adult children


Summary: Children who have reached maturity or the legal age of majority.

Top Publications

  1. Loue S, Lowder J, Buzney S, Buzo A. Caring for an adult child with cognitive disabilities: meeting the dual needs of an adult and child. Care Manag J. 2006;7:191-8 pubmed
    ..We provide various alternatives for the management of these issues. ..
  2. Cupples L, Yang Q, Demissie S, Copenhafer D, Levy D. Description of the Framingham Heart Study data for Genetic Analysis Workshop 13. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S2 pubmed
  3. Slager S, Iturria S. Genome-wide linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure: a comparison of two approaches to phenotype definition. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S13 pubmed
    ..For each approach, multipoint linkage analysis was performed using the residuals and the SOLAR computer program. Our results show little difference between the methods based on the LOD scores. ..
  4. Rao S, Li L, Li X, Moser K, Guo Z, Shen G, et al. Genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal hypertension phenotypes using three summary measures. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S24 pubmed
    ..We conclude that mean and principal components are feasible alternatives for genetic linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes, but the slope might have a separate genetic basis from that of the original longitudinal phenotypes. ..
  5. Fridley B, Rabe K, de Andrade M. Imputation methods for missing data for polygenic models. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S42 pubmed
    ..Thus, we recommend the Gibbs sampler for imputation purposes because of the ease with which it can be extended to more complicated models, the consistency of the results, and the accountability of the variation due to imputation. ..
  6. Mueller C, Martel L, Le Y, Tolman R, Geiken L, KA OPUA L. The role of minor and adult children in the adjustment of women living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2009;21:1169-75 pubmed publisher
    ..and confidence in regulating social burden and reported experiencing less social burden than women with adult children only...
  7. Gutheil I, Heyman J. "They don't want to hear us": Hispanic elders and adult children speak about end-of-life planning. J Soc Work End Life Palliat Care. 2006;2:55-70 pubmed
    This study used focus groups to understand Hispanic elders' and adult children's concerns about end-of-life planning. Ten older persons participated in the elders group, and ten adult children in a separate group...
  8. Glass A, Nahapetyan L. Discussions by elders and adult children about end-of-life preparation and preferences. Prev Chronic Dis. 2008;5:A08 pubmed
    ..Despite this discrepancy, elders and their adult children often do not discuss end-of-life preferences...
  9. Neuberger L, Silk K, Yun D, Bowman N, Anderson J. Concern as motivation for protection: an investigation of mothers' concern about daughters' breast cancer risk. J Health Commun. 2011;16:1055-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The authors discuss implications for incorporating mothers' concerns into breast cancer prevention messages as a novel strategy for campaign designers. ..

More Information


  1. Hanaoka C, Norton E. Informal and formal care for elderly persons: how adult children's characteristics affect the use of formal care in Japan. Soc Sci Med. 2008;67:1002-8 pubmed publisher
    Informal care by adult children remains the most common source of caregiving for elderly parents in Japan, even after the introduction of long-term care insurance in 2000...
  2. Sanders S, Ott C, Kelber S, Noonan P. The experience of high levels of grief in caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementia. Death Stud. 2008;32:495-523 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this multimethod study is to describe the lived experience of 44 spouses and adult children who are caregivers of persons with Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) and scored high on the ..
  3. Barker E, Greenberg J, Seltzer M, Almeida D. Daily stress and cortisol patterns in parents of adult children with a serious mental illness. Health Psychol. 2012;31:130-4 pubmed publisher
  4. Roest A, Dubas J, Gerris J. Value transmissions between fathers, mothers, and adolescent and emerging adult children: the role of the family climate. J Fam Psychol. 2009;23:146-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Late adolescents and emerging adults also serve to socialize their parents and parents socialize each other. ..
  5. Bricker J, Otten R, Liu J, Peterson A. Parents who quit smoking and their adult children's smoking cessation: a 20-year follow-up study. Addiction. 2009;104:1036-42 pubmed publisher
    ..cohort study, this study examines parents' early and late smoking cessation as predictors of their young adult children's smoking cessation...
