visually impaired persons


Summary: Persons with loss of vision such that there is an impact on activities of daily living.

Top Publications

  1. Alma M, van der Mei S, Melis Dankers B, van Tilburg T, Groothoff J, Suurmeijer T. Participation of the elderly after vision loss. Disabil Rehabil. 2011;33:63-72 pubmed publisher
    ..They experience restrictions as a result of vision loss. These findings are relevant, since participation is an indicator for successful aging and has a positive influence on health and subjective well-being. ..
  2. Roberts C, Hiratsuka Y, Yamada M, Pezzullo M, Yates K, Takano S, et al. Economic cost of visual impairment in Japan. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:766-71 pubmed publisher
    ..To quantify the total economic cost of visual impairment in Japan...
  3. Murthy G, Vashist P, John N, Pokharel G, Ellwein L. Prevelence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in older adults in an area of India with a high cataract surgical rate. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:185-95 pubmed publisher
    ..6%) in eyes with acuity < 20/32 to 20/63. Visual impairment and blindness is a significant problem among the elderly in Gujarat. Despite a reportedly high CSR, cataract remains the predominant cause of blindness. ..
  4. Bruijning J, van Nispen R, Verstraten P, van Rens G. A Dutch ICF version of the Activity Inventory: results from focus groups with visually impaired persons and experts. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:366-77 pubmed publisher
    ..The D-AI can prioritize rehabilitation goals by multiplying importance and difficulty scores, which is helpful in formulating a rehabilitation plan. ..
  5. Lewallen S, Williams T, Dray A, Stock B, Mathenge W, Oye J, et al. Estimating incidence of vision-reducing cataract in Africa: a new model with implications for program targets. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:1584-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The methodology can be applied to other population-based data as they become available to determine appropriate CSR targets. ..
  6. Razafinimpanana N, Nkumbe H, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Uptake of cataract surgery in Sava Region, Madagascar: role of cataract case finders in acceptance of cataract surgery. Int Ophthalmol. 2012;32:107-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Strategies to improve uptake need to be revised in order to ensure that people have access to and use cataract surgical services. ..
  7. Cama A, Sikivou B, Keeffe J. Childhood visual impairment in Fiji. Arch Ophthalmol. 2010;128:608-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Crude prevalence was derived and, using 5-year age range and age at onset of vision loss, the probable prevalence per 1000 children was calculated...
  8. Sia D, Muecke J, Hammerton M, Ngy M, Kong A, Morse A, et al. A survey of visual impairment and blindness in children attending four schools for the blind in Cambodia. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic risk counseling services also may be considered. ..
  9. Kandel R, Sapkota Y, Sherchan A, Sharma M, Aghajanian J, Bassett K. Cataract surgical outcome and predictors of outcome in Lumbini Zone and Chitwan District of Nepal. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:276-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The same quality cataract surgery was provided in and equitably distributed throughout Lumbini Zone and Chitwan District independent of age, sex, literacy or location. ..

Scientific Experts

More Information


  1. Jones G, Crews J, Danielson M. Health risk profile for older adults with blindness: an application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health framework. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:400-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Older adults with blindness face significant health disparities that can diminish their quality of life without timely, disability-sensitive interventions to address serious psychological distress and physical inactivity. ..
  2. Rajavi Z, Katibeh M, Ziaei H, Fardesmaeilpour N, Sehat M, Ahmadieh H, et al. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness in Iran. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1812-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The principal cause of blindness and SVI was cataract, and the principal cause of VI was refractive error. Most blindness, SVI, and VI is due to avoidable causes. Cataract and refractive errors were the leading causes in our context. ..
  3. Muller A, Zerom M, Limburg H, Ghebrat Y, Meresie G, Fessahazion K, et al. Results of a rapid assessment of avoidable blindness (RAAB) in Eritrea. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2011;18:103-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To collect baseline data for planning of the National Blindness Prevention & Control Program and for monitoring future achievements...
