surrogate mothers


Summary: Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.

Top Publications

  1. Chen M. Wombs for rent: an examination of prohibitory and regulatory approaches to governing preconception arrangements. Health Law Can. 2003;23:33-50 pubmed
    ..The regulatory scheme proposed by the Ontario Law Reform Commission is also more effective in protecting the best interests of the child born as a result of a preconception agreement. ..
  2. Stafford Bell M, Copeland C. Surrogacy in Australia: implantation rates have implications for embryo quality and uterine receptivity. Reprod Fertil Dev. 2001;13:99-104 pubmed
    ..Exclusion from the carrier pregnancy programme of patients with incipient ovarian failure results in an implantation rate of 16.7%, a clinical pregnancy rate of 29.0% and a live birth rate of 19.4% per embryo transfer procedure. ..
  3. Poote A, van den Akker O. British women's attitudes to surrogacy. Hum Reprod. 2009;24:139-45 pubmed publisher
    ..were found between women who were possibly willing (n = 76) and those who were unwilling (n = 111) to become surrogate mothers. General attitudes to surrogacy also differed between groups (P = 0.000)...
  4. Chliaoutakis J. A relationship between traditionally motivated patterns and gamete donation and surrogacy in urban areas of Greece. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2187-91 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that specific motivational patterns of the population need to be thoroughly analysed and taken into consideration, in order that appropriate counselling be addressed to individuals and couples. ..
  5. Söderström Anttila V, Blomqvist T, Foudila T, Hippeläinen M, Kurunmäki H, Siegberg R, et al. Experience of in vitro fertilization surrogacy in Finland. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2002;81:747-52 pubmed
    ..The surrogate mothers were unpaid volunteers: six sisters, three mothers, one husband's sister, one cousin, four friends and three ..
  6. Chliaoutakis J, Koukouli S, Papadakaki M. Using attitudinal indicators to explain the public's intention to have recourse to gamete donation and surrogacy. Hum Reprod. 2002;17:2995-3002 pubmed
    ..The findings of the present research should be given close consideration by policy makers and health education campaigns. ..
  7. Jadva V, Murray C, Lycett E, Maccallum F, Golombok S. Surrogacy: the experiences of surrogate mothers. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:2196-204 pubmed
    This study examined the motivations, experiences and psychological consequences of surrogacy for surrogate mothers. Thirty-four women who had given birth to a surrogate child approximately 1 year previously were interviewed by trained ..
  8. Brinsden P. Gestational surrogacy. Hum Reprod Update. 2003;9:483-91 pubmed
    ..IVF surrogacy is therefore a successful treatment for a small group of women who would otherwise not be able to have their own genetic children. ..
  9. Connolly M. Cross-border reproductive care: market forces in action or market failure? An economic perspective. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:817-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To counter funding challenges, there is a need to communicate the medical benefits of assisted reproduction and the economic benefits that these children will offer in an era of austerity and ageing populations. ..

More Information


  1. Chang C. Surrogate motherhood. Taiwan Yi Xue Ren Wen Xue Kan. 2004;5:48-62 pubmed
    ..Because surrogacy tends to commodify and dehumanize people, and because of all its legal, social, and psychological complications, it is obviously not wise to accept surrogacy as an alternative way of procreation. ..
  2. Smith M, Willmott L, Trowse P, White B. Back to the future: prohibiting surrogacy for singles, same-sex and shorter-term heterosexual couples in Queensland. J Law Med. 2013;20:638-54 pubmed
    ..This is based on the fact that they are out of step with current social attitudes, are contrary to the spirit of anti-discrimination laws, and that they are unjustified in terms of child welfare concerns. ..
  3. Parks J. Care ethics and the global practice of commercial surrogacy. Bioethics. 2010;24:333-40 pubmed publisher
  4. Pilka L, Rumpík D, Pilka R, Koudelka M, Prudil L. [Surrogate maternity--literature review and practice]. Ceska Gynekol. 2009;74:144-7 pubmed
  5. Purewal S, Crawshaw M, van den Akker O. Completing the surrogate motherhood process: parental order reporters' attitudes towards surrogacy arrangements, role ambiguity and role conflict. Hum Fertil (Camb). 2012;15:94-9 pubmed publisher
    ..High scores on role ambiguity and role conflict were reflected in less positive attitudes towards the parties' preparation towards parenthood. These results have implications for training, policy and practice in this area. ..