  6. Wang S. Nursing home placement of older parents: an exploration of adult children's role and responsibilities. Contemp Nurse. 2011;37:197-203 pubmed publisher
    ..It aimed to investigate how the roles and responsibilities of adult children of nursing home residents are changing...
  7. Clausen T, Mortensen E, Schmidt L, Mathiesen E, Hansen T, Jensen D, et al. Cognitive function in adult offspring of women with Type 1 diabetes. Diabet Med. 2011;28:838-44 pubmed publisher
    ..However, harmful effects of maternal hyperglycaemia may be mediated through delivery at < 34 weeks. ..
  8. Clausen T, Mathiesen E, Hansen T, Pedersen O, Jensen D, Lauenborg J, et al. Overweight and the metabolic syndrome in adult offspring of women with diet-treated gestational diabetes mellitus or type 1 diabetes. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009;94:2464-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Intrauterine hyperglycemia may in addition to genetics and other factors contribute to the pathogenesis of overweight and the metabolic syndrome. ..
  9. Savundranayagam M, Montgomery R, Kosloski K. A dimensional analysis of caregiver burden among spouses and adult children. Gerontologist. 2011;51:321-31 pubmed publisher
    ..The study aims were to assess (a) whether the dimensions of burden were the same for caregiving spouses and adult children, (b) the role of assisting with problem behaviors (PBs) and activities of daily living (ADLs) on each ..
  10. Hochner H, Friedlander Y, Calderon Margalit R, Meiner V, Sagy Y, Avgil Tsadok M, et al. Associations of maternal prepregnancy body mass index and gestational weight gain with adult offspring cardiometabolic risk factors: the Jerusalem Perinatal Family Follow-up Study. Circulation. 2012;125:1381-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies that explore mechanisms underlying the intergenerational cycle of obesity are warranted to identify potentially novel targets for cardiometabolic risk-reduction interventions. ..
  11. Strug L, Sun L, Corey M. The genetics of cross-sectional and longitudinal body mass index. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S14 pubmed
    ..77 at GATA8A05. Our analysis shows how omitting the decline phase of BMI in the definition of obesity phenotypes can result in evidence for linkage which might have been otherwise overlooked. ..
  12. Wilcox M, Wyszynski D, Panhuysen C, Ma Q, Yip A, Farrell J, et al. Empirically derived phenotypic subgroups - qualitative and quantitative trait analyses. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S15 pubmed
    ..Some of our findings are in regions linked to elements of atherogenic dyslipidemia and related diagnoses, some may be novel, or may be false positives. ..
  13. Scurrah K, Tobin M, Burton P. Longitudinal variance components models for systolic blood pressure, fitted using Gibbs sampling. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S25 pubmed
    ..The first-stage analysis provided evidence for general genetic effects on both the baseline and slope of blood pressure, and the linkage analysis found evidence of several genes, again for both baseline and slope. ..
  14. Yang Q, Chazaro I, Cui J, Guo C, Demissie S, Larson M, et al. Genetic analyses of longitudinal phenotype data: a comparison of univariate methods and a multivariate approach. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S29 pubmed
    ..Compared with the univariate approaches, the multivariate approach provided more information on temporal trends in gene effects at the cost of more complicated modelling and more intense computations. ..
  15. Kang T, Kraft P, Gauderman W, Thomas D. Multiple imputation methods for longitudinal blood pressure measurements from the Framingham Heart Study. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S43 pubmed
    ..This suggests that if missingness patterns are correlated within families, then imputation methods that do not allow this correlation can yield biased results. ..
  16. Magaña S, Greenberg J, Seltzer M. The health and well-being of black mothers who care for their adult children with schizophrenia. Psychiatr Serv. 2004;55:711-3 pubmed
    ..Both groups of women had similar mental health status. However, the mothers who were providing care for their adult children with mental illness had higher rates of chronic health conditions, such as high blood pressure, arthritis, and ..
