s nitroso n acetylpenicillamine


Summary: A sulfur-containing alkyl thionitrite that is one of the NITRIC OXIDE DONORS.

Top Publications

  1. Kawauchi S, Sugamoto S, Furukawa O, Mimaki H, Takeuchi K. Stimulation by nitric oxide of gastric acid secretion in bullfrog fundic mucosa in vitro. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2001;52:93-105 pubmed
    ..In addition, it was speculated that the histamine releasing action of NO may be due to peroxynitrite produced by NO and superoxide radicals. ..
  2. Shin C, Choi J, Ryu J, Ryu J, Kim W, Kim H, et al. Immunostimulation of rat primary astrocytes decreases intracellular ATP level. Brain Res. 2001;902:198-204 pubmed
  3. Abi Gerges N, Szabo G, Otero A, Fischmeister R, Méry P. NO donors potentiate the beta-adrenergic stimulation of I(Ca,L) and the muscarinic activation of I(K,ACh) in rat cardiac myocytes. J Physiol. 2002;540:411-24 pubmed
    ..Although this action of NO seemed to occur at the level of G proteins, it appeared to require a component distinct from receptors, G proteins or their effectors...
  4. Reiser M, Schild L, Keilhoff G, Wolf G. Interaction of nitric oxide donors and ascorbic acid on D-[3H] aspartate efflux from rat striatal slices. Neurochem Res. 1999;24:61-7 pubmed
    ..Ascorbate was shown to exert its effect primarily by influencing the decomposition of these nitric oxide donors rather than by a direct interaction of ascorbate with nitric monoxide on glutamate release. ..
  5. McGrowder D, Ragoobirsingh D, Brown P. Acute effects of exogenous nitric oxide on glucose uptake in skeletal muscle of normoglycaemic and diabetic rats. Med Sci Monit. 2006;12:BR28-35 pubmed
    ..This highlights the NO-glucose uptake mechanism as a possible potential therapeutic target in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. ..
  6. Canova N, Lincová D, Kmoníčková E, Kameníková L, Farghali H. Nitric oxide production from rat adipocytes is modulated by beta3-adrenergic receptor agonists and is involved in a cyclic AMP-dependent lipolysis in adipocytes. Nitric Oxide. 2006;14:200-11 pubmed
  7. Saksena S, Gill R, Syed I, Tyagi S, Alrefai W, Ramaswamy K, et al. Modulation of Cl-/OH- exchange activity in Caco-2 cells by nitric oxide. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G626-33 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that NO-induced inhibition of Cl-/OH- exchange may play an important role in the pathophysiology of diarrhea associated with inflammatory bowel diseases. ..
  8. Nevin B, Broadley K. Comparative effects of inhaled budesonide and the NO-donating budesonide derivative, NCX 1020, against leukocyte influx and airway hyperreactivity following lipopolysaccharide challenge. Pulm Pharmacol Ther. 2004;17:219-32 pubmed
  9. Adler A, Huang H, Wang Z, Conetta J, Levee E, Zhang X, et al. Endocardial endothelium in the avascular frog heart: role for diffusion of NO in control of cardiac O2 consumption. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H14-21 pubmed
    ..Because of the close proximity of the EE to underlying myocytes, NO can diffuse over a distance and act as a messenger between the EE and the rest of the heart to control mitochondrial function and O(2) consumption. ..

More Information


  1. Akerstrom S, Mousavi Jazi M, Klingstrom J, Leijon M, Lundkvist A, Mirazimi A. Nitric oxide inhibits the replication cycle of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus. J Virol. 2005;79:1966-9 pubmed
    ..We also show here that NO inhibits viral protein and RNA synthesis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that NO generated by inducible nitric oxide synthase, an enzyme that produces NO, inhibits the SARS CoV replication cycle. ..
  2. Berg A, Redeen S, Ericson A, Sjöstrand S. Nitric oxide-an endogenous inhibitor of gastric acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands. BMC Gastroenterol. 2004;4:16 pubmed
    ..Our results show that NO inhibits gastric acid secretion in isolated human gastric glands, and that there is endogenous formation of NO within the glandular epithelium in the vicinity of the parietal cells. ..
  3. Sainsbury C, Sattar N, Connell J, Hillier C, Petrie J. Non-esterified fatty acids impair endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rat mesenteric resistance vessels. Clin Sci (Lond). 2004;107:625-9 pubmed
    ..There was no impairment of vasodilation to SNAP following NEFA incubation. We conclude that NEFAs directly impair endothelial function in rat resistance arteries via an increase in oxidative stress at the vascular endothelium. ..
