child of impaired parents


Summary: Child with one or more parents afflicted by a physical or mental disorder.

Top Publications

  1. Kothari R, Solmi F, Treasure J, Micali N. The neuropsychological profile of children at high risk of developing an eating disorder. Psychol Med. 2013;43:1543-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that high intelligence, increased WM capacity and impaired attentional control might be intermediate phenotypes on the pathway between genetic vulnerability and the development of an ED. ..
  2. Silberg J, Maes H, Eaves L. Unraveling the effect of genes and environment in the transmission of parental antisocial behavior to children's conduct disturbance, depression and hyperactivity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2012;53:668-77 pubmed publisher
  3. Beardslee W, Gladstone T, O Connor E. Transmission and prevention of mood disorders among children of affectively ill parents: a review. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;50:1098-109 pubmed publisher
  4. Miranda J, de la Osa N, Granero R, Ezpeleta L. Maternal experiences of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence: Psychopathology and functional impairment in clinical children and adolescents. Child Abuse Negl. 2011;35:700-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Physical punishment of children contributes in part to explain externalizing problems of IPV-exposed children. These findings indicate potential targets of assessment and intervention for families seeking help in mental health services. ..
  5. Compas B, Forehand R, Thigpen J, Keller G, Hardcastle E, Cole D, et al. Family group cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention for families of depressed parents: 18- and 24-month outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2011;79:488-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant effects for the FGCB intervention were also found on internalizing and externalizing symptoms, with stronger effects at 18- than at 24-month follow-up. ..
  6. Maziade M, Gingras N, Rouleau N, Poulin S, Jomphe V, Paradis M, et al. Clinical diagnoses in young offspring from eastern Québec multigenerational families densely affected by schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2008;117:118-26 pubmed
  7. Ramchandani P, O CONNOR T, Evans J, Heron J, Murray L, Stein A. The effects of pre- and postnatal depression in fathers: a natural experiment comparing the effects of exposure to depression on offspring. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2008;49:1069-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to identify the precise mechanisms by which transmission of risk may occur should be encouraged to enable the development of focused interventions to mitigate risks for young children. ..
  8. Garber J, Clarke G, Weersing V, Beardslee W, Brent D, Gladstone T, et al. Prevention of depression in at-risk adolescents: a randomized controlled trial. JAMA. 2009;301:2215-24 pubmed publisher Identifier: NCT00073671. ..
  9. Richter L, Desmond C. Targeting AIDS orphans and child-headed households? A perspective from national surveys in South Africa, 1995-2005. AIDS Care. 2008;20:1019-28 pubmed publisher
    ..Poverty is a pitiless backdrop to the AIDS epidemic and needs to be at the heart of strategies to address the needs of all vulnerable children in hard-hit communities. ..

More Information


  1. Duffy A, Alda M, Hajek T, Grof P. Early course of bipolar disorder in high-risk offspring: prospective study. Br J Psychiatry. 2009;195:457-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We did not find evidence of pre-pubertal mania. In summary, adolescence marks the beginning of the high-risk period for major mood episodes related to bipolar disorder. ..
  2. TULLY E, Iacono W, McGue M. An adoption study of parental depression as an environmental liability for adolescent depression and childhood disruptive disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1148-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal depression was an environmental liability for lifetime diagnoses of major depression and disruptive disorders in adolescents. Paternal depression was not associated with an increased risk for psychopathology in adolescents. ..
  3. Thomas C, Hypponen E, Power C. Obesity and type 2 diabetes risk in midadult life: the role of childhood adversity. Pediatrics. 2008;121:e1240-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Research is needed to understand the interrelatedness of adversities, the social context of their occurrence, and trajectories from adversity to adult disease. ..
  4. Elgán T, Leifman H. Children of substance abusing parents: a national survey on policy and practice in Swedish schools. Health Policy. 2011;101:29-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Implications for policy and practice within the school setting are discussed. ..
