Summary: A child between 1 and 23 months of age.

Top Publications

  1. Wang H, Liddell C, Coates M, Mooney M, Levitz C, Schumacher A, et al. Global, regional, and national levels of neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013. Lancet. 2014;384:957-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Without further accelerated progress, many countries in west and central Africa will still have high levels of under-5 mortality in 2030. Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, US Agency for International Development. ..
  2. Sonnenschein van der Voort A, Arends L, de Jongste J, Annesi Maesano I, Arshad S, Barros H, et al. Preterm birth, infant weight gain, and childhood asthma risk: a meta-analysis of 147,000 European children. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014;133:1317-29 pubmed publisher
    Preterm birth, low birth weight, and infant catch-up growth seem associated with an increased risk of respiratory diseases in later life, but individual studies showed conflicting results...
  3. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, et al. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013;63:578-84 pubmed publisher
    ..At 0, 8, and 12 weeks postpartum, plasma antiretroviral levels were measured in 117 mother-infant pairs; hair levels were assayed at 12 weeks...
  4. Kim E, Hoetmer S, Li Y, Vandenberg J. Relationship between intention to supplement with infant formula and breastfeeding duration. Can J Public Health. 2013;104:e388-93 pubmed
    ..This study examined the relationship between a mother's intention to supplement with infant formula and the risk of discontinuing breastfeeding during the 12 months postpartum...
  5. Keusch G, Rosenberg I, Denno D, Duggan C, Guerrant R, Lavery J, et al. Implications of acquired environmental enteric dysfunction for growth and stunting in infants and children living in low- and middle-income countries. Food Nutr Bull. 2013;34:357-64 pubmed
    ..The concepts and tools are available. What is required is the decision to move forward along this pathway to better health for infants and children in low-income countries...
  6. McCollum E, Preidis G, Maliwichi M, Olson D, McCrary L, Kazembe P, et al. Clinical versus rapid molecular HIV diagnosis in hospitalized African infants: a randomized controlled trial simulating point-of-care infant testing. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;66:e23-30 pubmed publisher
  7. Rubio R, Jofré A, Martin B, Aymerich T, Garriga M. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages. Food Microbiol. 2014;38:303-11 pubmed publisher
    A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%)...
  8. Govender T, Coovadia H. Eliminating mother to child transmission of HIV-1 and keeping mothers alive: recent progress. J Infect. 2014;68 Suppl 1:S57-62 pubmed publisher
  9. Ngure F, Reid B, Humphrey J, Mbuya M, Pelto G, Stoltzfus R. Water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), environmental enteropathy, nutrition, and early child development: making the links. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2014;1308:118-28 pubmed publisher
    ..early child development research and programs lack evidence-based interventions to provide a clean play and infant feeding environment in addition to established priorities of nutrition, stimulation, and child protection...

More Information


  1. Solomons J, Ridgway O, Hardy C, Kurian M, Kurian M, Jayawant S, et al. Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy caused by uniparental disomy. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014;56:386-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We also confirm the recent report of hypertrophy of the clava (also known as the 'gracile tubercle') as a useful MRI sign in INAD. ..
  2. Chewapreecha C, Harris S, Croucher N, Turner C, Marttinen P, Cheng L, et al. Dense genomic sampling identifies highways of pneumococcal recombination. Nat Genet. 2014;46:305-309 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings advance understanding of pneumococcal population dynamics and provide information for the design of future intervention strategies. ..
  3. Sung V, Hiscock H, Tang M, Mensah F, Nation M, Satzke C, et al. Treating infant colic with the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri: double blind, placebo controlled randomised trial. BMJ. 2014;348:g2107 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine whether the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 reduces crying or fussing in a broad community based sample of breastfed infants and formula fed infants with colic aged less than 3 months...
  4. Gough E, Moodie E, Prendergast A, Johnson S, Humphrey J, Stoltzfus R, et al. The impact of antibiotics on growth in children in low and middle income countries: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. BMJ. 2014;348:g2267 pubmed publisher
    ..Better definition of the mechanisms underlying this effect will be important to inform optimal and safe approaches to achieving healthy growth in vulnerable populations. ..