  4. Tsuda K, Nishio I. A selective estrogen receptor modulator, tamoxifen, and membrane fluidity of erythrocytes in normotensive and hypertensive postmenopausal women: an electron paramagnetic resonance investigation. Am J Hypertens. 2005;18:1067-76 pubmed
  5. Kawahara K, Takase M, Yamauchi Y. Increased vulnerability to ischemia/reperfusion-induced ventricular tachyarrhythmias by pre-ischemic inhibition of nitric oxide synthase in isolated rat hearts. Cardiovasc Pathol. 2003;12:49-56 pubmed
  6. McGrowder D, Ragoobirsingh D, Brown P. Modulation of glucose uptake in adipose tissue by nitric oxide-generating compounds. J Biosci. 2006;31:347-54 pubmed
    ..The additive effect of GSNO or SNAP, and insulin observed in this study could be due to different mechanisms and warrants further investigation. ..
  7. Resta T, Walker B, Eichinger M, Doyle M. Rate of NO scavenging alters effects of recombinant hemoglobin solutions on pulmonary vasoreactivity. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2002;93:1327-36 pubmed
    ..1, consistent with rHb2.0 having a diminished capacity to scavenge NO. In addition, neither hemoglobin solution measurably altered microvascular permeability in this preparation. ..
  8. Chen Y, Panda K, Stuehr D. Control of nitric oxide synthase dimer assembly by a heme-NO-dependent mechanism. Biochemistry. 2002;41:4618-25 pubmed
    ..Although dimeric structure alone does not protect, it does enable Arg and H4B to bind and protect. Inhibition appears mediated by NO coordinating to the ferric heme iron of the monomer. ..
  9. Sosroseno W, Bird P, Seymour G. Effect of exogenous nitric oxide on murine immune response induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide. J Periodontal Res. 2009;44:529-36 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study suggests that exogenous NO may suppress a protective T helper 1-like murine immune response to A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS by an endogenous NO-independent but a cyclic GMP-dependent mechanism. ..
  10. Tan S, de Vries T, Kuijpers Jagtman A, Semeins C, Everts V, Klein Nulend J. Osteocytes subjected to fluid flow inhibit osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Bone. 2007;41:745-51 pubmed
    ..Thus, the osteocyte appears to be more responsive to PFF than the osteoblast or periosteal fibroblast regarding to the production of soluble factors affecting osteoclast formation and bone resorption. ..
  11. Yang Q, Chen S, Li D, Pan H. Kv1.1/1.2 channels are downstream effectors of nitric oxide on synaptic GABA release to preautonomic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus. Neuroscience. 2007;149:315-27 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that NO increases GABAergic input to PVN presympathetic neurons through a downstream mechanism involving the Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 channels at the nerve terminals. ..
  12. Katzoff A, Miller N, Susswein A. Nitric oxide and histamine signal attempts to swallow: A component of learning that food is inedible in Aplysia. Learn Mem. 2010;17:50-62 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support and extend the hypothesis that NO and histamine signal efforts to swallow during learning, acting on targets other than the MCC that specifically respond to attempts to swallow. ..
  13. Curcio M, Batista W, Linares E, Nascimento F, Moraes M, Borges R, et al. Regulatory effects of nitric oxide on Src kinase, FAK, p130Cas, and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase alpha (PTP-alpha): a role for the cellular redox environment. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2010;13:109-25 pubmed publisher
    ..SNAP differentially stimulated cell proliferation of both cell lines is dependent on the intracellular redox environment, Src activity, and PTP-alpha expression. This dependence also is observed with FBS-stimulated cell migration. ..
  14. Hodis J, Kutinová Canová N, Potmesil P, Kamenikova L, Kmoníčková E, Zidek Z, et al. The role of adrenergic agonists on glycogenolysis in rat hepatocyte cultures and possible involvement of NO. Physiol Res. 2007;56:419-25 pubmed
    ..iNOS gene expression was up-regulated by epinephrine. It can be concluded that glycogenolysis occurs through -adrenoceptor stimulation and a signaling cascade may involve NO production. ..
