trichomonas infections

Summary

Summary: Infections in birds and mammals produced by various species of Trichomonas.

Top Publications

  1. Schwebke J, Hook E. High rates of Trichomonas vaginalis among men attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic: implications for screening and urethritis management. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:465-8 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of these pathogens was 17%, 19.6%, and 17.7% respectively. In men with NGU, 19.9% were infected with trichomonas. These data have implications for treatment of NGU and control of trichomoniasis...
  2. Krone O, Altenkamp R, Kenntner N. Prevalence of Trichomonas gallinae in northern goshawks from the Berlin area of northeastern Germany. J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:304-9 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that the combination of a high prevalence of T. gallinae with a low rate of pathologicic changes is the result of an evolutionary-adapted parasite-host relationship...
  3. Meade J, Carlton J. Genetic diversity in Trichomonas vaginalis. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:444-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moving forward, microsatellite genotyping and multilocus sequence typing are the most robust techniques for future investigations of T vaginalis genotype-phenotype associations. ..
  4. Stark J, Judson G, Alderete J, Mundodi V, Kucknoor A, Giovannucci E, et al. Prospective study of Trichomonas vaginalis infection and prostate cancer incidence and mortality: Physicians' Health Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009;101:1406-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We confirmed these findings in an independent population and related serostatus for antibodies against T vaginalis to prostate cancer incidence and mortality...
  5. Shafir S, Sorvillo F, Smith L. Current issues and considerations regarding trichomoniasis and human immunodeficiency virus in African-Americans. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2009;22:37-45, Table of Contents pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, control of trichomoniasis may represent an important avenue of control for the prevention of HIV transmission, particularly among African-Americans...
  6. Lee J, Moon H, Lee T, Hwang H, Ahn M, Ryu J. PCR for diagnosis of male Trichomonas vaginalis infection with chronic prostatitis and urethritis. Korean J Parasitol. 2012;50:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..vaginalis when there was only 1 T. vaginalis cell per PCR mixture. Our results strongly support the usefulness of PCR on urine samples for detecting T. vaginalis in chronic prostatitis and urethritis patients...
  7. Bowden F, Garnett G. Trichomonas vaginalis epidemiology: parameterising and analysing a model of treatment interventions. Sex Transm Infect. 2000;76:248-56 pubmed
    ..Trichomonas vaginalis, which affects at least 170 million individuals globally, may increase the risk of transmission of HIV and predispose pregnant women to premature rupture of membranes and early labour...
  8. Turner A, Morrison C, Padian N, Kaufman J, Behets F, Salata R, et al. Male circumcision and women's risk of incident chlamydial, gonococcal, and trichomonal infections. Sex Transm Dis. 2008;35:689-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We explored associations between MC of the primary sex partner and women's risk of acquisition of chlamydial (Ct), gonococcal (GC), or trichomonal (Tv) infections...
  9. Nye M, Schwebke J, Body B. Comparison of APTIMA Trichomonas vaginalis transcription-mediated amplification to wet mount microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction for diagnosis of trichomoniasis in men and women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009;200:188.e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Performance of ATV TMA was compared with wet mount microscopy, culture, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...

More Information

Publications78

  1. Soper D. Trichomoniasis: under control or undercontrolled?. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2004;190:281-90 pubmed
    ..As evidence continues to accumulate, the time has come to increase diagnostic efforts beyond traditional sexually transmitted disease clinic settings...
  2. Kissinger P, Secor W, Leichliter J, Clark R, Schmidt N, Curtin E, et al. Early repeated infections with Trichomonas vaginalis among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:994-9 pubmed publisher
  3. Chiche L, Donati S, Corno G, Benoit S, Granier I, Chouraki M, et al. [Trichomonas tenax in pulmonary and pleural diseases]. Presse Med. 2005;34:1371-2 pubmed
    ..Trichomonas is a protozoan rarely incriminated in pulmonary or pleural disorders...
  4. Gaydos C, Barnes M, Quinn N, Jett Goheen M, Hsieh Y. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in men who submit self-collected penile swabs after internet recruitment. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:504-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Submission of self-collected penile samples collected at home could remove barriers that men face in getting tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  5. Owusu Edusei K, Chesson H, Gift T, Tao G, Mahajan R, Ocfemia M, et al. The estimated direct medical cost of selected sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2008. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:197-201 pubmed publisher
    ..Previous estimates of the total direct cost of STIs are quite dated. We present updated direct medical cost estimates of STIs in the United States...