  6. Robertson J. Compensation and egg donation for research. Fertil Steril. 2006;86:1573-5 pubmed
    ..Financial compensation to egg donors for their time and inconvenience in donating is established in the United States as ethically and legally acceptable. That system should be extended to egg donation for research. ..
  7. Blyth E, Thorn P, Wischmann T. CBRC and psychosocial counselling: assessing needs and developing an ethical framework for practice. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:642-51 pubmed publisher
  8. Marina S, Marina D, Marina F, Fosas N, Galiana N, Jové I. Sharing motherhood: biological lesbian co-mothers, a new IVF indication. Hum Reprod. 2010;25:938-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In countries where the ROPA technique is legal, it offers lesbian couples a more favourable route, involving both partners, to start a family, and doctors who treat lesbian couples must be sensitive to this new family model. ..
  9. Beem P. Where does a man stand on issues of assisted reproduction, surrogacy, artificial insemination within lesbian relationships and posthumous conception?. Aust J Fam Law. 2004;18:41-62 pubmed
    ..The article considers the issues of assisted reproduction technology in both a regulated and an unregulated environment. ..
  10. Larkey A. Redefining motherhood: determining legal maternity in gestational surrogacy arrangements. Drake Law Rev. 2003;51:605-32 pubmed
  11. Tieu M. Altruistic surrogacy: the necessary objectification of surrogate mothers. J Med Ethics. 2009;35:171-5 pubmed publisher
  12. Ford N. A Catholic ethical approach to human reproductive technology. Reprod Biomed Online. 2008;17 Suppl 3:39-48 pubmed
  13. Damelio J, Sorensen K. Enhancing autonomy in paid surrogacy. Bioethics. 2008;22:269-77 pubmed publisher
    ..In response to the dilemma of a ban versus bald permission, we propose a 'soft law' approach: states should require several hours of education of surrogates--education aimed at informing and enhancing surrogate autonomy. ..
  14. Holliday A. Who's your daddy (and mommy)? Creating certainty for Texas couples entering into surrogacy contracts. Tex Tech Law Rev. 2003;34:1101-32 pubmed
  15. Horsey K, Sheldon S. Still hazy after all these years: the law regulating surrogacy. Med Law Rev. 2012;20:67-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Brazier's recommendations will thus provide a jumping off point for a critical analysis of the current state of the law regarding surrogacy. ..
  16. Chester R. Cloning for human reproduction: one American perspective. Syd Law Rev. 2001;23:319-46 pubmed
    ..Finally, he focuses on the problem of women as surrogate mothers of clones, arguing in the process that the surrogate, having no real genetic tie to the clone, would have ..
  17. Schwartz L. A nightmare for King Solomon: the new reproductive technologies. J Fam Psychol. 2003;17:229-37 pubmed
    ..This article reviews recent developments in reproductive technologies and some legal, ethical, and psychological issues that may be relevant in these circumstances. ..
  18. Golombok S, Blake L, Casey P, Roman G, Jadva V. Children born through reproductive donation: a longitudinal study of psychological adjustment. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2013;54:653-60 pubmed publisher
    ..However, maternal distress had a more negative impact on children who were aware of their origins. The absence of a gestational connection to the mother may be more problematic for children than the absence of a genetic link. ..
  19. Damario M. Transabdominal-transperitoneal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval in a patient with müllerian agenesis. Fertil Steril. 2002;78:189-91 pubmed
    ..Although laparoscopic oocyte retrieval has been frequently used in this setting, the approach of transabdominal-transperitoneal ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval may offer further advantages in select cases. ..
  20. Christiansen K. Who is the mother? Negotiating identity in an Irish surrogacy case. Med Health Care Philos. 2015;18:317-27 pubmed publisher
  21. van den Akker O. Psychological trait and state characteristics, social support and attitudes to the surrogate pregnancy and baby. Hum Reprod. 2007;22:2287-95 pubmed
    Personality differences between surrogate mothers (SMs) who gestate and relinquish and intended mothers (IMs) who commission a genetically related or unrelated baby have been unexplored in the UK...
  22. Henrion R, Bergoignan Esper C. [Gestational surrogacy]. Bull Acad Natl Med. 2009;193:583-618 pubmed
    ..the fact that the adopted child does not carry the genes of the adopting parents;--the current recourse to surrogate mothers abroad, which is costly and discriminatory and leaves the child in a difficult legal situation on its return ..