  15. Park I, Woo S, Park M, Lee H, Lee S, Hong Y, et al. Ionizing radiation and nitric oxide donor sensitize Fas-induced apoptosis via up-regulation of Fas in human cervical cancer cells. Oncol Rep. 2003;10:629-33 pubmed
  16. Rhenals M, Strasberg Rieber M, Rieber M. Nitric oxide donors or nitrite counteract copper-[dithiocarbamate](2)-mediated tumor cell death and inducible nitric oxide synthase down-regulation: possible role of a nitrosyl-copper [dithiocarbamate](2) complex. J Med Chem. 2010;53:1627-35 pubmed publisher
  17. Kim J, Heo H, Lee H. Effect of nitric oxide on the proliferation of cultured porcine trabecular meshwork cells. Korean J Ophthalmol. 2003;17:1-6 pubmed
    ..Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric analysis revealed that NO induced apoptotic cell death. The current results suggest that NO inhibit the proliferation of TM cells and apoptosis may be involved in some degree. ..
  18. De Witt B, Marrone J, Kaye A, Keefer L, Kadowitz P. Comparison of responses to novel nitric oxide donors in the feline pulmonary vascular bed. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001;430:311-5 pubmed
  19. Huang J, Chuang L, Guh J, Huang Y. Effects of nitric oxide and antioxidants on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophic growth in human renal tubular cells. Toxicol Sci. 2009;111:109-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, antioxidants significantly attenuated AGE/RAGE-enhanced cellular hypertrophy partly through induction of the NO/cGMP/PKG signaling. ..
  20. Stefano G, Murga J, Benson H, Zhu W, Bilfinger T, Magazine H. Nitric oxide inhibits norepinephrine stimulated contraction of human internal thoracic artery and rat aorta. Pharmacol Res. 2001;43:199-203 pubmed
  21. Phillipson M, Johansson M, Henriksnäs J, Petersson J, Gendler S, Sandler S, et al. The gastric mucus layers: constituents and regulation of accumulation. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008;295:G806-12 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, a regulatory role of Muc1 was demonstrated since downregulation of gastric mucus accumulation was observed in Muc1-/- mice. ..
  22. Liu X, Buffington J, Tjalkens R. NF-kappaB-dependent production of nitric oxide by astrocytes mediates apoptosis in differentiated PC12 neurons following exposure to manganese and cytokines. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2005;141:39-47 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that Mn- and cytokine-dependent apoptosis in PC12 neurons requires astroglial-derived NO and NF-kappaB-dependent expression of NOS2. ..
  23. Tan T, Zhang Q, Anyadike C, Scholz P, Weiss H. Chronic nitrates blunt the effects of not only nitric oxide but also natriuretic peptides in cardiac myocytes. Pharmacol Res. 2007;56:49-55 pubmed
  24. Gambaryan S, Geiger J, Schwarz U, Butt E, Begonja A, Obergfell A, et al. Potent inhibition of human platelets by cGMP analogs independent of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Blood. 2004;103:2593-600 pubmed
    ..One explanation for these discrepancies is the novel finding that extracellular cGMP analogs potently and rapidly inhibit thrombin-, thromboxane-, and VWF-induced human platelet signaling and activation by a cGK-independent mechanism. ..
  25. Demchenko I, Gutsaeva D, Moskvin A, Zhilyaev S. Involvement of extracellular superoxide dismutase in regulating brain blood flow. Neurosci Behav Physiol. 2010;40:173-8 pubmed publisher
    ..SOD3 was found to neutralize superoxide anions produced in the brain during respiration of 100% O2 and to maintain basal NO levels and its vasodilatory potential in normobaric hyperoxia. ..
  26. Forsythe P, Befus A. Inhibition of calpain is a component of nitric oxide-induced down-regulation of human mast cell adhesion. J Immunol. 2003;170:287-93 pubmed
    ..The inhibition of calpain is most likely mediated via nitrosylation of its active site thiol group. Calpain may represent a novel therapeutic target for the regulation of mast cell activity in inflammatory disorders. ..
  27. Fatokun A, Stone T, Smith R. Prolonged exposures of cerebellar granule neurons to S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) induce neuronal damage independently of peroxynitrite. Brain Res. 2008;1230:265-72 pubmed publisher
  28. Guimaraes C, Assreuy J, Linden R. Paracrine neuroprotective effect of nitric oxide in the developing retina. J Neurochem. 2001;76:1233-41 pubmed
    ..The protective effect of both the NO substrate and cofactor upon cell death induced by anisomycin in the NBL, indicates that NO produced by amacrine and ganglion cells is a paracrine modulator of cell death within the retinal tissue. ..