  5. Foster C, Garber J, Durlak J. Current and past maternal depression, maternal interaction behaviors, and children's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36:527-37 pubmed
    ..Maternal positivity partially mediated the relation between maternal depression and children's externalizing symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of providing parenting interventions for depressed mothers. ..
  6. Roustit C, Campoy E, Chaix B, Chauvin P. Exploring mediating factors in the association between parental psychological distress and psychosocial maladjustment in adolescence. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2010;19:597-604 pubmed publisher
    ..Beyond the psychiatric approach, psychosocial considerations need to be taken into consideration to prevent negative mental health outcomes in children living in homes with distressed parents. ..
  7. Hill S, Tessner K, McDermott M. Psychopathology in offspring from families of alcohol dependent female probands: a prospective study. J Psychiatr Res. 2011;45:285-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiplex familial risk for alcohol dependence is a significant predictor of substance use disorders by young adulthood. Familial risk and an earlier childhood disorder may set the stage for later development of SUD. ..
  8. Kestilä L, Martelin T, Rahkonen O, Joutsenniemi K, Pirkola S, Poikolainen K, et al. Childhood and current determinants of heavy drinking in early adulthood. Alcohol Alcohol. 2008;43:460-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Childhood social circumstances as well as low educational level and unemployment should be taken into account in planning preventive policies to tackle the harms caused by excessive alcohol use at the individual and population level. ..
  9. Hussong A, Huang W, Curran P, Chassin L, Zucker R. Parent alcoholism impacts the severity and timing of children's externalizing symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2010;38:367-80 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, proximal and time-varying effects of parent alcohol symptoms were also found. Implications for preventing escalations in externalizing symptoms among this high-risk population are discussed. ..
  10. Stenager K, Qin P. Individual and parental psychiatric history and risk for suicide among adolescents and young adults in Denmark: a population-based study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2008;43:920-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevention strategies should aim at improving treatment and care to young people with psychiatric problems and at providing social support and psychological consultation to children with parental psychiatric illness. ..
  11. Murphy D, Marelich W, Herbeck D, Payne D. Family routines and parental monitoring as protective factors among early and middle adolescents affected by maternal HIV/AIDS. Child Dev. 2009;80:1676-91 pubmed publisher
    ..Mothers' level of illness was associated with parenting. Greater variability in parental monitoring resulted in higher levels of problem behaviors. ..
  12. Bearslee W, Wright E, Gladstone T, Forbes P. Long-term effects from a randomized trial of two public health preventive interventions for parental depression. J Fam Psychol. 2007;21:703-13 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings demonstrate that brief, family-centered preventive interventions for parental depression may contribute to long-term, sustained improvements in family functioning. ..
  13. Benjet C, Borges G, Medina Mora M, Zambrano J, Cruz C, Mendez E. Descriptive epidemiology of chronic childhood adversity in Mexican adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2009;45:483-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the distribution of adversities may help us to identify at-risk youth and to better interpret the findings from studies on the role of adversity in diverse health outcomes. ..
  14. Ginsburg G. The Child Anxiety Prevention Study: intervention model and primary outcomes. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2009;77:580-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Parental satisfaction with the intervention was high. Findings suggest that a family-based intervention may prevent the onset of anxiety disorders in the offspring of parents with anxiety disorders. ..
  15. Birmaher B, Axelson D, Monk K, Kalas C, Goldstein B, Hickey M, et al. Lifetime psychiatric disorders in school-aged offspring of parents with bipolar disorder: the Pittsburgh Bipolar Offspring study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2009;66:287-96 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings further support the familiality and validity of BP in youth and indicate a need for early identification and treatment. ..
  16. Hanington L, Ramchandani P, Stein A. Parental depression and child temperament: assessing child to parent effects in a longitudinal population study. Infant Behav Dev. 2010;33:88-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Father to child effects were significant only in male children. Little evidence was found for child to parent effects. ..
  17. Waldron M, Martin N, Heath A. Parental alcoholism and offspring behavior problems: findings in Australian children of twins. Twin Res Hum Genet. 2009;12:433-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Results for internalizing behavior were inconclusive with respect to transmission of risk. ..