  6. Real J, Manosa S, Munoz E. Trichomoniasis in a Bonelli's eagle population in Spain. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:64-70 pubmed
    ..At present trichomoniasis apparently has little demographic impact on the Bonelli's eagle population in Catalonia, but the eventual spread of this disease in chicks and its unknown effects on adults might be of concern...
  7. Price M, Stewart S, Miller W, Behets F, Dow W, Martinson F, et al. The cost-effectiveness of treating male trichomoniasis to avert HIV transmission in men seeking sexually transmitted disease care in Malawi. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006;43:202-9 pubmed
    ..We examined the cost-effectiveness of providing first-line treatment for male trichomoniasis in Malawi, a condition not commonly considered in syndromic management throughout sub-Saharan Africa...
  8. Quinlivan E, Patel S, Grodensky C, Golin C, Tien H, Hobbs M. Modeling the impact of Trichomonas vaginalis infection on HIV transmission in HIV-infected individuals in medical care. Sex Transm Dis. 2012;39:671-7 pubmed
    ..To assess factors associated with having a Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection among persons receiving care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and estimate the number of transmitted HIV infections attributable to TV...
  9. Conrad M, Gorman A, Schillinger J, Fiori P, Arroyo R, Malla N, et al. Extensive genetic diversity, unique population structure and evidence of genetic exchange in the sexually transmitted parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1573 pubmed publisher
    ..The development of a panel of microsatellite makers and SNPs from mining the parasite's genome sequence has paved the way to a global analysis of the genetic structure of the pathogen and association with clinical phenotypes...
  10. Schwebke J, Burgess D. Trichomoniasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:794-803, table of contents pubmed
    ..As more is appreciated concerning the important public health implications of this common infection, more work will need to be done in understanding the diagnosis, treatment, and immunology of this organism...
  11. Sena A, Miller W, Hobbs M, Schwebke J, Leone P, Swygard H, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis infection in male sexual partners: implications for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:13-22 pubmed
    ..Nucleic acid amplification tests can increase detection of T. vaginalis in men compared with culture...
  12. Pearce D, Styles D, Hardick J, Gaydos C. A new rapid molecular point-of-care assay for Trichomonas vaginalis: preliminary performance data. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:495-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this report, we describe a rapid prototype assay for T vaginalis designed for use in conjunction with the Atlas io PoC platform, and initial verification of its performance using 90 clinical samples...
  13. Swygard H, Seña A, Hobbs M, Cohen M. Trichomoniasis: clinical manifestations, diagnosis and management. Sex Transm Infect. 2004;80:91-5 pubmed
    ..Metronidazole resistance is an emerging problem, but its clinical importance is not yet clear. Concomitant treatment of sexual partners is recommended...
  14. Miller W, Swygard H, Hobbs M, Ford C, Handcock M, Morris M, et al. The prevalence of trichomoniasis in young adults in the United States. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:593-8 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of trichomoniasis in the general population of the United States is unknown. This study provides the first population-based prevalence estimates of trichomoniasis among young adults in the United States...
  15. Sutcliffe S, Alderete J, Till C, Goodman P, Hsing A, Zenilman J, et al. Trichomonosis and subsequent risk of prostate cancer in the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial. Int J Cancer. 2009;124:2082-7 pubmed publisher
  16. Van Der Pol B. Trichomonas vaginalis infection: the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection receives the least public health attention. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:23-5 pubmed
  17. Schwebke J, Rompalo A, Taylor S, Seña A, Martin D, Lopez L, et al. Re-evaluating the treatment of nongonococcal urethritis: emphasizing emerging pathogens--a randomized clinical trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52:163-70 pubmed publisher
    ..A secondary aim was to compare the efficacy of doxycycline therapy and with that of azithromycin therapy...
  18. Schwebke J, Lawing L. Improved detection by DNA amplification of Trichomonas vaginalis in males. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:3681-3 pubmed
    ..The use of PCR techniques in urine specimen-based detection of T. vaginalis was highly sensitive and revealed a prevalence of infection more than three times that revealed by culture for men at high risk for STDs...