  4. Zheng Y, Lavanya R, Wu R, Wong W, Wang J, Mitchell P, et al. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an urban Indian population: the Singapore Indian Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2011;118:1798-804 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment and blindness in an urban Indian population...
  5. Zheng Y, Lamoureux E, Chiang P, Cheng C, Anuar A, Saw S, et al. Literacy is an independent risk factor for vision impairment and poor visual functioning. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2011;52:7634-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Inadequate literacy is independently associated with visual impairment and poorer visual functioning. Interventions that address literacy may help to reduce socioeconomic disparities in visual impairment. ..
  6. Pascolini D, Mariotti S. Global estimates of visual impairment: 2010. Br J Ophthalmol. 2012;96:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that visual impairment in 2010 is a major health issue that is unequally distributed among the WHO regions; the preventable causes are as high as 80% of the total global burden. ..
  7. Abubakar T, Gudlavalleti M, Sivasubramaniam S, Gilbert C, Abdull M, Imam A. Coverage of hospital-based cataract surgery and barriers to the uptake of surgery among cataract blind persons in nigeria: the Nigeria National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2012;19:58-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Cataract surgical coverage in Nigeria was among the lowest in the world. Urgent initiatives are necessary to improve surgical output and access to surgery. ..
  8. Lamoureux E, Hassell J, Keeffe J. The impact of diabetic retinopathy on participation in daily living. Arch Ophthalmol. 2004;122:84-8 pubmed
  9. Resnikoff S, Pascolini D, Etya ale D, Kocur I, Pararajasegaram R, Pokharel G, et al. Global data on visual impairment in the year 2002. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:844-51 pubmed
    ..Other major causes of visual impairment are, in order of importance, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and trachoma. ..
  10. Jacobs J, Hammerman Rozenberg R, Maaravi Y, Cohen A, Stessman J. The impact of visual impairment on health, function and mortality. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2005;17:281-6 pubmed
    ..Our aim was to determine the impact of visual impairment on self-rated health, function and mortality amongst a community-dwelling elderly cohort...
  11. Soong G, Lovie Kitchin J, Brown B. Does mobility performance of visually impaired adults improve immediately after orientation and mobility training?. Optom Vis Sci. 2001;78:657-66 pubmed
    ..Familiarity with the route may play an important role in measured improvement of mobility performance after orientation and mobility training. ..
  12. Rees G, Tee H, Marella M, Fenwick E, Dirani M, Lamoureux E. Vision-specific distress and depressive symptoms in people with vision impairment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2010;51:2891-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Depression treatment approaches or depression prevention strategies for people with vision impairment may benefit from a focus on vision-specific distress. ..
  13. Bambara J, Owsley C, Wadley V, Martin R, Porter C, Dreer L. Family caregiver social problem-solving abilities and adjustment to caring for a relative with vision loss. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:1585-92 pubmed publisher
    To examine the prevalence of persons at risk for depression among family caregivers of visually impaired persons and the extent to which social problem-solving abilities are associated with caregiver depressive symptomatology and life ..
  14. Liang Y, Friedman D, Wong T, Zhan S, Sun L, Wang J, et al. Prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural chinese adult population: the Handan Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:1965-72 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the prevalence and causes of low vision and blindness in a rural population in Northern China...
  15. Casson R, Newland H, Muecke J, McGovern S, Durkin S, Sullivan T, et al. Prevalence and causes of visual impairment in rural myanmar: the Meiktila Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2007;114:2302-8 pubmed
    ..Visual impairment and blindness remain major public health problems in rural Myanmar. Specific programs directed toward reducing the cataract burden need to be implemented. ..
  16. Frick K, Gower E, Kempen J, Wolff J. Economic impact of visual impairment and blindness in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2007;125:544-50 pubmed
    ..Any economic analysis of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation should account for the fraction of the annual monetary cost and loss of quality-adjusted life years that can be averted. ..