  18. Toth S, Rogosch F, Sturge Apple M, Cicchetti D. Maternal depression, children's attachment security, and representational development: an organizational perspective. Child Dev. 2009;80:192-208 pubmed publisher
    ..Attachment security served as an intervening variable between maternal depression and changes in children's negative representations of self. Implications for prevention are highlighted. ..
  19. Du Rocher Schudlich T, Youngstrom E, Calabrese J, Findling R. The role of family functioning in bipolar disorder in families. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36:849-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Associations between parent diagnoses and family functioning changed depending on youth age, but not youth sex. ..
  20. Haggerty K, Skinner M, Fleming C, Gainey R, Catalano R. Long-term effects of the Focus on Families project on substance use disorders among children of parents in methadone treatment. Addiction. 2008;103:2008-16 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the overall long-term benefits of this program are not supported by the results for female children. ..
  21. Hussong A, Bauer D, Chassin L. Telescoped trajectories from alcohol initiation to disorder in children of alcoholic parents. J Abnorm Psychol. 2008;117:63-78 pubmed publisher
    ..This risk for telescoping was also evident for drug disorders. These findings characterize a risky course of drinking in COAs and raise important questions concerning the underlying mechanisms and consequences of telescoping in COAs. ..
  22. Olino T, Pettit J, Klein D, Allen N, Seeley J, Lewinsohn P. Influence of parental and grandparental major depressive disorder on behavior problems in early childhood: a three-generation study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2008;47:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should examine the mechanisms through which grandparental psychopathology influences behavior problems in grandchildren. ..
  23. Rothman E, Edwards E, Heeren T, Hingson R. Adverse childhood experiences predict earlier age of drinking onset: results from a representative US sample of current or former drinkers. Pediatrics. 2008;122:e298-304 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that children with particular adverse childhood experiences may initiate drinking earlier than their peers and that they may be more likely to drink to cope with problems (rather than for pleasure or to be social). ..
  24. Hussong A, Flora D, Curran P, CHASSIN L, Zucker R. Defining risk heterogeneity for internalizing symptoms among children of alcoholic parents. Dev Psychopathol. 2008;20:165-93 pubmed publisher
  25. Gibb B, Uhrlass D, Grassia M, Benas J, McGeary J. Children's inferential styles, 5-HTTLPR genotype, and maternal expressed emotion-criticism: An integrated model for the intergenerational transmission of depression. J Abnorm Psychol. 2009;118:734-45 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, children with positive inferential styles exhibited low depressive symptoms regardless of 5-HTTLPR genotype or level of maternal criticism. ..
  26. Marmorstein N, Iacono W, McGue M. Alcohol and illicit drug dependence among parents: associations with offspring externalizing disorders. Psychol Med. 2009;39:149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Both parental alcohol and drug dependence are independently associated with an increased risk for a broad range of externalizing psychopathology among late-adolescent offspring. ..
  27. Swartz H, Frank E, Zuckoff A, Cyranowski J, Houck P, Cheng Y, et al. Brief interpersonal psychotherapy for depressed mothers whose children are receiving psychiatric treatment. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1155-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Maternal improvement preceded improvement in offspring, suggesting that maternal changes may mediate child outcomes. ..
  28. Pilowsky D, Wickramaratne P, Talati A, Tang M, Hughes C, Garber J, et al. Children of depressed mothers 1 year after the initiation of maternal treatment: findings from the STAR*D-Child Study. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165:1136-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued efforts to treat maternal depression until remission is achieved are associated with decreased psychiatric symptoms and improved functioning in the offspring. ..
  29. Blandon A, Calkins S, Keane S, O BRIEN M. Individual differences in trajectories of emotion regulation processes: the effects of maternal depressive symptomatology and children's physiological regulation. Dev Psychol. 2008;44:1110-23 pubmed publisher
    ..There is also evidence that children's capacity for physiological regulation can buffer some of the adverse consequences associated with maternal depressive symptomatology. ..