  5. Rolling T, Agbenyega T, Issifou S, Adegnika A, Sylverken J, Spahlinger D, et al. Delayed hemolysis after treatment with parenteral artesunate in African children with severe malaria--a double-center prospective study. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1921-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While its efficacy is firmly established, data on safety are still incomplete. Delayed hemolysis has been described in hyperparasitemic nonimmune travelers, but it is unknown if African children are equally at risk...
  6. Phelps B, Ahmed S, Amzel A, Diallo M, Jacobs T, Kellerman S, et al. Linkage, initiation and retention of children in the antiretroviral therapy cascade: an overview. AIDS. 2013;27 Suppl 2:S207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..We also explore how linkage and retention can be optimally measured so as to maximize the impact of available pediatric HIV care and treatment services. ..
  7. Middleman A, Baker C, Kozinetz C, Kamili S, Nguyen C, Hu D, et al. Duration of protection after infant hepatitis B vaccination series. Pediatrics. 2014;133:e1500-7 pubmed publisher
    Little is known about duration of protection after the infant primary series of hepatitis B (HB) vaccine in settings of low HB endemicity...
  8. McAteer J, Ledbetter D, Goldin A. Role of bottle feeding in the etiology of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. JAMA Pediatr. 2013;167:1143-9 pubmed publisher
    ..EXPOSURE Feeding status (breast vs bottle) was coded on the birth certificate as the type of feeding the infant was receiving at birth discharge. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE Diagnosis of HPS...
  9. Roberts J, Hovanes K, Dasouki M, Manzardo A, Butler M. Chromosomal microarray analysis of consecutive individuals with autism spectrum disorders or learning disability presenting for genetic services. Gene. 2014;535:70-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While both groups contained more males than females, a significantly higher percentage of males were present in the ASD group. ..
  10. Last A, Roberts C, Cassama E, Nabicassa M, Molina Gonzalez S, Burr S, et al. Plasmid copy number and disease severity in naturally occurring ocular Chlamydia trachomatis infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2014;52:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..By using droplet digital PCR, plasmid copy number was found to be stable (median, 5.34 [range, 1 to 18]) and there were no associations with C. trachomatis load or disease severity. ..
  11. Auger K, Patrick S, Davis M. Infant hospitalizations for pertussis before and after Tdap recommendations for adolescents. Pediatrics. 2013;132:e1149-55 pubmed publisher
    ..However, broader Tdap immunization coverage may be necessary to achieve sustainable reductions in infant pertussis burden.
  12. Bandopadhayay P, Bergthold G, London W, Goumnerova L, Morales La Madrid A, Marcus K, et al. Long-term outcome of 4,040 children diagnosed with pediatric low-grade gliomas: an analysis of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:1173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment strategies for pediatric tumors should therefore aim for disease control during childhood and adolescence with an emphasis on minimizing long-term treatment induced toxicities. ..
  13. Xing W, Liao Q, Viboud C, Zhang J, Sun J, Wu J, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:308-318 pubmed publisher
  14. Desena A, Graves D, Warnack W, Greenberg B. Herpes simplex encephalitis as a potential cause of anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antibody encephalitis: report of 2 cases. JAMA Neurol. 2014;71:344-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In a case series of 2 patients observed at our center, we describe an infant and an adult who had confirmed HS encephalitis and then developed confirmed anti-NMDA receptor antibody ..
  15. Odutola A, Afolabi M, Jafali J, Baldeh I, Owolabi O, Owiafe P, et al. Haematological and biochemical reference values of Gambian infants. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19:275-283 pubmed publisher
  16. Donati M, Cecchi F, Bonaccorso F, Branciforte M, Dario P, Vitiello N. A modular sensorized mat for monitoring infant posture. Sensors (Basel). 2013;14:510-31 pubmed publisher
    We present a novel sensorized mat for monitoring infant's posture through the measure of pressure maps...