  29. Qin Q, Yang X, Cui L, Critz S, Cohen M, Browner N, et al. Exogenous NO triggers preconditioning via a cGMP- and mitoKATP-dependent mechanism. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004;287:H712-8 pubmed
  30. Frost M, Meyerhoff M. Controlled photoinitiated release of nitric oxide from polymer films containing S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine derivatized fumed silica filler. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:1348-9 pubmed
    ..The ability to precisely control NO generation from this material has the potential to answer fundamental questions about the levels of NO needed to achieve desired therapeutic affects in different biomedical applications. ..
  31. He L, Chen J, Liu X, Dinger B, Fidone S. Enhanced nitric oxide-mediated chemoreceptor inhibition and altered cyclic GMP signaling in rat carotid body following chronic hypoxia. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2007;293:L1463-8 pubmed
    ..The data are consistent with the hypothesis that CH hampers cGMP-mediated inhibition of type I cells in favor of an alternative mechanism. ..
  32. Brookes Z, Kaufman S. Myogenic responses and compliance of mesenteric and splenic vasculature in the rat. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2003;284:R1604-10 pubmed
    ..By contrast, splenic arterial diameter would increase, while there would be little change in venous diameter. This would enhance the increase in intrasplenic microvascular pressure and increase fluid extravasation. ..
  33. Sato M, Ohtsuka T. Opposite effects of nitric oxide on rod and cone photoreceptors of rat retina in situ. Neurosci Lett. 2010;473:62-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that NO directly modulates the light-evoked activity of rod and cone photoreceptors in situ, but in opposite ways. ..
  34. Gill R, Saksena S, Syed I, Tyagi S, Alrefai W, Malakooti J, et al. Regulation of NHE3 by nitric oxide in Caco-2 cells. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2002;283:G747-56 pubmed
    ..These data provide novel evidence that NO inhibits NHE3 activity via activation of soluble guanylate cyclase, resulting in an increase in intracellular cGMP levels and activation of protein kinase G. ..
  35. Cadet P. Nitric oxide modulates the physiological control of ciliary activity in the marine mussel Mytilus edulis via morphine: novel mu opiate receptor splice variants. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004;25:184-90 pubmed
    ..Overall, the data strongly suggests that the two alternatively spliced mu opiate receptors may be involved in the physiological regulation of lateral ciliary activity in the visceral ganglia via dopamine and nitric oxide. ..
  36. Tong X, Ying J, Pimentel D, Trucillo M, Adachi T, Cohen R. High glucose oxidizes SERCA cysteine-674 and prevents inhibition by nitric oxide of smooth muscle cell migration. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2008;44:361-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that failure of NO to inhibit migration in VSMC exposed to HG is due to oxidation of the SERCA reactive cysteine-674. ..
  37. Howard D, Cuffe J, Boyd C, Korbmacher C. L-arginine effects on Na+ transport in M-1 mouse cortical collecting duct cells--a cationic amino acid absorbing epithelium. J Membr Biol. 2001;180:111-21 pubmed
  38. Grzelec Mojzesowicz M, Sadowski J. Renal tissue NO and intrarenal haemodynamics during experimental variations of NO content in anaesthetised rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2007;58:149-63 pubmed
    ..Since inhibition of nNOS decreased medullary NO by 80% and MBF by 20% only, this isoform has probably minor role in the maintenance of medullary perfusion. ..
  39. Kim H, Tsoy I, Park M, Lee Y, Lee J, Seo H, et al. Iron released by sodium nitroprusside contributes to heme oxygenase-1 induction via the cAMP-protein kinase A-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in RAW 264.7 cells. Mol Pharmacol. 2006;69:1633-40 pubmed
    ..Therefore, studies on the effects of SNP should consider the role of iron in some biological functions. We concluded that iron released by SNP contributes to HO-1 induction via the cAMP-PKA-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. ..
  40. Tissier R, Aouam K, Berdeaux A, Ghaleh B. Evidence for a ceiling of cardioprotection with a nitric oxide donor-induced delayed preconditioning in rabbits. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2003;306:528-31 pubmed
    ..It supports that delayed preconditioning might exert its maximal beneficial effect with early reperfusion and this finding supports the necessary use of different durations of ischemia when investigating cardioprotective strategies. ..
  41. Shin I, Kim H, Swanson J, Hong J, Oh K. Anxiolytic effects of acute morphine can be modulated by nitric oxide systems. Pharmacology. 2003;68:183-9 pubmed
    ..L-NAME decreased the morphine-induced locomotor activity, but L-NOARG did not modify the morphine-induced locomotor activity. Therefore, these results suggest that the anxiolytic effects of morphine can be modulated by NO systems. ..