  23. Deonandan R, Green S, van Beinum A. Ethical concerns for maternal surrogacy and reproductive tourism. J Med Ethics. 2012;38:742-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The seeking by clients in high income nations of surrogate mothers in low income nations, particularly India, presents a set of largely unexamined ethical challenges...
  24. Mathieu S. [Being a family today - ethics for assisted reproductive techniques]. Gynecol Obstet Fertil. 2013;41:532-6 pubmed publisher
    ..How, in this context, developing an ethics for ART? From a fethnographic field survey, we show here how this ethos of ART develops and how, therefore, we consider the multiple ways of being a family today. ..
  25. Joseph S. A reader and author respond to "The ethics of outsourcing surrogate motherhood to India". Medscape J Med. 2008;10:96; author reply 96 pubmed
  26. Makinde O, Makinde O, Olaleye O, Brown B, Odimegwu C. Baby factories taint surrogacy in Nigeria. Reprod Biomed Online. 2016;32:6-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In this environment, surrogacy and other assisted reproductive techniques urgently require regulation in order to define when ethico-legal lines have been crossed in providing surrogacy or surrogacy-like services. ..
  27. Nau J. [These days the surrogate mother is lucky]. Rev Med Suisse. 2007;3:2628 pubmed
  28. Marrs R, Ringler G, Stein A, Vargyas J, Stone B. The use of surrogate gestational carriers for assisted reproductive technologies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1993;168:1858-61; discussion 1861-3 pubmed
    ..Fifteen of the 45 couples (33%) had a child from the surrogate gestational carrier program. No significant differences in clinical outcome were observed on the basis of the type of procedure performed or the age of the patient. ..
  29. Bayne T, Kolers A. Toward a pluralistic account of parenthood. Bioethics. 2003;17:221-42 pubmed
  30. Steigrad S, Hacker N, Kolb B. In vitro fertilization surrogate pregnancy in a patient who underwent radical hysterectomy followed by ovarian transposition, lower abdominal wall radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1547-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first case report of ovarian stimulation and oocyte retrieval performed on transposed ovaries after a patient developed premature ovarian failure after radiotherapy and chemotherapy with subsequent partial ovarian recovery. ..
  31. Laufer Ukeles P. Approaching surrogate motherhood: reconsidering difference. Vt Law Rev. 2002;26:407-49 pubmed
  32. Gagin R, Cohen M, Greenblatt L, Solomon H, Itskovitz Eldor J. Developing the role of the social worker as coordinator of services at the surrogate parenting center. Soc Work Health Care. 2004;40:1-14 pubmed
    ..In light of the growing parenting surrogacy cases in the United States, Europe, and Israel, a structured social work intervention model is described, which may be implemented at public or private surrogate parenting centers. ..
  33. Dickens B. Legal developments in assisted reproduction. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2008;101:211-5 pubmed publisher
  34. Ahmad N. An international view of surgically assisted conception and surrogacy tourism. Med Leg J. 2011;79:135-45 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper will discuss several of the potential socio-legal issues surrounding ART in the light of the complex situation, with a comparative analysis of the Malaysian, USA, UK and Indian positions. ..
  35. Goswami G. The genetic truth of surrogate parentage. Med Leg J. 2015;83:188-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The 'reproductive tourism' promotes crossing borders and bodies, enabling conception in the countries with extreme religious and legal barriers. ..
  36. Radin M. Response: persistent perplexities. Kennedy Inst Ethics J. 2001;11:305-15 pubmed
    ..This response to the preceding five articles highlights the stubborn persistence of the philosophical perplexities surrounding commodification in the realm of medicine and biotechnology. ..
  37. Jadva V, Imrie S. Children of surrogate mothers: psychological well-being, family relationships and experiences of surrogacy. Hum Reprod. 2014;29:90-6 pubmed publisher
    What impact does surrogacy have on the surrogates' own children? The children of surrogate mothers do not experience any negative consequences as a result of their mother's decision to be a surrogate, irrespective of whether or not the ..
  38. Omonzejele P. The ethics of commercial surrogate mothering: a response to Casey Humbyrd. Hum Reprod Genet Ethics. 2011;17:110-21 pubmed
    ..This may happen in the same way as regulation and compensation framework have not been successful in preventing the allegations of exploitation in the research context especially where studies are conducted in resource-poor countries. ..