  17. Jadoon M, Dineen B, Bourne R, Shah S, Khan M, Johnson G, et al. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan: the Pakistan National Blindness and Visual Impairment Survey. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006;47:4749-55 pubmed
    ..After adjustment for age differences, women were found to have a significant excess of severe visual impairment and blindness. Regional variations in the prevalence of blindness were also identified. ..
  18. Ganz M, Xuan Z, Hunter D. Prevalence and correlates of children's diagnosed eye and vision conditions. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:2298-306 pubmed
    ..Results provide some evidence that underprivileged children may be underdiagnosed, undertreated, or both, placing them at risk for future problems. ..
  19. Xu L, Wang Y, Li Y, Wang Y, Cui T, Li J, et al. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in urban and rural areas in Beijing: the Beijing Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2006;113:1134.e1-11 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the causes of visual impairment and blindness in adult Chinese in an urban and rural region of Beijing, China...
  20. Pascolini D, Mariotti S, Pokharel G, Pararajasegaram R, Etya ale D, Negrel A, et al. 2002 global update of available data on visual impairment: a compilation of population-based prevalence studies. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2004;11:67-115 pubmed
    ..Two-hundred-and-eight population-based studies on visual impairment for 68 countries are reported in detail, providing an up-to-date, comprehensive compilation of the available information on visual impairment and its causes globally. ..
  21. Hart P, Stevenson M, Montgomery A, Muldrew K, Chakravarthy U. Further validation of the Daily Living Tasks Dependent on Vision: identification of domains. Br J Ophthalmol. 2005;89:1127-30 pubmed
    ..The authors believe using the domains identified in this report will optimise the information provided by patients on their ability to function on visually demanding tasks. ..
  22. Freedman V, Martin L, Schoeni R. Recent trends in disability and functioning among older adults in the United States: a systematic review. JAMA. 2002;288:3137-46 pubmed
    ..Several measures of old age disability and limitations have shown improvements in the last decade. Research into the causes of these improvements is needed to understand the implications for the future demand for medical care. ..
  23. Liu B, Xu L, Wang Y, Jonas J. Prevalence of cataract surgery and postoperative visual outcome in Greater Beijing: the Beijing Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:1322-31 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the prevalence of cataract surgery and the postoperative visual outcome in the adult Chinese population living in rural and urban regions of Greater Beijing...
  24. Noe G, Ferraro J, Lamoureux E, Rait J, Keeffe J. Associations between glaucomatous visual field loss and participation in activities of daily living. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2003;31:482-6 pubmed
    ..Mobility is the area in which glaucoma patients encounter difficulties even when the visual field and visual acuity are relatively good. Questions related to mobility could be asked to identify those patients who need rehabilitation. ..
  25. Edussuriya K, Sennanayake S, Senaratne T, Marshall D, Sullivan T, Selva D, et al. The prevalence and causes of visual impairment in central Sri Lanka the Kandy Eye study. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:52-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific programs directed at reducing the cataract burden need to be implemented. The authors have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article. ..
  26. de Boer M, Langelaan M, Jansonius N, van Rens G. Evidence-based guidelines on the referral of visually impaired persons to low vision services. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:400-6 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmic Society has taken the initiative to develop an evidence-based guideline for the referral of visually impaired persons to low vision services...
  27. Sadato N. How the blind "see" Braille: lessons from functional magnetic resonance imaging. Neuroscientist. 2005;11:577-82 pubmed
  28. Holden B, Fricke T, Ho S, Wong R, Schlenther G, Cronjé S, et al. Global vision impairment due to uncorrected presbyopia. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008;126:1731-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the personal and community burdens of uncorrected presbyopia...
  29. Amedi A, Floel A, Knecht S, Zohary E, Cohen L. Transcranial magnetic stimulation of the occipital pole interferes with verbal processing in blind subjects. Nat Neurosci. 2004;7:1266-70 pubmed
    ..Thus, in blind persons, a transient 'virtual lesion' of the left occipital cortex interferes with high-level verbal processing ..
