african trypanosomiasis

Summary

Summary: A disease endemic among people and animals in Central Africa. It is caused by various species of trypanosomes, particularly T. gambiense and T. rhodesiense. Its second host is the TSETSE FLY. Involvement of the central nervous system produces "African sleeping sickness." Nagana is a rapidly fatal trypanosomiasis of horses and other animals.

Top Publications

  1. Brun R, Blum J, Chappuis F, Burri C. Human African trypanosomiasis. Lancet. 2010;375:148-59 pubmed publisher
    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) occurs in sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, transmitted by tsetse flies...
  2. Vincendeau P, Bouteille B. Immunology and immunopathology of African trypanosomiasis. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2006;78:645-65 pubmed
    Major modifications of immune system have been observed in African trypanosomiasis. These immune reactions do not lead to protection and are also involved in immunopathology disorders...
  3. Vassella E, Oberle M, Urwyler S, Renggli C, Studer E, Hemphill A, et al. Major surface glycoproteins of insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei are not essential for cyclical transmission by tsetse. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e4493 pubmed publisher
  4. Simarro P, Jannin J, Cattand P. Eliminating human African trypanosomiasis: where do we stand and what comes next?. PLoS Med. 2008;5:e55 pubmed publisher
  5. Jones D, Hallyburton I, Stojanovski L, Read K, Frearson J, Fairlamb A. Identification of a ?-opioid agonist as a potent and selective lead for drug development against human African trypanosomiasis. Biochem Pharmacol. 2010;80:1478-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the other potent, but less selective screening hits were compound classes with activity against protein kinases, topoisomerases, tubulin, as well as DNA and energy metabolism. ..
  6. Kerr I, Lee J, Farady C, Marion R, Rickert M, Sajid M, et al. Vinyl sulfones as antiparasitic agents and a structural basis for drug design. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:25697-703 pubmed publisher
  7. Barrett M, Gilbert I. Targeting of toxic compounds to the trypanosome's interior. Adv Parasitol. 2006;63:125-83 pubmed
    ..arsenical and the diamidine classes of drug that are already in use in the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. These drugs can enter via an aminopurine transporter, termed P2, encoded by the TbAT1 gene...
  8. Priotto G, Kasparian S, Ngouama D, Ghorashian S, Arnold U, Ghabri S, et al. Nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy for second-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness: a randomized clinical trial in Congo. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;45:1435-42 pubmed
    Human African trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is a fatal disease. Current treatment options for patients with second-stage disease are either highly toxic or impracticable in field conditions...
  9. Courtioux B, Boda C, Vatunga G, Pervieux L, Josenando T, M Eyi P, et al. A link between chemokine levels and disease severity in human African trypanosomiasis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1057-65 pubmed
    ..These cytokines and chemokines may be triggered by the parasite and hence are potential markers of CNS invasion...