  17. Kespichayawattana J, VanLandingham M. Effects of coresidence and caregiving on health of Thai parents of adult children with AIDS. J Nurs Scholarsh. 2003;35:217-24 pubmed
    ..Many older people suffered adverse health outcomes related to living with and caring for their children with AIDS. Recommendations indicate a variety of programs that might help such older parents. ..
  18. Daw E, Morrison J, Zhou X, Thomas D. Genetic Analysis Workshop 13: simulated longitudinal data on families for a system of oligogenic traits. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S3 pubmed
  19. Lo Sasso A, Johnson R. Does informal care from adult children reduce nursing home admissions for the elderly?. Inquiry. 2002;39:279-97 pubmed
    ..This paper jointly models the receipt of regular help from adult children and subsequent nursing home care, using data from the Study of Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (..
  20. Yip A, Ma Q, Wilcox M, Panhuysen C, Farrell J, Farrer L, et al. Search for genetic factors predisposing to atherogenic dyslipidemia. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S100 pubmed
    ..AD susceptibility is modulated by multiple genes in different chromosomes. Our study confirms results from other populations and suggests new areas of potential importance. ..
  21. Guo Z, Li X, Rao S, Moser K, Zhang T, Gong B, et al. Multivariate sib-pair linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes by three step-wise analysis approaches. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S68 pubmed
    ..This analysis also supported the possibility of the pattern recognition technique for investigating gene x gene or gene x environment interactions. ..
  22. Macgregor S, Knott S, White I, Visscher P. Longitudinal variance-components analysis of the Framingham Heart Study data. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S22 pubmed
    ..The traits of interest were BMI, HDLC, total cholesterol, and height. The longitudinal method allowed the characterization of the change in QTL effects with aging. A QTL affecting BMI was shown to act mainly at early ages. ..
  23. Briollais L, Tzontcheva A, Bull S. Multilevel modeling for the analysis of longitudinal blood pressure data in the Framingham Heart Study pedigrees. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S19 pubmed
    ..It allows for complex hierarchical data structure to be taken into account and therefore, a better partitioning of random within-individual variation from other sources of variability (genetic or nongenetic). ..
  24. Palmer L, Scurrah K, Tobin M, Patel S, Celedon J, Burton P, et al. Genome-wide linkage analysis of longitudinal phenotypes using sigma2A random effects (SSARs) fitted by Gibbs sampling. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S12 pubmed
    ..We have now demonstrated in this paper the use of SSARs in the context of longitudinal family data. ..
  25. Jun G, Song Y, Stein C, Iyengar S. An autosome-wide search using longitudinal data for loci linked to type 2 diabetes progression. BMC Genet. 2003;4 Suppl 1:S8 pubmed
    ..1-24.13 (p = 2.94 x 10(-6)), 9p24.1-21.3 (p = 7 x 10(-7)), and 18p11.31-q22.1 (p < 10(-11)). The evidence for linkage on chromosomes 8 and 18 was consistent for the subset of study participants aged 43 through 55 years. ..
  26. Szinovacz M, Davey A. Prevalence and predictors of change in adult-child primary caregivers. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 2013;76:227-49 pubmed
    ..As far as the adult children are concerned, daughters and children living closer to parents are more likely to remain primary caregivers...
  27. Rajendran M, Nachbagauer R, Ermler M, Bunduc P, Amanat F, Izikson R, et al. Analysis of Anti-Influenza Virus Neuraminidase Antibodies in Children, Adults, and the Elderly by ELISA and Enzyme Inhibition: Evidence for Original Antigenic Sin. MBio. 2017;8: pubmed publisher
    ..By the use of an appropriate vaccination strategy, these titers could potentially be boosted to levels that might provide broad protection from influenza virus infection. ..
  28. Chen C, Waters H, Hartman M, Zimmerman S, Miklowitz D, Waters E. The secure base script and the task of caring for elderly parents: implications for attachment theory and clinical practice. Attach Hum Dev. 2013;15:332-48 pubmed publisher
    ..These results support the hypothesis that attachment representations influence the quality of care that adults provide their elderly parents. Clinical implications are discussed. ..