  19. Moodley P, Wilkinson D, Connolly C, Moodley J, Sturm A. Trichomonas vaginalis is associated with pelvic inflammatory disease in women infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:519-22 pubmed
    ..vaginalis increased significantly (P=.002); no association was found in patients without HIV-1. T. vaginalis infection of the lower genital tract is associated with a clinical diagnosis of PID in HIV-1-infected women...
  20. Mahmoud M, Rahman G. Pulmonary trichomoniasis: improved diagnosis by using polymerase chain reaction targeting Trichomonas tenax 18S rRNA gene in sputum specimens. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2004;34:197-211 pubmed
    ..The calculated specificity of PCR was 97%. NO PCR target product was amplified with DNAs of T. vaginalis and various pulmonary pathogens. The results are discussed...
  21. Mann J, McDermott S, Gill T. Sexually transmitted infection is associated with increased risk of preterm birth in South Carolina women insured by Medicaid. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2010;23:563-8 pubmed publisher
  22. Satterwhite C, Torrone E, Meites E, Dunne E, Mahajan R, Ocfemia M, et al. Sexually transmitted infections among US women and men: prevalence and incidence estimates, 2008. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of STIs in the United States was previously estimated in 2000. We updated previous estimates to reflect the number of STIs for calendar year 2008...
  23. Felleisen R. Comparative sequence analysis of 5.8S rRNA genes and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of trichomonadid protozoa. Parasitology. 1997;115 ( Pt 2):111-9 pubmed
    ..mobilensis. In contrast, the genus Trichomonas shared more diversity. The results obtained in this study support a possible future revision of the taxonomic classification of tritrichomonads...
  24. Duboucher C, Caby S, Chabé M, Gantois N, Delgado Viscogliosi P, Pierce R, et al. [Human pulmonary trichomonoses]. Presse Med. 2007;36:835-9 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of trichomoniasis and its treatment by specific drugs will make it possible to evaluate the pathogenicity of these parasites...
  25. Harp D, Chowdhury I. Trichomoniasis: evaluation to execution. Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2011;157:3-9 pubmed publisher
    ..vaginalis to adapt and survive in diverse environment. Based on recent developments in the field, we review T. vaginalis structure, patho-mechanisms, parasitic virulence, and advances in diagnosis and therapeutics...
  26. Munson K, Napierala M, Munson E, Schell R, Kramme T, Miller C, et al. Screening of male patients for Trichomonas vaginalis with transcription-mediated amplification in a community with a high prevalence of sexually transmitted infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:101-4 pubmed publisher
    ..vaginalis detection, with age distribution analogous to that reported in females, TMA-based detection of T. vaginalis can be a routine constituent within a comprehensive STI screening panel for males in high-prevalence STI communities...
  27. Johnston V, Mabey D. Global epidemiology and control of Trichomonas vaginalis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:56-64 pubmed publisher
    ..This review aims to update the reader on the global epidemiology and control of T. vaginalis...
  28. Stoner K, Rabe L, Meyn L, Hillier S. Survival of Trichomonas vaginalis in wet preparation and on wet mount. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:485-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, microscopy cannot always be performed immediately after sample collection. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of sample storage at room temperature on trichomonad motility...
  29. Laga M, Manoka A, Kivuvu M, Malele B, Tuliza M, Nzila N, et al. Non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases as risk factors for HIV-1 transmission in women: results from a cohort study. AIDS. 1993;7:95-102 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to determine whether treatable STD enhanced sexual transmission of HIV-1 in a cohort of female prostitutes in Kinshasa, Zaire...
  30. Rojas L, Fraga J, Sariego I. Genetic variability between Trichomonas vaginalis isolates and correlation with clinical presentation. Infect Genet Evol. 2004;4:53-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first description of a possible virulence marker for T. vaginalis. Further studies will be necessary to ascertain the importance and function of this genetic marker in clinical infection...
  31. Wendel K, Erbelding E, Gaydos C, Rompalo A. Use of urine polymerase chain reaction to define the prevalence and clinical presentation of Trichomonas vaginalis in men attending an STD clinic. Sex Transm Infect. 2003;79:151-3 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence and clinical features of Trichomonas vaginalis (TV) infection in men...