  17. Platts Mills J, Gratz J, Mduma E, Svensen E, Amour C, Liu J, et al. Association between stool enteropathogen quantity and disease in Tanzanian children using TaqMan array cards: a nested case-control study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:133-8 pubmed publisher
    ..coli (0.11 SD decline, P = 0.003) in pre-diarrheal stools were associated with poor linear growth. Quantitative analysis can help refine the association between enteropathogens and disease in endemic settings...
  18. Wong D, Abdel Latif M, Kent A. Antenatal steroid exposure and outcomes of very premature infants: a regional cohort study. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed. 2014;99:F12-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to a complete course of antenatal steroids is associated with higher infant survival rates, lower rates of severe IVH and NEC compared to an incomplete course or no exposure...
  19. Ghadrshenas A, Ben Amor Y, Chang J, Dale H, Sherman G, Vojnov L, et al. Improved access to early infant diagnosis is a critical part of a child-centric prevention of mother-to-child transmission agenda. AIDS. 2013;27 Suppl 2:S197-205 pubmed publisher
    ..A review of current literature on early infant diagnosis (EID) testing and country experience in low-and middle-income countries...
  20. Ogden C, Carroll M, Kit B, Flegal K. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311:806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010...
  21. Eziefula A, Bousema T, Yeung S, Kamya M, Owaraganise A, Gabagaya G, et al. Single dose primaquine for clearance of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in children with uncomplicated malaria in Uganda: a randomised, controlled, double-blind, dose-ranging trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:130-9 pubmed publisher
    ..1 mg/kg and 0.4 mg/kg (including the dose of 0.25 mg/kg recently recommended by WHO), in view of the potential for widespread use of the drug to block malaria transmission. Wellcome Trust and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation. ..
  22. Moyes J, Cohen C, Pretorius M, Groome M, Von Gottberg A, Wolter N, et al. Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011. J Infect Dis. 2013;208 Suppl 3:S217-26 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease. ..
  23. Ashley E, Dhorda M, Fairhurst R, Amaratunga C, Lim P, Suon S, et al. Spread of artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria. N Engl J Med. 2014;371:411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Funded by the U.K. Department of International Development and others; number, NCT01350856.). ..
  24. Rodriguez Barraquer I, Mier y Teran Romero L, Schwartz I, Burke D, Cummings D. Potential opportunities and perils of imperfect dengue vaccines. Vaccine. 2014;32:514-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results show that a partially effective vaccine can have significant impacts on serotype distribution and mean age of cases. ..
  25. Steens A, Bergsaker M, Aaberge I, Rønning K, Vestrheim D. Prompt effect of replacing the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine with the 13-valent vaccine on the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Norway. Vaccine. 2013;31:6232-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As this suggests that serotype replacement is again occurring, continues monitoring of IPD is important so that adaptations to vaccine recommendations can be promptly issued...
  26. Sela D, Mills D. The marriage of nutrigenomics with the microbiome: the case of infant-associated bifidobacteria and milk. Am J Clin Nutr. 2014;99:697S-703S pubmed publisher
    ..provides a dramatic example of a diet that promotes a particular microbial community structure, because the lower infant gastrointestinal tract is often dominated by bifidobacteria that flourish on milk glycans...
  27. Vora N, Holman R, Mehal J, Steiner C, Blanton J, Sejvar J. Burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1998-2010. Neurology. 2014;82:443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States for 1998-2010...
  28. Ahmed S, Kim M, Sugandhi N, Phelps B, Sabelli R, Diallo M, et al. Beyond early infant diagnosis: case finding strategies for identification of HIV-infected infants and children. AIDS. 2013;27 Suppl 2:S235-45 pubmed publisher
  29. Cameron A, Ball K, Hesketh K, McNaughton S, Salmon J, Crawford D, et al. Variation in outcomes of the Melbourne Infant, Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age. Prev Med. 2014;58:58-63 pubmed publisher
    To assess the effectiveness of the Melbourne Infant Feeding, Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT) Program according to maternal education and age...
  30. Li Y, Wang W, van Velthoven M, Chen L, Car J, Rudan I, et al. Text messaging data collection for monitoring an infant feeding intervention program in rural China: feasibility study. J Med Internet Res. 2013;15:e269 pubmed publisher
    ..of this study was to explore the feasibility of using text messaging as a data collection tool to monitor an infant feeding intervention program...