  29. Zimmermann M. Deliver us from evil: carer burden in Alzheimer's disease. Med Humanit. 2010;36:101-7 pubmed publisher
  30. Gustafson D, McTavish F, Schubert C, Johnson R. The effect of a computer-based intervention on adult children of alcoholics. J Addict Med. 2012;6:24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..examined an online system of resources called CHESS (Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System) for adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs), a population at greater risk for SUDs, depression, and other difficulties than adults ..
  31. Vitale G, Brugts M, Ogliari G, Castaldi D, Fatti L, Varewijck A, et al. Low circulating IGF-I bioactivity is associated with human longevity: findings in centenarians' offspring. Aging (Albany NY). 2012;4:580-9 pubmed
    ..These data support a role of the IGF-I/insulin system in the modulation of human aging process. ..
  32. Low N, Dugas E, Constantin E, Karp I, Rodriguez D, O Loughlin J. The association between parental history of diagnosed mood/anxiety disorders and psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young adult offspring. BMC Psychiatry. 2012;12:188 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to detect mood and anxiety disorders in offspring with a maternal history should be encouraged. ..
  33. Wong M, Cavanaugh C, Macleamy J, Sojourner Nelson A, Koopman C. Posttraumatic growth and adverse long-term effects of parental cancer in children. Fam Syst Health. 2009;27:53-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should examine ways to identify factors that can help affected children experience posttraumatic growth while minimizing the adverse consequences of having a parent with cancer. ..
  34. Barr H, Bookstein F, O Malley K, Connor P, Huggins J, Streissguth A. Binge drinking during pregnancy as a predictor of psychiatric disorders on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV in young adult offspring. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163:1061-5 pubmed
    ..Prenatal exposure to alcohol may be a risk factor for specific psychiatric disorders and traits in early adulthood, even in a nonclinical group. ..
  35. Cardellini M, Marini M, Frontoni S, Hribal M, Andreozzi F, Perticone F, et al. Carotid artery intima-media thickness is associated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal in nondiabetic normotensive offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2007;292:E347-52 pubmed
    ..7% of its variation. These findings support the concept that insulin sensitivity, rather than plasma insulin levels, is associated with early atherosclerosis in nondiabetic normotensive offspring of type 2 diabetic patients. ..
  36. Maas R, Xanthakis V, Polak J, Schwedhelm E, Sullivan L, Benndorf R, et al. Association of the endogenous nitric oxide synthase inhibitor ADMA with carotid artery intimal media thickness in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort. Stroke. 2009;40:2715-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These data are consistent with the notion that ADMA promotes subclinical atherosclerosis in a site-specific manner, with a greater proatherogenic influence at known vulnerable sites in the arterial tree. ..
  37. Varga O. Physicians do not heal thy relatives. Patient Educ Couns. 2007;67:11-2 pubmed
  38. Wilson P, Ben Yehuda O, McNamara J, Massaro J, Witztum J, Reaven P. Autoantibodies to oxidized LDL and cardiovascular risk: the Framingham Offspring Study. Atherosclerosis. 2006;189:364-8 pubmed
    ..Autoantibodies to oxidized LDL were strongly related to age and were not related to incident CHD or CVD over 8 years of follow up. ..
  39. Cunningham M, Thornton A. The influence of parents' marital quality on adult children's attitudes toward marriage and its alternatives: main and moderating effects. Demography. 2006;43:659-72 pubmed
    Drawing on a panel study of parents and children, we investigate linkages between parents' marital quality and adult children's attitudes toward a range of family issues, including premarital sex, cohabitation, lifelong singlehood, and ..
  40. Smith M, Nunley B, Kerr P, Galligan H. Elders' experiences of the death of an adult child. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2011;32:568-74 pubmed publisher
    ..Suggested interventions to prevent complicated grief in elders who experienced the death of an adult child include attentive listening, storytelling, and the use of metaphors. ..
  41. Corona R, Cowgill B, Bogart L, Parra M, Ryan G, Elliott M, et al. Brief report: a qualitative analysis of discussions about HIV in families of parents with HIV. J Pediatr Psychol. 2009;34:677-80 pubmed publisher
    ..Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 33 parents with HIV, 27 children (9- to 17-years old), and 19 adult children (>or=18-years old) across the U.S. Coders reviewed transcripts, identified themes, and coded transcripts...