  30. Habiyakire C, Kabona G, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Rapid assessment of avoidable blindness and cataract surgical services in kilimanjaro region, Tanzania. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2010;17:90-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Even with high cataract surgical coverage, cataract remains the leading cause of vision loss and an emphasis on quality is needed. ..
  31. Taylor H, Pezzullo M, Nesbitt S, Keeffe J. Costs of interventions for visual impairment. Am J Ophthalmol. 2007;143:561-5 pubmed
    ..Even a developed economy cannot afford avoidable vision loss. Priority needs to be given to the prevention and treatment of avoidable vision loss. ..
  32. Lamoureux E, Hassell J, Keeffe J. The determinants of participation in activities of daily living in people with impaired vision. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:265-70 pubmed
  33. Nirmalan P, Vijayalakshmi P, Sheeladevi S, Kothari M, Sundaresan K, Rahmathullah L. The Kariapatti pediatric eye evaluation project: baseline ophthalmic data of children aged 15 years or younger in Southern India. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:703-9 pubmed
    ..Developing an appropriate service delivery model for this region will require a balance between the relatively low prevalence of morbidity and blindness and the need for service in this population. ..
  34. Culham L, Ryan B, Jackson A, Hill A, Jones B, Miles C, et al. Low vision services for vision rehabilitation in the United Kingdom. Br J Ophthalmol. 2002;86:743-7 pubmed
    ..The results highlight a need to review current services. ..
  35. West S, Rubin G, Broman A, Munoz B, Bandeen Roche K, Turano K. How does visual impairment affect performance on tasks of everyday life? The SEE Project. Salisbury Eye Evaluation. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:774-80 pubmed
    ..However, the cutoff points depend on the task, suggesting that defining disability using a single threshold for visual acuity or contrast sensitivity loss is arbitrary. ..
  36. Njuguna M, Msukwa G, Shilio B, Tumwesigye C, Courtright P, Lewallen S. Causes of severe visual impairment and blindness in children in schools for the blind in eastern Africa: changes in the last 14 years. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009;16:151-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The major causes of severe visual impairment and blindness overall have not changed appreciably since 1995. There are important differences among countries, however, and using overall estimates for planning may be misleading. ..
  37. Hertrich I, Dietrich S, Moos A, Trouvain J, Ackermann H. Enhanced speech perception capabilities in a blind listener are associated with activation of fusiform gyrus and primary visual cortex. Neurocase. 2009;15:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Since left FG is known to be involved in phonological processing, this structure, presumably, provides the functional link between the central-auditory and -visual systems. ..
  38. Rein D, Zhang P, Wirth K, Lee P, Hoerger T, McCall N, et al. The economic burden of major adult visual disorders in the United States. Arch Ophthalmol. 2006;124:1754-60 pubmed
    ..7 billion. Major visual disorders among Americans older than 40 years result in substantial economic costs for the US economy. Well-designed public health programs may have the ability to reduce this burden in the future. ..
  39. Dineen B, Bourne R, Jadoon Z, Shah S, Khan M, Foster A, et al. Causes of blindness and visual impairment in Pakistan. The Pakistan national blindness and visual impairment survey. Br J Ophthalmol. 2007;91:1005-10 pubmed
    ..One in eight blind adults has visual loss from sequelae of cataract surgery. Services for refractive errors need to be further expanded and integrated into eye care services, particularly those serving rural populations. ..
  40. Barañano A, Wu J, Mazhar K, Azen S, Varma R. Visual acuity outcomes after cataract extraction in adult latinos. The Los Angeles Latino Eye Study. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:815-21 pubmed
    ..Refractive correction eliminated visual impairment in 15% to 20% of the participants, demonstrating the need for regular ophthalmologic examinations in cataract-operated patients. ..