  31. Chen L, Ding G, Gao Y, Wang P, Shi R, Huang H, et al. Manganese concentrations in maternal-infant blood and birth weight. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2014;21:6170-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the relationship of the maternal and cord blood Mn levels with birth weight in a cohort of 172 mother-infant pairs born in Shanghai, China...
  32. Ward E, DeSantis C, Robbins A, Kohler B, Jemal A. Childhood and adolescent cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:83-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to cancer statistics, this article will provide an overview of risk factors, symptoms, treatment, and long-term and late effects for common pediatric cancers...
  33. Varghese S, Prasad J, Jacob K. Domestic violence as a risk factor for infant and child mortality: a community-based case-control study from southern India. Natl Med J India. 2013;26:142-6 pubmed
    Violence against women may have an impact on infant and child mortality. We aimed to determine whether domestic violence is a risk factor for infant and child death...
  34. Bizzarro M, Ehrenkranz R, Gallagher P. Concurrent bloodstream infections in infants with necrotizing enterocolitis. J Pediatr. 2014;164:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Infants with NEC-associated BSI are significantly more likely to die than those with post-NEC BSI and NEC without BSI. ..
  35. Cross M, Smith E, Hoy D, Nolte S, Ackerman I, Fransen M, et al. The global burden of hip and knee osteoarthritis: estimates from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..With the aging and increasing obesity of the world's population, health professions need to prepare for a large increase in the demand for health services to treat hip and knee OA. ..
  36. Tomlinson M, Doherty T, Ijumba P, Jackson D, Lawn J, Persson L, et al. Goodstart: a cluster randomised effectiveness trial of an integrated, community-based package for maternal and newborn care, with prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV in a South African township. Trop Med Int Health. 2014;19:256-266 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary outcomes were exclusive and appropriate infant feeding at 12 weeks post-natally and HIV-free infant survival...
  37. Simonyan D, Gagnon M, Duchesne T, Roos Weil A. Effects of a telehealth programme using mobile data transmission on primary healthcare utilisation among children in Bamako, Mali. J Telemed Telecare. 2013;19:302-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2. Membership of the Pesinet telehealth programme increased primary healthcare utilisation among children under five years old in Mali. ..
  38. Kültürsay N, AÅŸkar N, Terek D, Yeniel A, Altun KöroÄŸlu Ã, Yalaz M, et al. The Change of Perinatal Mortality Over Three Decades in a Reference Centre in the Aegean Region: Neonatal Mortality has decreased but Foetal Mortality Remains Unchanged. Balkan Med J. 2017;34:553-558 pubmed publisher
    ..In order to decrease foetal and perinatal mortality rates more efficiently, reducing consanguineous marriages and providing better antenatal care for high risk pregnancies are needed. ..
  39. Mukherjee P, Vishnubhatla S, Amarapurkar D, Das K, Sood A, Chawla Y, et al. Etiology and mode of presentation of chronic liver diseases in India: A multi centric study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187033 pubmed publisher
    ..11·7% had diabetes. Observations of our study will help guide a contextually relevant liver care policy for India and could serve as a framework for similar endeavor in other developing countries as well...
  40. Adebanjo T, Godfred Cato S, Viens L, Fischer M, Staples J, Kuhnert Tallman W, et al. Update: Interim Guidance for the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Management of Infants with Possible Congenital Zika Virus Infection - United States, October 2017. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:1089-1099 pubmed publisher
    ..g., postnatal-onset microcephaly and eye abnormalities without microcephaly) in infants with possible congenital Zika virus exposure without apparent abnormalities at birth...
  41. Yu J, Zhu W, Ye C, Xue C, Lai S, Zhang H, et al. A cross-sectional study of acute diarrhea in Pudong, Shanghai, China: prevalence, risk factors, and healthcare-seeking practices. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2735-2744 pubmed publisher
    ..Diarrhea continues to impose a considerable burden on the community and healthcare system in Pudong. Young age and travel were identified as predictors of increased diarrhea occurrence...