  42. Jones P, Lee J, Zhang X. Clarifying and measuring filial concepts across five cultural groups. Res Nurs Health. 2011;34:310-26 pubmed publisher
    Literature on responsibility of adult children for aging parents reflects lack of conceptual clarity. We examined filial concepts across five cultural groups: African-, Asian-, Euro-, Latino-, and Native Americans...
  43. Xiao D, Huang X, Xu Z, Yang S, Zhang L. Prenatal cocaine exposure differentially causes vascular dysfunction in adult offspring. Hypertension. 2009;53:937-43 pubmed publisher
  44. Kelley M, Pearson M, Trinh S, Klostermann K, Krakowski K. Maternal and paternal alcoholism and depressive mood in college students: parental relationships as mediators of ACOA-depressive mood link. Addict Behav. 2011;36:700-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both maternal alcohol abuse and paternal alcohol abuse predicted depressive symptoms. ..
  45. Moreno J, Kurita M, Holloway T, Lopez J, Cadagan R, Martinez Sobrido L, et al. Maternal influenza viral infection causes schizophrenia-like alterations of 5-HT?A and mGlu? receptors in the adult offspring. J Neurosci. 2011;31:1863-72 pubmed publisher
    ..Identifying a biochemical alteration that parallels the behavioral changes observed in a mouse model of prenatal viral infection may facilitate targeting therapies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. ..
  46. Natali A, Muscelli E, Mari A, Balkau B, Walker M, Tura A, et al. Insulin sensitivity and beta-cell function in the offspring of type 2 diabetic patients: impact of line of inheritance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010;95:4703-11 pubmed publisher
    ..Cell rate sensitivity is reduced and ?-cell dynamic responses to insulin resistance are lost independently of the line of inheritance. ..
  47. Funk L. The interpretive dynamics of filial and collective responsibility for elderly people. Can Rev Sociol. 2010;47:71-92 pubmed
    Drawing on accounts from 28 adult children, I explore the interpretive dynamics of filial and social responsibility for elderly people...
  48. Hamilton H. The persistence of maternal distress and symptoms of distress in adult offspring. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2009;44:732-9 pubmed publisher
  49. Li L, Zhang J, Liang J. Health among the oldest-old in China: which living arrangements make a difference?. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68:220-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Future research should examine the mechanisms linking living arrangements and health, and the experience of institutional living for men and women in China. ..
  50. O Connell K. What can we learn? Adult outcomes in children of seriously mentally ill mothers. J Child Adolesc Psychiatr Nurs. 2008;21:89-104 pubmed publisher
    ..and qualitative methods of inquiry were used to retrospectively explore the characteristics and needs of adult children of seriously mentally ill mothers. The sample (N = 40) was recruited by referral and media advertisements...
  51. Rutanen J, Pihlajamaki J, Vänttinen M, Salmenniemi U, Ruotsalainen E, Kuulasmaa T, et al. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of the melanocortin-3 receptor gene are associated with substrate oxidation and first-phase insulin secretion in offspring of type 2 diabetic subjects. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007;92:1112-7 pubmed
    ..2454 +/- 1538 pmol/liter.min; P = 0.025) compared to subjects with the common genotypes. Our results suggest that SNPs of MC3R may regulate substrate oxidation and first-phase insulin secretion. ..
  52. Furstenberg F. On a new schedule: transitions to adulthood and family change. Future Child. 2010;20:67-87 pubmed
    ..S. parents provide roughly the same proportion of their earnings to support their young adult children. Unlike many nations in Europe, the United States, with its relatively underdeveloped welfare system, does not ..
  53. Stone A, Jones C. Sources of uncertainty: experiences of Alzheimer's disease. Issues Ment Health Nurs. 2009;30:677-86 pubmed
    ..In an investigation of sources of uncertainty, 33 adult children with a parent diagnosed with probable Alzheimer's disease were interviewed...