Summary: A person 6 to 12 years of age. An individual 2 to 5 years old is CHILD, PRESCHOOL.

Top Publications

  1. Altobelli E, Paduano R, Gentile T, Caloisi C, Marziliano C, Necozione S, et al. Health-related quality of life in children and adolescents with celiac disease: survey of a population from central Italy. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013;11:204 pubmed publisher
    ..The food industry should improve its range of gluten-free food products and public bodies and institutions should promote informative campaigns and help promote the overall quality of life of children and adolescents with CD. ..
  2. Xing W, Liao Q, Viboud C, Zhang J, Sun J, Wu J, et al. Hand, foot, and mouth disease in China, 2008-12: an epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014;14:308-318 pubmed publisher
  3. English M, Gathara D, Mwinga S, Ayieko P, Opondo C, Aluvaala J, et al. Adoption of recommended practices and basic technologies in a low-income setting. Arch Dis Child. 2014;99:452-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings are relevant to debates on scaling up in low-income settings and to those developing novel therapeutic or diagnostic interventions. ..
  4. Frederick C, Snellman K, Putnam R. Increasing socioeconomic disparities in adolescent obesity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014;111:1338-42 pubmed publisher
    ..Additional analyses suggest that socioeconomic differences in the levels of physical activity, as well as differences in calorie intake, may have contributed to the growing obesity gradient. ..
  5. Kahn M, Bailey L, Forrest C, Padula M, Hirschfeld S. Building a common pediatric research terminology for accelerating child health research. Pediatrics. 2014;133:516-25 pubmed publisher
    ..By reducing the barriers between clinical care and clinical research, a Learning Health System can leverage and reuse not only its own data resources but also broader extant data resources. ..
  6. Uppuluri R, Shah I. Partial extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis in an HIV-infected child: a case report and review of literature. J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care. 2014;13:117-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present case documents partial extensively drug-resistant TB in an 8-year-old child.
  7. Huijbers M, Zhang W, Klooster R, Niks E, Friese M, Straasheijm K, et al. MuSK IgG4 autoantibodies cause myasthenia gravis by inhibiting binding between MuSK and Lrp4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:20783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results provide insight into the unique pathogenesis of MuSK MG and provide clues toward development of specific treatment options. ..
  8. Rolling T, Agbenyega T, Issifou S, Adegnika A, Sylverken J, Spahlinger D, et al. Delayed hemolysis after treatment with parenteral artesunate in African children with severe malaria--a double-center prospective study. J Infect Dis. 2014;209:1921-8 pubmed publisher
    ..While its efficacy is firmly established, data on safety are still incomplete. Delayed hemolysis has been described in hyperparasitemic nonimmune travelers, but it is unknown if African children are equally at risk...
  9. Aspelund G, Fingeret A, Gross E, Kessler D, Keung C, Thirumoorthi A, et al. Ultrasonography/MRI versus CT for diagnosing appendicitis. Pediatrics. 2014;133:586-93 pubmed publisher

More Information


  1. Fontebasso A, Papillon Cavanagh S, Schwartzentruber J, Nikbakht H, Gerges N, Fiset P, et al. Recurrent somatic mutations in ACVR1 in pediatric midline high-grade astrocytoma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:462-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This work considerably expands the number of potential treatment targets and further justifies pretreatment biopsy in pediatric mHGA as a means to orient therapeutic efforts in this disease. ..
  2. Wu G, Diaz A, Paugh B, Rankin S, Ju B, Li Y, et al. The genomic landscape of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and pediatric non-brainstem high-grade glioma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:444-450 pubmed publisher
    ..This comprehensive analysis provides insights into the unique and shared pathways driving pediatric HGG within and outside the brainstem. ..
  3. Taylor K, Mackay A, Truffaux N, Butterfield Y, Morozova O, Philippe C, et al. Recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Nat Genet. 2014;46:457-461 pubmed publisher
    ..These mutations represent new targets for therapeutic intervention in this otherwise incurable disease. ..
  4. Stern D, Piernas C, Barquera S, Rivera J, Popkin B. Caloric beverages were major sources of energy among children and adults in Mexico, 1999-2012. J Nutr. 2014;144:949-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Because caloric soda is currently 1 of the top beverages consumed, a 10% tax on SSBs might help to significantly reduce added sugars intake in Mexico. ..