More Information

Publications94

  1. Courtin D, Jamonneau V, Mathieu J, Koffi M, Milet J, Yeminanga C, et al. Comparison of cytokine plasma levels in human African trypanosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:647-53 pubmed
    Immunological studies suggest that human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is associated with inflammatory responses...
  2. Croft A, Kitson M, Jackson C, Minton E, Friend H. African trypanosomiasis in a British soldier. Mil Med. 2007;172:765-9 pubmed
    Sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis) is a parasitic infection transmitted by day-biting tsetse flies. The diagnostic standard is microscopy of blood, lymph node aspirates, or cerebrospinal fluid...
  3. Gibson W. Resolution of the species problem in African trypanosomes. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:829-38 pubmed
    ..Thus, the species problem can be resolved by bringing together considerations of utility, genetic difference and adaptation. ..
  4. Lutumba P, Meheus F, Robays J, Miaka C, Kande V, Büscher P, et al. Cost-effectiveness of algorithms for confirmation test of human African trypanosomiasis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:1484-90 pubmed publisher
    The control of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) is compromised by low sensitivity of the routinely used parasitologic confirmation tests...
  5. Guilliams M, Movahedi K, Bosschaerts T, VandenDriessche T, Chuah M, Herin M, et al. IL-10 dampens TNF/inducible nitric oxide synthase-producing dendritic cell-mediated pathogenicity during parasitic infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:1107-18 pubmed
  6. Jackson A, Sanders M, Berry A, McQuillan J, Aslett M, Quail M, et al. The genome sequence of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, causative agent of chronic human african trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e658 pubmed publisher
    Trypanosoma brucei gambiense is the causative agent of chronic Human African Trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness, a disease endemic across often poor and rural areas of Western and Central Africa...
  7. Tulloch L, Martini V, Iulek J, Huggan J, Lee J, Gibson C, et al. Structure-based design of pteridine reductase inhibitors targeting African sleeping sickness and the leishmaniases. J Med Chem. 2010;53:221-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We tested two new compounds with known DHFR inhibitors. A synergistic effect was observed for one particular combination highlighting the potential of such an approach for treatment of African sleeping sickness. ..
  8. van den Bossche P, Esterhuizen J, Nkuna R, Matjila T, Penzhorn B, Geerts S, et al. An update of the bovine trypanosomosis situation at the edge of Hluhiuwe-Imfolozi Park, Kwazulu-Natal Province, South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2006;73:77-9 pubmed
    ..Results from the survey show that trypanosome infections contribute significantly to the overall burden of disease in the area. Further research is required to develop appropriate control methods. ..
  9. Noyes H, Alimohammadian M, Agaba M, Brass A, Fuchs H, Gailus Durner V, et al. Mechanisms controlling anaemia in Trypanosoma congolense infected mice. PLoS ONE. 2009;4:e5170 pubmed publisher
  10. Wyllie S, Oza S, Patterson S, Spinks D, Thompson S, Fairlamb A. Dissecting the essentiality of the bifunctional trypanothione synthetase-amidase in Trypanosoma brucei using chemical and genetic methods. Mol Microbiol. 2009;74:529-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The synthetase function of TRYS is thus unequivocally validated as a drug target by both chemical and genetic methods...
  11. Gehrig S, Efferth T. Development of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis with natural products (Review). Int J Mol Med. 2008;22:411-9 pubmed
    Human African trypanosomiasis is an infectious disease which has resulted in the deaths of thousands of people in Sub-Saharan Africa...
  12. Howie S, Guy M, Fleming L, Bailey W, Noyes H, Faye J, et al. A Gambian infant with fever and an unexpected blood film. PLoS Med. 2006;3:e355 pubmed
  13. Silva M, Prazeres D, Lança A, Atouguia J, Monteiro G. Trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma brucei as a potential target for DNA vaccine development against African trypanosomiasis. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:1223-9 pubmed publisher
    b>African trypanosomiasis (AT), also known as sleeping sickness in humans and Nagana in animals, is a disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei...
  14. Barrett M, Boykin D, Brun R, Tidwell R. Human African trypanosomiasis: pharmacological re-engagement with a neglected disease. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;152:1155-71 pubmed
    This review discusses the challenges of chemotherapy for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). The few drugs registered for use against the disease are unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. HAT has two stages...
  15. Wei G, Tabel H. Regulatory T cells prevent control of experimental African trypanosomiasis. J Immunol. 2008;180:2514-21 pubmed
    ..Our results also indicate that different populations of NKT cells have protective or suppressive effects. Our observations lead us to propose a hypothesis of cross-regulation of NKT cells and Tregs in trypanosome infections. ..