  32. Ramón Luing L, Rendón Gandarilla F, Puente Rivera J, Avila González L, Arroyo R. Identification and characterization of the immunogenic cytotoxic TvCP39 proteinase gene of Trichomonas vaginalis. Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2011;43:1500-11 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our data support TvCP39 as one of the surface proteinases that is glycosylated and is involved in trichomonal cytotoxicity. Thus, TvCP39 is the first glycosylated cysteine proteinase detected in T. vaginalis...
  33. Carlton J, Hirt R, Silva J, Delcher A, Schatz M, Zhao Q, et al. Draft genome sequence of the sexually transmitted pathogen Trichomonas vaginalis. Science. 2007;315:207-12 pubmed
    ..The genome sequence predicts previously unknown functions for the hydrogenosome, which support a common evolutionary origin of this unusual organelle with mitochondria...
  34. Hardick J, Yang S, Lin S, Duncan D, Gaydos C. Use of the Roche LightCycler instrument in a real-time PCR for Trichomonas vaginalis in urine samples from females and males. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:5619-22 pubmed
    ..1 and 100%, respectively. Overall results suggest that FRET-based assays can provide rapid, accurate, and high-throughput detection of T. vaginalis and may prove useful in clinical settings and for large-scale screening programs...
  35. Skerk V, Krhen I, Schonwald S, Cajic V, Markovinovic L, Roglic S, et al. The role of unusual pathogens in prostatitis syndrome. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2004;24 Suppl 1:S53-6 pubmed
    ..Other patients had a mixed infection. In patients with chronic bacterial prostatitis (CBP) caused by E. coli, P. mirabilis, K. pneumoniae, E. or S. agalactiae, an inflammatory finding was regularly found in EPS or VB(3)...
  36. Allsworth J, Ratner J, Peipert J. Trichomoniasis and other sexually transmitted infections: results from the 2001-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Sex Transm Dis. 2009;36:738-44 pubmed publisher
  37. Van Der Pol B, Williams J, Orr D, Batteiger B, Fortenberry J. Prevalence, incidence, natural history, and response to treatment of Trichomonas vaginalis infection among adolescent women. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:2039-44 pubmed
    ..However, few data exist concerning the epidemiologic profile of this pathogen in adolescent women, a group at high risk for other STIs...
  38. Petersen E, Weissenbacher E, Hengst P, Spitzbart H, Weise W, Wolff F, et al. Local treatment of vaginal infections of varying etiology with dequalinium chloride or povidone iodine. A randomised, double-blind, active-controlled, multicentric clinical study. Arzneimittelforschung. 2002;52:706-15 pubmed
    ..A good tolerability of both preparations was observed in this study with a low number of adverse events in the test group (5.8%). ..
  39. Piper J, Korte J, Holden A, Shain R, Perdue S, Champion J, et al. Development of composite symptom variables for quantitative analysis of genitourinary symptomatology in women. Int J STD AIDS. 2005;16:128-32 pubmed
    ..Logistic regression confirmed the association of each pathological symptom construct individually with gonorrhoea, chlamydia and trichomonas. Composite symptom constructs improve the specificity for detecting STD infections in women. ..
  40. Trintis J, Epie N, Boss R, Riedel S. Neonatal Trichomonas vaginalis infection: a case report and review of literature. Int J STD AIDS. 2010;21:606-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was treated with metronidazole and had complete resolution of the infection. This report discusses the significance of diagnosis and treatment of T. vaginalis in the neonate. ..
  41. Singh S, Sablok G, Farmer R, Singh A, Gautam B, Kumar S. Molecular dynamic simulation and inhibitor prediction of cysteine synthase structured model as a potential drug target for trichomoniasis. Biomed Res Int. 2013;2013:390920 pubmed publisher
    ..0 Kcal/Mol) and a log P value of 6 as a potential inhibitory molecule used to inhibit the growth of T. vaginalis infection. ..
  42. Abu Shaqra Q. Bacterial vaginosis among a group of married Jordanian women: occurrence and laboratory diagnosis. Cytobios. 2001;105:35-43 pubmed
    ..Bacterial vaginosis among the women investigated was more prevalent than vaginitis caused by Trichomonas vaginalis or yeasts...
  43. Pajaro M, Barberis I, Godino S, Pascual L, Aguero M. Epidemiology of sexually transmitted diseases in Río Cuarto, Argentina. Rev Latinoam Microbiol. 2001;43:157-60 pubmed
    ..This study showed that in our environment the actual tendency of STD is still high. ..