  5. Idele P, Gillespie A, Porth T, Suzuki C, Mahy M, Kasedde S, et al. Epidemiology of HIV and AIDS among adolescents: current status, inequities, and data gaps. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014;66 Suppl 2:S144-53 pubmed publisher
    ..To examine levels and patterns of HIV prevalence, knowledge, sexual behavior, and coverage of selected HIV services among adolescents aged 10-19 years and highlight data gaps and challenges...
  6. Gordon S, Bruce N, Grigg J, Hibberd P, Kurmi O, Lam K, et al. Respiratory risks from household air pollution in low and middle income countries. Lancet Respir Med. 2014;2:823-60 pubmed publisher
    ..To make clean energy available to all people is the long-term goal, with an intermediate solution being to make available energy that is clean enough to have a health impact. ..
  7. Colen C, Ramey D. Is breast truly best? Estimating the effects of breastfeeding on long-term child health and wellbeing in the United States using sibling comparisons. Soc Sci Med. 2014;109:55-65 pubmed publisher
    ..However, much of the empirical evidence regarding the effects of breastfeeding on long-term child health and wellbeing does not adequately address the high degree of selection into breastfeeding...
  8. Francis J, Nourse C, Vaska V, Calvert S, Northill J, McCall B, et al. Australian Bat Lyssavirus in a child: the first reported case. Pediatrics. 2014;133:e1063-7 pubmed publisher
    Human infection with Australian Bat Lyssavirus is extremely rare and has not previously been reported in a child. We describe a fatal case of Australian Bat Lyssavirus in an 8-year-old child, and review the literature pertaining to the ..
  9. Buczkowicz P, Hoeman C, Rakopoulos P, Pajovic S, Létourneau L, Dzamba M, et al. Genomic analysis of diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas identifies three molecular subgroups and recurrent activating ACVR1 mutations. Nat Genet. 2014;46:451-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results highlight distinct molecular subgroups and novel therapeutic targets for this incurable pediatric cancer. ..
  10. Ogden C, Carroll M, Kit B, Flegal K. Prevalence of childhood and adult obesity in the United States, 2011-2012. JAMA. 2014;311:806-14 pubmed publisher
    ..More than one-third of adults and 17% of youth in the United States are obese, although the prevalence remained stable between 2003-2004 and 2009-2010...
  11. Dabelea D, Mayer Davis E, Saydah S, Imperatore G, Linder B, Divers J, et al. Prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents from 2001 to 2009. JAMA. 2014;311:1778-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Between 2001 and 2009 in 5 areas of the United States, the prevalence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes among children and adolescents increased. Further studies are required to determine the causes of these increases. ..
  12. Oliart Guzmán H, Delfino B, Martins A, Mantovani S, Brãna A, Pereira T, et al. Epidemiology and control of child toxocariasis in the western Brazilian Amazon - a population-based study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:670-81 pubmed publisher
    ..30% for children 84-143 months of age. Multilevel logistic regression analysis identified child age, previous wheezing, and current infection with hookworm as significant associated factors for Toxocara spp...
  13. Ward E, DeSantis C, Robbins A, Kohler B, Jemal A. Childhood and adolescent cancer statistics, 2014. CA Cancer J Clin. 2014;64:83-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to cancer statistics, this article will provide an overview of risk factors, symptoms, treatment, and long-term and late effects for common pediatric cancers...
  14. Bönnemann C, Wang C, Quijano Roy S, Deconinck N, Bertini E, Ferreiro A, et al. Diagnostic approach to the congenital muscular dystrophies. Neuromuscul Disord. 2014;24:289-311 pubmed publisher
    ..The combined consensus summarized in this document allows the physician to recognize the presence of a CMD in a child with weakness based on history, clinical examination, muscle biopsy results, and imaging...
  15. Bandopadhayay P, Bergthold G, London W, Goumnerova L, Morales La Madrid A, Marcus K, et al. Long-term outcome of 4,040 children diagnosed with pediatric low-grade gliomas: an analysis of the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014;61:1173-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatment strategies for pediatric tumors should therefore aim for disease control during childhood and adolescence with an emphasis on minimizing long-term treatment induced toxicities. ..