  42. Thompson S, Callow M, Callow J. The effects of nitric oxide in settlement and adhesion of zoospores of the green alga Ulva. Biofouling. 2010;26:167-78 pubmed publisher
    ..The effect of NO on the adhesion of a range of organisms suggests that NO-releasing coatings could have the potential to control fouling. ..
  43. Tonnesen M, Grunnet L, Friberg J, Cardozo A, Billestrup N, Eizirik D, et al. Inhibition of nuclear factor-kappaB or Bax prevents endoplasmic reticulum stress- but not nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis in INS-1E cells. Endocrinology. 2009;150:4094-103 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast to NO, direct ER stress induced by SERCA inhibition causes activation of ER stress signaling pathways and elicit proapoptotic signaling via NFkappaB and Bax. ..
  44. Miller M, Roseberry M, Mazzei F, Butler A, Webb D, Megson I. Novel S-nitrosothiols do not engender vascular tolerance and remain effective in glyceryltrinitrate-tolerant rat femoral arteries. Eur J Pharmacol. 2000;408:335-43 pubmed
    ..Resistance to tolerance is an attractive property of our novel compounds, particularly in view of their sustained activity in arteries with damaged endothelium. ..
  45. Ondrias K, Stasko A, Cacanyiova S, Sulova Z, Krizanova O, Kristek F, et al. H(2)S and HS(-) donor NaHS releases nitric oxide from nitrosothiols, metal nitrosyl complex, brain homogenate and murine L1210 leukaemia cells. Pflugers Arch. 2008;457:271-9 pubmed publisher
  46. Oliver B, Cronin C, Zhang Benoit Y, Goldring M, Tanzer M. Divergent stress responses to IL-1beta, nitric oxide, and tunicamycin by chondrocytes. J Cell Physiol. 2005;204:45-50 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, exposure to high levels of intracellular nitric oxide induce chondrocyte apoptosis as part of the ER stress response. ..
  47. Bui L, Rish K, Jaronczyk K, Bourque S, McLaughlin B, Brien J, et al. The source of heme for vascular heme oxygenase I: heme uptake in rat aorta. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 2004;82:209-17 pubmed
    ..For normal physiological situations, heme uptake may not be a usual source of substrate for vascular HO and hemoenzymes such as nitric oxide synthase, soluble guanylyl cyclase, and cyclooxygenase. ..
  48. Zech B, Köhl R, von Knethen A, Brüne B. Nitric oxide donors inhibit formation of the Apaf-1/caspase-9 apoptosome and activation of caspases. Biochem J. 2003;371:1055-64 pubmed
  49. Chun Y, Lee S, Yang S, Park S, Kim M. Modulation of CYP3A4 expression by ceramide in human colon carcinoma HT-29 cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2002;298:687-92 pubmed
    ..Taken together, our results demonstrate that ceramide-mediated suppression of CYP3A4 is due to production of NO, which might result from activation of PI3-K. ..
  50. Bucher M, Taeger K. Endothelin-receptor gene-expression in rat endotoxemia. Intensive Care Med. 2002;28:642-7 pubmed
    ..This downregulation of ET(A) receptors possibly contributes to the attenuated vascular response to endothelin-1 in the pulmonary circulation. ..
  51. Ali M, Alam M, Kawasaki T, Nakayama S, Nagatsugi F, Sasaki S. Sequence- and base-specific delivery of nitric oxide to cytidine and 5-methylcytidine leading to efficient deamination. J Am Chem Soc. 2004;126:8864-5 pubmed
    ..The selectivity and efficiency of NO transfer followed by deamination exhibited in this study are extremely high compared to those of the conventional methods. ..
  52. Fitch R, da Cunha V, Kauser K, Dole W, Parkinson J, Vergona R, et al. Increased nitric oxide accounts for decreased basal vascular tone and responsiveness in the resistance vessels of high-cholesterol-fed rabbits. Pharmacology. 2001;63:220-7 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that local overproduction of NO due to hypercholesteremia could desensitize smooth muscle reactivity, thus causing general vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasoactive agents. ..
  53. Hong K, Shin H, Kim C, Lee W, Rhim B. Restoration of vasodilation and CBF autoregulation by genistein in rat pial artery after brain injury. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001;281:H308-15 pubmed