  44. Walker R, Hayes D, Sawyer S, Nordhausen R, van Hoosear K, BonDurant R. Comparison of the 5.8S rRNA gene and internal transcribed spacer regions of trichomonadid protozoa recovered from the bovine preputial cavity. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:14-20 pubmed
    ..foetus isolates recovered from the bovine preputial cavity. ..
  45. Parker S, Lun Z, Gajadhar A. Application of a PCR assay to enhance the detection and identification of Tritrichomonas foetus in cultured preputial samples. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2001;13:508-13 pubmed
    ..In addition, the assay could be used to confirm the identification of T. foetus organisms observed by direct microscopic examination when other confirmation techniques, such as staining and phase microscopy, are not practical. ..
  46. Mason P, Gregson S, Gwanzura L, Cappuccinelli P, Rapelli P, Fiori P. Enzyme immunoassay for urogenital trichomoniasis as a marker of unsafe sexual behaviour. Epidemiol Infect. 2001;126:103-9 pubmed
    ..The EIA may be useful for community surveys of trichomoniasis. Because T. vaginalis is a common sexually transmitted disease, the test may indicate behaviour that increases the risk of STD transmission. ..
  47. Fiori P, Rappelli P, Addis M, Mannu F, Cappuccinelli P. Contact-dependent disruption of the host cell membrane skeleton induced by Trichomonas vaginalis. Infect Immun. 1997;65:5142-8 pubmed
    ..This molecule is suggested as the main effector responsible for cytoskeletal disruption. ..
  48. Tabrizi S, Paterson B, Fairley C, Bowden F, Garland S. Comparison of tampon and urine as self-administered methods of specimen collection in the detection of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in women. Int J STD AIDS. 1998;9:347-9 pubmed
    ..Tampon-collected specimens tested by PCR were more sensitive than urine specimens for the detection of N. gonorrhoeae and T. vaginalis (P < 0.001) and equally sensitive for the detection of C. trachomatis (P=0.45). ..
  49. Dehnhard M, Schreer A, Krone O, Jewgenow K, Krause M, Grossmann R. Measurement of plasma corticosterone and fecal glucocorticoid metabolites in the chicken (Gallus domesticus), the great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), and the goshawk (Accipiter gentilis). Gen Comp Endocrinol. 2003;131:345-52 pubmed
    ..Therefore, non-invasive measurements of fecal metabolites are a promising perspective to monitor stress in birds. ..
  50. Carter J, Whithaus K. Neonatal respiratory tract involvement by Trichomonas vaginalis: a case report and review of the literature. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:17-9 pubmed
    ..Molecular studies identified the organism as T. vaginalis. The significance of this organism as a neonatal respiratory pathogen and its contribution to neonatal respiratory distress are discussed. ..
  51. Singa B, Glick S, Bock N, Walson J, Chaba L, Odek J, et al. Sexually transmitted infections among HIV-infected adults in HIV care programs in Kenya: a national sample of HIV clinics. Sex Transm Dis. 2013;40:148-53 pubmed publisher
    ..18-4.82). Women attending Kenyan HIV care programs had a 10.9% prevalence of trichomoniasis, suggesting that screening for this infection may be useful. Condom provision at clinics may enhance secondary HIV prevention efforts. ..
  52. Lusk M, Konecny P. Cervicitis: a review. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:49-55 pubmed publisher
    ..A standardized approach to cervicitis research, particularly with consensus of case definition, may facilitate outcomes that can be more generally applied in clinical practice. ..
  53. Schwebke J, Desmond R. A randomized controlled trial of partner notification methods for prevention of trichomoniasis in women. Sex Transm Dis. 2010;37:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Rates of repeat infection in women in this intervention were lower than those in the DIS arm and DIS/PR arm combined although when compared directly to PR there was no significant difference. ..
  54. Annang L, Walsemann K, Maitra D, Kerr J. Does education matter? Examining racial differences in the association between education and STI diagnosis among black and white young adult females in the U.S. Public Health Rep. 2010;125 Suppl 4:110-21 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to (1) describe the association between education and STI diagnosis among a national sample of black and white young adult females and (2) examine racial differences in this association...
  55. Gallo M, Steiner M, Warner L, Hylton Kong T, Figueroa J, Hobbs M, et al. Self-reported condom use is associated with reduced risk of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis. Sex Transm Dis. 2007;34:829-33 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the association between self-reported condom use and prevalent and incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis...