  16. Crawley E, Mills N, Beasant L, Johnson D, Collin S, Deans Z, et al. The feasibility and acceptability of conducting a trial of specialist medical care and the Lightning Process in children with chronic fatigue syndrome: feasibility randomized controlled trial (SMILE study). Trials. 2013;14:415 pubmed publisher
    ..Feasibility study first randomization: 29 September 2010. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN81456207 (31 July 2012). Full trial first randomization: 19 September 2012. ..
  17. Binder A, Michels K. The causal effect of red blood cell folate on genome-wide methylation in cord blood: a Mendelian randomization approach. BMC Bioinformatics. 2013;14:353 pubmed publisher
    ..These results can help guide future analyses of the causal effects of periconceptional folate levels on candidate pathways. ..
  18. Roberts T, Carnahan E, Gakidou E. Can breastfeeding promote child health equity? A comprehensive analysis of breastfeeding patterns across the developing world and what we can learn from them. BMC Med. 2013;11:254 pubmed publisher
    ..These prevalence estimates were disaggregated by wealth quintile and linked with child mortality rates to assess how improved rates of breastfeeding may affect child health inequalities...
  19. Wampfler R, Mwingira F, Javati S, Robinson L, Betuela I, Siba P, et al. Strategies for detection of Plasmodium species gametocytes. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e76316 pubmed publisher
  20. Du S, Wang H, Zhang B, Zhai F, Popkin B. China in the period of transition from scarcity and extensive undernutrition to emerging nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, 1949-1992. Obes Rev. 2014;15 Suppl 1:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Overweight emerged only after 1982. Shifts in diet, activity and body composition in 1949-1992 set the stage for major shifts in nutrition in the subsequent decades. ..
  21. Zhai F, Du S, Wang Z, Zhang J, Du W, Popkin B. Dynamics of the Chinese diet and the role of urbanicity, 1991-2011. Obes Rev. 2014;15 Suppl 1:16-26 pubmed publisher
    ..The dietary shifts are affected greatly by the country's urbanization. The future, as exemplified by the diet of the three mega cities, promises major growth in consumption of processed foods and beverages. ..
  22. Toftager M, Kristensen P, Oliver M, Duncan S, Christiansen L, Boyle E, et al. Accelerometer data reduction in adolescents: effects on sample retention and bias. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013;10:140 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlighted the risk of introducing bias with more overweight and older adolescents excluded from the analysis when using short non-wear time definitions. ..
  23. Kellerman S, Ahmed S, Feeley Summerl T, Jay J, Kim M, Phelps B, et al. Beyond prevention of mother-to-child transmission: keeping HIV-exposed and HIV-positive children healthy and alive. AIDS. 2013;27 Suppl 2:S225-33 pubmed publisher
    ..This increased focus on the elimination of maternal to child transmission (MTCT) is most welcome but is insufficient, as access to prevention of MTCT (PMTCT) programming is ..
  24. Vora N, Holman R, Mehal J, Steiner C, Blanton J, Sejvar J. Burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States, 1998-2010. Neurology. 2014;82:443-51 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the burden of encephalitis-associated hospitalizations in the United States for 1998-2010...
  25. Bwakura Dangarembizi M, Kendall L, Bakeera Kitaka S, Nahirya Ntege P, Keishanyu R, Nathoo K, et al. A randomized trial of prolonged co-trimoxazole in HIV-infected children in Africa. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated whether children and adolescents receiving long-term ART in sub-Saharan Africa could discontinue co-trimoxazole...
  26. Lundahl A, Kidwell K, Nelson T. Parental underestimates of child weight: a meta-analysis. Pediatrics. 2014;133:e689-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Data were extracted on study-level constructs, child- and parent-characteristics, procedural characteristics, and parental underestimates separately for normal-weight ..
  27. Wang C, Chen P, Zhuang J. A national survey of physical activity and sedentary behavior of Chinese city children and youth using accelerometers. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2013;84 Suppl 2:S12-28 pubmed
    ..No differences in PA and SB were found across different BMI categories. The findings warn of the insufficiency of PA and the excess of SB in Chinese city children and youth. ..
  28. Lepri F, Scavelli R, Digilio M, Gnazzo M, Grotta S, Dentici M, et al. Diagnosis of Noonan syndrome and related disorders using target next generation sequencing. BMC Med Genet. 2014;15:14 pubmed publisher
    ..This approach strongly improved genetic counselling and clinical management. ..