  30. Brown D, Anda R, Tiemeier H, Felitti V, Edwards V, Croft J, et al. Adverse childhood experiences and the risk of premature mortality. Am J Prev Med. 2009;37:389-96 pubmed publisher
    ..The increase in risk was only partly explained by documented ACE-related health and social problems, suggesting other possible mechanisms by which ACEs may contribute to premature death. ..
  31. Micco J, Henin A, Mick E, Kim S, Hopkins C, Biederman J, et al. Anxiety and depressive disorders in offspring at high risk for anxiety: a meta-analysis. J Anxiety Disord. 2009;23:1158-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Results suggest that parental anxiety disorders confer significant risk for anxiety and depression in offspring. Additional studies are needed to examine whether there are differences among specific parental anxiety disorders. ..
  32. Duffy A, Alda M, Crawford L, Milin R, Grof P. The early manifestations of bipolar disorder: a longitudinal prospective study of the offspring of bipolar parents. Bipolar Disord. 2007;9:828-38 pubmed
    ..Other parameters such as family history and associated antecedents should be taken into account. ..
  33. Ramchandani P, Psychogiou L. Paternal psychiatric disorders and children's psychosocial development. Lancet. 2009;374:646-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Improved paternal mental health is likely to improve children's wellbeing and life course. ..
  34. Psychogiou L, Daley D, Thompson M, Sonuga Barke E. Do maternal attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms exacerbate or ameliorate the negative effect of child attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms on parenting?. Dev Psychopathol. 2008;20:121-37 pubmed publisher
    ..The results support the similarity-fit hypothesis and highlight the importance of considering both child and maternal ADHD symptoms in studies of parenting. ..
  35. Kuramoto S, Stuart E, Runeson B, Lichtenstein P, Långström N, Wilcox H. Maternal or paternal suicide and offspring's psychiatric and suicide-attempt hospitalization risk. Pediatrics. 2010;126:e1026-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should examine factors that might differ between offspring who experience maternal versus paternal suicide, including genetic or early environmental determinants. ..
  36. Berlin L, Appleyard K, Dodge K. Intergenerational continuity in child maltreatment: mediating mechanisms and implications for prevention. Child Dev. 2011;82:162-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This association was mediated by mothers' social isolation and aggressive response biases. Findings are discussed in terms of specific implications for child maltreatment prevention. ..
  37. Compas B, Champion J, Forehand R, Cole D, Reeslund K, Fear J, et al. Coping and parenting: Mediators of 12-month outcomes of a family group cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention with families of depressed parents. J Consult Clin Psychol. 2010;78:623-34 pubmed publisher
  38. Stein A, Lehtonen A, Harvey A, Nicol Harper R, Craske M. The influence of postnatal psychiatric disorder on child development. Is maternal preoccupation one of the key underlying processes?. Psychopathology. 2009;42:11-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This impairs the mother's parenting capacities and adversely affects mother-child interaction and child development. ..
  39. Hussong A, Cai L, Curran P, Flora D, Chassin L, Zucker R. Disaggregating the distal, proximal, and time-varying effects of parent alcoholism on children's internalizing symptoms. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2008;36:335-46 pubmed
    ..Implications for the time-embedded relations between parent alcoholism and children's internalizing symptoms are discussed. ..
  40. Pawlby S, Hay D, Sharp D, Waters C, O Keane V. Antenatal depression predicts depression in adolescent offspring: prospective longitudinal community-based study. J Affect Disord. 2009;113:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Detection of depression in pregnancy identifies mothers at risk of further depressive episodes and a group of children who are at risk of depression in adolescence. ..
  41. Kelley M, Braitman A, Henson J, Schroeder V, Ladage J, Gumienny L. Relationships among depressive mood symptoms and parent and peer relations in collegiate children of alcoholics. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2010;80:204-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Attachment to parents and peers and the gender of the alcohol-abusing parent were associated with depressive symptoms among ACOAs. ..