  42. Odetoyin B, Labar A, Lamikanra A, Aboderin A, Okeke I. Classes 1 and 2 integrons in faecal Escherichia coli strains isolated from mother-child pairs in Nigeria. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183383 pubmed publisher
    ..There is a need for improved surveillance for resistance and its mechanisms of dissemination and persistence and mobility of resistance genes in the community and clinical settings. ..
  43. Sondo P, Derra K, Nakanabo S, Tarnagda Z, Kazienga A, Valea I, et al. Comparison of effectiveness of two different artemisinin-based combination therapies in an area with high seasonal transmission of malaria in Burkina Faso. Ann Parasitol. 2017;63:127-131 pubmed publisher
    ..For this reason, in addition to the curative effect, the post-treatment prophylactic effect should be taken into account in the choice of antimalarial regimens. ..
  44. Schwartz C, Chabanet C, Szleper E, Feyen V, Issanchou S, Nicklaus S. Infant Acceptance of Primary Tastes and Fat Emulsion: Developmental Changes and Links with Maternal and Infant Characteristics. Chem Senses. 2017;42:593-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, the taste differential reactivity (the standard deviation of the IRs) significantly increased from 3 to 20 months old. ..
  45. McCallum G, Morris P, Brown N, Chang A. Culture-specific programs for children and adults from minority groups who have asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD006580 pubmed publisher
    ..However, more robust RCTs are needed to further strengthen the quality of evidence and determine the cost-effectiveness of culture-specific programs. ..
  46. Tieu J, Shepherd E, Middleton P, Crowther C. Interconception care for women with a history of gestational diabetes for improving maternal and infant outcomes. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;8:CD010211 pubmed publisher subsequent pregnancies and may benefit from intervention in the interconception period to improve maternal and infant health outcomes...
  47. Kittikraisak W, Suntarattiwong P, Ditsungnoen D, Pallas S, Abimbola T, Klungthong C, et al. Cost-effectiveness of inactivated seasonal influenza vaccination in a cohort of Thai children ?60 months of age. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183391 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccinating children against influenza can be economically favorable depending on the maturity of the program, influenza vaccine performance, and target population. ..
  48. Portes S, Carvalho Costa F, Rocha M, Fumian T, Maranhão A, de Assis R, et al. Enteric viruses in HIV-1 seropositive and HIV-1 seronegative children with diarrheal diseases in Brazil. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0183196 pubmed publisher
    ..Enteric viruses should be considered an important cause of DD in HIV-1 seropositive children, along with pathogens more classically associated with intestinal infections in immunocompromised hosts. ..
  49. Misic Majerus L, Habus J, Stritof Z, Bujić N, Mađarić V, Kolaric Sviben G, et al. Epidemiological and clinical features of leptospirosis in a highly endemic area over three time periods. Trop Med Int Health. 2017;22:1405-1413 pubmed publisher
    ..Statistical analysis revealed a significant relationship between the severity of the clinical picture, patient age and presumed sources of infection. ..
  50. Chakraborty A, Rahman M, Hossain M, Khan S, Haider M, Sultana R, et al. Mild Respiratory Illness Among Young Children Caused by Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza A (H5N1) Virus Infection in Dhaka, Bangladesh, 2011. J Infect Dis. 2017;216:S520-S528 pubmed publisher
  51. Hammond I, Eastman A, Leventhal J, Putnam Hornstein E. Maternal Mental Health Disorders and Reports to Child Protective Services: A Birth Cohort Study. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017;14: pubmed publisher
  52. Kuzik N, Poitras V, Tremblay M, Lee E, Hunter S, Carson V. Systematic review of the relationships between combinations of movement behaviours and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17:849 pubmed publisher
    ..Given the limited evidence, future research is needed to determine the ideal distribution of daily movement behaviours for optimal health throughout the early years. ..
  53. Chaput J, Gray C, Poitras V, Carson V, Gruber R, Birken C, et al. Systematic review of the relationships between sleep duration and health indicators in the early years (0-4 years). BMC Public Health. 2017;17:855 pubmed publisher
    ..Better-quality studies with stronger research designs that can provide information on dose-response relationships are needed to inform contemporary sleep duration recommendations. ..