  39. Maccallum F, Lycett E, Murray C, Jadva V, Golombok S. Surrogacy: the experience of commissioning couples. Hum Reprod. 2003;18:1334-42 pubmed
    ..All couples had told family and friends about the surrogacy and were planning to tell the child. Commissioning couples generally perceived the surrogacy arrangement as a positive experience. ..
  40. Benagiano G, Carrara S, Filippi V. Social and ethical determinants of sexuality: 4. Sexuality and families. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care. 2012;17:329-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Even among traditional societies, different types of families exist and the situation has become more complex as technical developments have made parenthood possible for people who in the past were excluded from it. ..
  41. Woodward B, Norton W, Neuberg R. Case Report: grandmother, mother and another -- an intergenerational surrogacy using anonymous donated embryos. Reprod Biomed Online. 2004;9:260-3 pubmed
    ..The legal and ethical aspects of the treatment and eventual adoption are discussed. ..
  42. Carrard C, Chevret Measson M, Lunel A, Raudrant D. Sexuality after sigmoid vaginoplasty in patients with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome. Fertil Steril. 2012;97:691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite this, psychologic distress related to sexuality persists in most patients, demonstrating the need for a multidisciplinary support. ..
  43. Inhorn M, Gürtin Z. Cross-border reproductive care: a future research agenda. Reprod Biomed Online. 2011;23:665-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This article identifies the pressing gaps in the literature, elucidates the main theoretical and methodological challenges for investigating CBRC and outlines a future research agenda. ..
  44. Zhang J, Grifo J, Del Priore G. Gestational carrier pregnancy with oocytes obtained during surgery for stage IIIc ovarian cancer after controlled ovarian stimulation. Fertil Steril. 2005;83:1547-9 pubmed
    ..Singleton term delivery occurred after transfer of three frozen-thawed embryos. Cryopreservation of embryos derived from IVF of oocytes obtained from ovarian cancer patients should be an option for their future fertility. ..
  45. Hulvat M, Jeruss J. Maintaining fertility in young women with breast cancer. Curr Treat Options Oncol. 2009;10:308-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Causes of ovarian suppression and options for treatment, including consideration of preimplantation genetic diagnosis and alternative parenting approaches are also discussed to assist the clinician caring for young patients with cancer. ..
  46. Golombok S, Maccallum F, Murray C, Lycett E, Jadva V. Surrogacy families: parental functioning, parent-child relationships and children's psychological development at age 2. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2006;47:213-22 pubmed
    ..Surrogacy does not appear to impact negatively on parenting or child development in families with 2-year-old children. ..
  47. Kindregan C, McBrien M. Embryo donation: unresolved legal issues in the transfer of surplus cryopreserved embryos. Villanova Law Rev. 2004;49:169-206 pubmed
  48. Ahmad N. Assisted reproduction--Islamic views on the science of procreation. Eubios J Asian Int Bioeth. 2003;13:59-61 pubmed
    ..Some of the issues remain controversial and need detailed discussion before it can be deemed as appropriate and legible for use as guidelines in the development of the processes involved. ..
  49. De Montgolfier S, Mirkovic A. [Maternity for others: from desiring a child to desiring a child at any price]. Med Sci (Paris). 2009;25:419-22 pubmed publisher
  50. Hurst S, Hartzfeld K, Del Priore G. Occult myometrial recurrence after progesterone therapy to preserve fertility in a young patient with endometrial cancer. Fertil Steril. 2008;89:724.e1-3 pubmed
    ..Routine pelvic MRI should be considered for follow-up of endometrial cancer patients who retain their uterus. Hysteroscopy and dilation and curettage may not be sufficient. ..
  51. Schreiber H. The legal situation regarding assisted reproduction in Germany. Reprod Biomed Online. 2003;6:8-12 pubmed
    ..Possible future legislation is considered briefly at the conclusion of the article. ..
  52. Reilly D. Surrogate pregnancy: a guide for Canadian prenatal health care providers. CMAJ. 2007;176:483-5 pubmed
    ..In the face of these uncertainties, the prenatal health care provider should have a low threshold for seeking obstetrical, social work, ethical and legal support. ..
  53. McLachlan H, Swales J. Surrogate motherhood, rights and duties: a reply to Campbell. Health Care Anal. 2001;9:101-7 pubmed
    ..C.S.M., it is argued, is not child purchase. It is like it in some respects and unlike it in others. It is unlike it in the respects which, relative to the present discussion, matter. ..