..These variants might reflect a viral response to a strong immune pressure, or represent attenuated HIV-1 strains infecting LTNP in Rwanda. ..
  53. Visco Comandini U, Yun Z, Vahlne A, Sonnerborg A. No association of HIV type 1 long terminal repeat sequence pattern with long-term nonprogression and in vivo viral replication levels in European subjects. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999;15:609-17 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that HIV-1 LTR defects are rare among Italian and Swedish LTNPs. ..