  56. Hobbs M, Sena A. Modern diagnosis of Trichomonas vaginalis infection. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:434-8 pubmed publisher
  57. Hersh S. Pulmonary trichomoniasis and Trichomonas tenax. J Med Microbiol. 1985;20:1-10 pubmed
    ..Aspirated pulmonary trichomoniasis is an opportunistic infection. Until the question of possible pathogenicity is resolved, metronidazole should be given. The underlying pulmonary disease should be vigorously treated...
  58. Mehta S, Moses S, Agot K, Parker C, Ndinya Achola J, Maclean I, et al. Adult male circumcision does not reduce the risk of incident Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, or Trichomonas vaginalis infection: results from a randomized, controlled trial in Kenya. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:370-8 pubmed publisher
    ..We examined the effect of male circumcision on the acquisition of 3 nonulcerative sexually transmitted infections (STIs)...
  59. Simpson V, Molenaar F. Increase in trichomonosis in finches. Vet Rec. 2006;159:606 pubmed
  60. Hirt R, de Miguel N, Nakjang S, Dessi D, Liu Y, Diaz N, et al. Trichomonas vaginalis pathobiology new insights from the genome sequence. Adv Parasitol. 2011;77:87-140 pubmed publisher
  61. Stein M, Caviness C, Anderson B. Incidence of sexually transmitted infections among hazardously drinking women after incarceration. Womens Health Issues. 2012;22:e1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This study assessed the rates and predictors of incident chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomoniasis in a sample of hazardously drinking women after incarceration...
  62. Parker S, Campbell J, Gajadhar A. Comparison of the diagnostic sensitivity of a commercially available culture kit and a diagnostic culture test using Diamond's media for diagnosing Tritrichomonas foetus in bulls. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:460-5 pubmed
    ..Samples tested using the commercial kit were 6.95 times as likely to be positive as samples tested with a diagnostic test using MDM (P < 0.001)...
  63. Kim A, Sun L, Chhorvann C, Lindan C, van Griensven F, Kilmarx P, et al. High prevalence of HIV and sexually transmitted infections among indirect sex workers in Cambodia. Sex Transm Dis. 2005;32:745-51 pubmed
    ..The goal of this study was to assess the baseline prevalence of and risk factors for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among beer girls enrolled in a behavioral intervention in Battambang, Cambodia...
  64. Ghabanchi J, Zibaei M, Afkar M, Sarbazie A. Prevalence of oral Entamoeba gingivalis and Trichomonas tenax in patients with periodontal disease and healthy population in Shiraz, southern Iran. Indian J Dent Res. 2010;21:89-91 pubmed publisher
    ..tenax) may be responsible for oral parasitic infection. This study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of these parasites in oral cavity of patients with periodontal disease and in healthy population in Shiraz, Southern Iran...
  65. Saperstein A, Firnhaber G. Clinical inquiries. Should you test or treat partners of patients with gonorrhea, chlamydia, or trichomoniasis?. J Fam Pract. 2010;59:46-8 pubmed
  66. Hoffman D, Brown G, Wirth F, Gebert B, Bailey C, Anday E. Urinary tract infection with Trichomonas vaginalis in a premature newborn infant and the development of chronic lung disease. J Perinatol. 2003;23:59-61 pubmed
    ..We speculate that maternal infection with this organism may have resulted in an inflammatory response that led to its development...
  67. Lewis D, Marsh K, Radebe F, Maseko V, Hughes G. Trends and associations of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in men and women with genital discharge syndromes in Johannesburg, South Africa. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89:523-7 pubmed publisher
  68. Demirezen S, Korkmaz E, Beksac M. Association between trichomoniasis and bacterial vaginosis: examination of 600 cervicovaginal smears. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2005;13:96-8 pubmed
    ..This flora becomes a more suitable milieu for growing of anaerobic microorganisms. It can be postulated that TV might be the most important protozoan that contributes to the overgrowth of BV-related microorganisms...
  69. Horii T, Ohtsuka H, Osaki M, Ohkuni H. Use of a dual priming oligonucleotide system to detect multiple sexually transmitted pathogens in clinical specimens. Lett Appl Microbiol. 2009;49:46-52 pubmed publisher