  41. Langelaan M, de Boer M, van Nispen R, Wouters B, Moll A, van Rens G. Change in quality of life after rehabilitation: prognostic factors for visually impaired adults. Int J Rehabil Res. 2009;32:12-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that only age was a predictor for all domains of quality of life. Future research should aim at confirming these results. Ultimately, these findings should lead to adjustments in the rehabilitation programme. ..
  42. Lavanya R, Jeganathan V, Zheng Y, Raju P, Cheung N, Tai E, et al. Methodology of the Singapore Indian Chinese Cohort (SICC) eye study: quantifying ethnic variations in the epidemiology of eye diseases in Asians. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2009;16:325-36 pubmed publisher
  43. Maida J, Mathers K, Alley C. Pediatric ophthalmology in the developing world. Curr Opin Ophthalmol. 2008;19:403-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Childhood blindness and visual impairment in developing countries remains a significant public health issue, but recent initiatives have shown promise of future improvements. ..
  44. VanNewkirk M, Weih L, McCarty C, Taylor H. Cause-specific prevalence of bilateral visual impairment in Victoria, Australia: the Visual Impairment Project. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:960-7 pubmed
    ..Although easily preventable, uncorrected refractive error remains a major cause of vision impairment. ..
  45. Weih L, Hassell J, Keeffe J. Assessment of the impact of vision impairment. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002;43:927-35 pubmed
    ..Its stability over time indicates that it has potential to evaluate outcomes of intervention. ..
  46. Frick K, Basilion E, Hanson C, Colchero M. Estimating the burden and economic impact of trachomatous visual loss. Ophthalmic Epidemiol. 2003;10:121-32 pubmed
    ..Prevalent cases of trachomatous visual loss yield 39 million lifetime DALYs. For resource allocation, the burden of disease can be compared with the expected costs of eradication of trachomatous blindness. ..
  47. Amedi A, Raz N, Pianka P, Malach R, Zohary E. Early 'visual' cortex activation correlates with superior verbal memory performance in the blind. Nat Neurosci. 2003;6:758-66 pubmed
  48. Hayman K, Kerse N, La Grow S, Wouldes T, Robertson M, Campbell A. Depression in older people: visual impairment and subjective ratings of health. Optom Vis Sci. 2007;84:1024-30 pubmed
    ..The strength of this relationship, and the results of the regression analyses, indicate that a person who is visually or physically disabled is more likely to suffer from depression. ..
  49. Lewy A, Emens J, Bernert R, Lefler B. Eventual entrainment of the human circadian pacemaker by melatonin is independent of the circadian phase of treatment initiation: clinical implications. J Biol Rhythms. 2004;19:68-75 pubmed
    ..Therefore, it is not essential that circadian phase be ascertained before starting low-dose melatonin treatment of blind people. ..
  50. Pietrini P, Furey M, Ricciardi E, Gobbini M, Wu W, Cohen L, et al. Beyond sensory images: Object-based representation in the human ventral pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:5658-63 pubmed
    ..These results demonstrate that the representation of objects in the ventral visual pathway is not simply a representation of visual images but, rather, is a representation of more abstract features of object form. ..
  51. Kyari F, Gudlavalleti M, Sivsubramaniam S, Gilbert C, Abdull M, Entekume G, et al. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment in Nigeria: the National Blindness and Visual Impairment Study. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2009;50:2033-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences exist between the geopolitical zones and emphasis should be on ensuring eye services across Nigeria, which means that planning at the regional level is necessary. ..
  52. Al Till M, Al Bdour M, Ajlouni K. Prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among Jordanian diabetics. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:62-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the prevalence of blindness and visual impairment among a population of Jordanian diabetics...
  53. Desrosiers J, Wanet Defalque M, Témisjian K, Gresset J, Dubois M, Renaud J, et al. Participation in daily activities and social roles of older adults with visual impairment. Disabil Rehabil. 2009;31:1227-34 pubmed
    ..This study demonstrates the participation restrictions associated with VI and underlines the importance of psychological aspects in participation. ..