  42. Fitzgerald M, Schneider R, Salstrom S, Zinzow H, Jackson J, Fossel R. Child sexual abuse, early family risk, and childhood parentification: pathways to current psychosocial adjustment. J Fam Psychol. 2008;22:320-4 pubmed publisher
    ..g., age, gender, duration, perceived fairness, ethnicity, and family support) moderate the impact of parentification on long-term adjustment. ..
  43. Goodman S, Rouse M, Connell A, Broth M, Hall C, Heyward D. Maternal depression and child psychopathology: a meta-analytic review. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2011;14:1-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Results are interpreted in terms of implications for theoretical models that move beyond main effects models in order to more accurately identify which children of depressed mothers are more or less at risk for specific outcomes. ..
  44. Bornovalova M, Hicks B, Iacono W, McGue M. Familial transmission and heritability of childhood disruptive disorders. Am J Psychiatry. 2010;167:1066-74 pubmed publisher
    ..This general liability should be a focus of research for both etiology and intervention. ..
  45. Berlanga Fernández S, González López N, Cujó López E, López Parada A. [Biopsychosocial approach in a multidisciplinary intervention: a report of a case of a newborn with mentally disabled parents]. Enferm Clin. 2012;22:159-65 pubmed publisher
    ..quot; The joint and coordinated work of the various services involved was focused towards achieving the goals set, in order to give biopsychosocial care to the baby and family. ..
  46. Agha S, Zammit S, Thapar A, Langley K. Are parental ADHD problems associated with a more severe clinical presentation and greater family adversity in children with ADHD?. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013;22:369-77 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights that children with more severe behavioural symptoms are more likely to have a parent with persistent ADHD which has important implications when considering treatment and intervention strategies. ..
  47. Stepp S, Olino T, Klein D, Seeley J, Lewinsohn P. Unique influences of adolescent antecedents on adult borderline personality disorder features. Personal Disord. 2013;4:223-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Multivariate assessment models are needed to identify unique risk factors for BPD. This will enhance the efficiency of screening efforts for early detection of risk. ..
  48. Kieffer Kristensen R, Siersma V, Teasdale T. Family matters: parental-acquired brain injury and child functioning. NeuroRehabilitation. 2013;32:59-68 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results suggest that in ABI families, the children's emotional functioning depends upon family factors and primarily on the level of parental stress in the healthy parent. ..
  49. Benjet C, Borges G, Mendez E, Fleiz C, Medina Mora M. The association of chronic adversity with psychiatric disorder and disorder severity in adolescents. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2011;20:459-68 pubmed publisher
  50. Sheehan J, Massie J, Hay M, Jaffe A, Glazner J, Armstrong D, et al. The natural history and predictors of persistent problem behaviours in cystic fibrosis: a multicentre, prospective study. Arch Dis Child. 2012;97:625-31 pubmed publisher
    ..3 to 9.2, p=0.01). Child problem behaviours are common in children with CF, persist and are often predicted by the mental health of the parent. Routine surveillance for and management of child problem behaviours are recommended. ..
  51. Nilsson D, Gustafsson P, Svedin C. Lifetime polytraumatization in adolescence and being a victim of bullying. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2012;200:954-61 pubmed publisher
    ..Multiple linear regression analyses indicated that the impact of bullying on mental health was explained, to a considerable degree, by the accumulation of other adverse and traumatic exposures, particularly in the females. ..
  52. Hammerton G, Zammit S, Mahedy L, Pearson R, Sellers R, Thapar A, et al. Pathways to suicide-related behavior in offspring of mothers with depression: the role of offspring psychopathology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015;54:385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings highlight that suicide prevention efforts in offspring of mothers with depression should not only be targeted at offspring with MDD; it is also important to consider offspring with other forms of psychopathology. ..
  53. Munoz Sastre M, Sorum P, Mullet E. Telling children their mother is seriously ill or dying: mapping French people's views. Child Care Health Dev. 2016;42:60-7 pubmed publisher
    ..People who have already experienced a situation of having to tell a child about their mother's bad health tend to think, more than others, that telling the truth is the best policy. ..