  29. Johnson S, Hollis C, Marlow N, Simms V, Wolke D. Screening for childhood mental health disorders using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire: the validity of multi-informant reports. Dev Med Child Neurol. 2014;56:453-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Multi-informant ratings were aggregated using two methods: combined (parent or teacher rated the child with problems) and pervasive (parent and teacher rated the child with problems)...
  30. Skinner A, Skelton J. Prevalence and trends in obesity and severe obesity among children in the United States, 1999-2012. JAMA Pediatr. 2014;168:561-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Unfortunately, there is an upward trend of more severe forms of obesity and further investigations into the causes of and solutions to this problem are needed. ..
  31. Su C, Wang J, Lin C. Child-rated versus parent-rated quality of life of community-based obese children across gender and grade. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2013;11:206 pubmed publisher
    ..Community-based obese children report their QoL lower than their parents do. However, the differences between child- and parent-reported QoL have neither been tested across gender and grade nor analyzed by item...
  32. Saps M, Nichols Vinueza D, Rosen J, Velasco Benítez C. Prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in Colombian school children. J Pediatr. 2014;164:542-5.e1 pubmed publisher
    ..Irritable bowel syndrome was the most common abdominal pain-related FGID (5.4%). Abdominal migraine (1%) and cyclic vomiting syndrome (0.3%) were the least common FGIDs. FGIDs are common in Colombian school children. ..
  33. Cross M, Smith E, Hoy D, Nolte S, Ackerman I, Fransen M, et al. The global burden of hip and knee osteoarthritis: estimates from the global burden of disease 2010 study. Ann Rheum Dis. 2014;73:1323-30 pubmed publisher
    ..With the aging and increasing obesity of the world's population, health professions need to prepare for a large increase in the demand for health services to treat hip and knee OA. ..
  34. Fang X, Jing R, Zeng G, Linnan H, Zhu X, Linnan M. Socioeconomic status and the incidence of child injuries in China. Soc Sci Med. 2014;102:33-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Of particular importance is whether child injuries are equally distributed across all socioeconomic groups and the implications of this question for child ..
  35. Nyondo A, Muula A, Chimwaza A. Assessment of strategies for male involvement in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV services in Blantyre, Malawi. Glob Health Action. 2013;6:22780 pubmed publisher
    Despite the documented benefits of prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) services, the uptake remains low in sub-Saharan Africa...
  36. Been J, Nurmatov U, Cox B, Nawrot T, van Schayck C, Sheikh A. Effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet. 2014;383:1549-60 pubmed publisher
    ..We investigated the effect of smoke-free legislation on perinatal and child health...
  37. Stoner R, Chow M, Boyle M, Sunkin S, Mouton P, Roy S, et al. Patches of disorganization in the neocortex of children with autism. N Engl J Med. 2014;370:1209-1219 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data support a probable dysregulation of layer formation and layer-specific neuronal differentiation at prenatal developmental stages. (Funded by the Simons Foundation and others.). ..
  38. Newth C, Khemani R, Jouvet P, Sward K. Mechanical Ventilation and Decision Support in Pediatric Intensive Care. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2017;64:1057-1070 pubmed publisher
    ..This article discusses computer decision-support tools to assist clinicians in making flexible but consistent, evidence-based decisions for equivalent patient states. ..
  39. Means C, Aldape M, King E. Pediatric primary Sjögren syndrome presenting with bilateral ranulas: A case report and systematic review of the literature. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;101:11-19 pubmed publisher
    ..All studies were retrospective chart reviews, case series or case reports. This is the first report of a child presenting with floor of mouth ranulas in association with Sjögren syndrome...
  40. Lee E, Baik D, Park Y, Ki M. The current status of health data on Korean children and adolescents. Epidemiol Health. 2017;39:e2017059 pubmed publisher
  41. Marcovecchio M, Chiesa S, Bond S, Daneman D, Dawson S, Donaghue K, et al. ACE Inhibitors and Statins in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes. N Engl J Med. 2017;377:1733-1745 pubmed publisher
    ..We hypothesized that adolescents with high levels of albumin excretion might benefit from angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and statins, drugs that have not been fully evaluated in adolescents...
  42. Mukherjee P, Vishnubhatla S, Amarapurkar D, Das K, Sood A, Chawla Y, et al. Etiology and mode of presentation of chronic liver diseases in India: A multi centric study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0187033 pubmed publisher
    ..11·7% had diabetes. Observations of our study will help guide a contextually relevant liver care policy for India and could serve as a framework for similar endeavor in other developing countries as well...
  43. Pohl A, Kappler R, Mühling J, Von Schweinitz D, Berger M. Expression of Truncated Neurokinin-1 Receptor in Childhood Neuroblastoma is Independent of Tumor Biology and Stage. Anticancer Res. 2017;37:6079-6085 pubmed
    ..Inhibition of TACR1 was recently described to impede growth of NB cell lines. However, the relevance of TACR1 in clinical settings is unknown...
  44. Wu J, Gu M, Chen S, Chen W, Ni K, Xu H, et al. Factors related to pediatric obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in different age groups. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8281 pubmed publisher
    ..Hypoxia may be an important factor causing ADHD. OSAHS should be treated as early as possible to reduce the incidence of ADHD in children...
  45. Bloemen M, de Groot J, Backx F, Benner J, Kruitwagen C, Takken T. Wheelchair Shuttle Test for Assessing Aerobic Fitness in Youth With Spina Bifida: Validity and Reliability. Phys Ther. 2017;97:1020-1029 pubmed publisher
    ..Testing aerobic fitness in youth is important because of expected relationships with health...
  46. Hagopian W, Lee H, Liu E, Rewers M, She J, Ziegler A, et al. Co-occurrence of Type 1 Diabetes and Celiac Disease Autoimmunity. Pediatrics. 2017;140: pubmed publisher
    ..Co-occurrence is greater than explained by demographic factors and extensive genetic risk loci, indicating that shared environmental or pathophysiological mechanisms may contribute to the increased risk. ..
  47. Guo H, Wang C, Yang M, Tong X, Wang J, Guan H, et al. Management of iatrogenic renal arteriovenous fistula and renal arterial pseudoaneurysm by transarterial embolization: A single center analysis and outcomes. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e8187 pubmed publisher
    ..This retrospective review demonstrated that TAE for the treatment of iatrogenic renal artery pseudoaneurysm and/or arteriovenous fistula was safe and associated with high technical and clinical success rate...
  48. Alzahrani A, Alswailem M, Murugan A, Alhomaidah D, Capper C, Auchus R, et al. A high rate of novel CYP11B1 mutations in Saudi Arabia. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2017;174:217-224 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that 11 ?-OHD in Saudi Arabia has a unique genotype with a high rate of novel mutations. The novel p. R448P mutation is the most common mutation in this highly inbred population...
  49. Stein K, Pearson R, Stein A, Fazel M. The predictive value of childhood recurrent abdominal pain for adult emotional disorders, and the influence of negative cognitive style. Findings from a cohort study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185643 pubmed publisher
    ..We controlled for various confounding factors, including maternal anxiety and the child's pre-existing psychopathology...
  50. Arevalo Herrera M, Rengifo L, Lopez Perez M, Arce Plata M, García J, Herrera S. Complicated malaria in children and adults from three settings of the Colombian Pacific Coast: A prospective study. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185435 pubmed publisher
    ..The study describes epidemiological profiles of the study region and identified the most common complications on which clinicians must focus on to prevent mortality. ..
  51. Kocyigit I, Olgun Z, Demirkıran H, Ayvaz M, Yazici M. Graduation Protocol After Growing-Rod Treatment: Removal of Implants without New Instrumentation Is Not a Realistic Approach. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2017;99:1554-1564 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. ..
  52. Laursen B, Danstrup C, Hoffmann S, Nørskov Lauritsen N, Christensen A, Ovesen T. The effect of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines on incidence and microbiology associated with complicated acute otitis media. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2017;101:249-253 pubmed publisher
    ..CAOM comprises "heavy" AOM (AOM demanding hospitalization), mastodismus (M) and acute mastoiditis (AM)...
  53. Wang J, Gao H, Bao X, Zhang Q, Li J, Wei L, et al. SCN8A mutations in Chinese patients with early onset epileptic encephalopathy and benign infantile seizures. BMC Med Genet. 2017;18:104 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, our study confirmed that the same mutation can lead to different phenotypes. ..