  16. Sokolova A, Wyllie S, Patterson S, Oza S, Read K, Fairlamb A. Cross-resistance to nitro drugs and implications for treatment of human African trypanosomiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:2893-900 pubmed publisher
    The success of nifurtimox-eflornithine combination therapy (NECT) for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) has renewed interest in the potential of nitro drugs as chemotherapeutics...
  17. Croft A, Jackson C, Friend H, Minton E. African trypanosomiasis in a British soldier. J R Army Med Corps. 2006;152:156-60 pubmed
    Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) is a parasitic infection transmitted by day-biting tsetse flies. The diagnostic gold standard is microscopy of blood, lymph node aspirates or CSF...
  18. Rodgers J, Stone T, Barrett M, Bradley B, Kennedy P. Kynurenine pathway inhibition reduces central nervous system inflammation in a model of human African trypanosomiasis. Brain. 2009;132:1259-67 pubmed publisher
    Human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, is caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, and is a major cause of systemic and neurological disability throughout sub-Saharan ..
  19. Maudlin I. African trypanosomiasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:679-701 pubmed
    ..After more than 100 years of effort, trypanosomiasis control remains a controversial topic, subject to the tides of fashion and politics...
  20. Stijlemans B, Vankrunkelsven A, Brys L, Magez S, De Baetselier P. Role of iron homeostasis in trypanosomiasis-associated anemia. Immunobiology. 2008;213:823-35 pubmed publisher
  21. Checchi F, Piola P, Ayikoru H, Thomas F, Legros D, Priotto G. Nifurtimox plus Eflornithine for late-stage sleeping sickness in Uganda: a case series. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007;1:e64 pubmed
    ..b. gambiense sleeping sickness (Human African Trypanosomiasis, HAT) patients treated with a combination of nifurtimox and eflornithine (N+E) in Yumbe, northwest Uganda ..
  22. Koffi M, Solano P, Denizot M, Courtin D, Garcia A, Lejon V, et al. Aparasitemic serological suspects in Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis: a potential human reservoir of parasites?. Acta Trop. 2006;98:183-8 pubmed
    The serological and parasitological tests used for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) diagnosis have low specificity and sensitivity, respectively, and in the field, control program teams are faced with ..
  23. Thomson R, Molina Portela P, Mott H, Carrington M, Raper J. Hydrodynamic gene delivery of baboon trypanosome lytic factor eliminates both animal and human-infective African trypanosomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009;106:19509-14 pubmed publisher
  24. Fèvre E, Odiit M, Coleman P, Woolhouse M, Welburn S. Estimating the burden of rhodesiense sleeping sickness during an outbreak in Serere, eastern Uganda. BMC Public Health. 2008;8:96 pubmed publisher
    Zoonotic sleeping sickness, or HAT (Human African Trypanosomiasis), caused by infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, is an under-reported and neglected tropical disease...
  25. Kohagne Tongue L, Mengue M Eyi P, Mimpfoundi R, Louis F. [Glossina feeding habits and diversity of species of trypanosomes in an active focus of human African trypanosomiasis in Gabon]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2010;103:264-71 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrary, the trypanosomian risk seems to be an appropriate indicator of the prevalence of HAT in an area. The identification of the reservoir hosts in this focus would be useful for a good understanding of the HAT epidemiology...
  26. Lutumba P, Makieya E, Shaw A, Meheus F, Boelaert M. Human African trypanosomiasis in a rural community, Democratic Republic of Congo. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:248-54 pubmed
    According to the World Health Organization, human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) (sleeping sickness) caused the loss of approximately 1.5 million disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in 2002...
  27. Pays E, Vanhollebeke B. Mutual self-defence: the trypanolytic factor story. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:985-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In this location SRA is thought to neutralize apoL1 through coiled-coil interactions between alpha-helices. We discuss the potential of these discoveries in terms of fight against the disease...
  28. Stijlemans B, Vankrunkelsven A, Brys L, Raes G, Magez S, De Baetselier P. Scrutinizing the mechanisms underlying the induction of anemia of inflammation through GPI-mediated modulation of macrophage activation in a model of African trypanosomiasis. Microbes Infect. 2010;12:389-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results demonstrate that reprogramming macrophages towards an anti-inflammatory state alleviates anemia of inflammation by normalizing iron homeostasis and restoring erythropoiesis...
  29. Sindato C, Kimbita E, Kibona S. Factors influencing individual and community participation in the control of tsetse flies and human African trypanosomiasis in Urambo District, Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2008;10:20-7 pubmed
    ..out to assess the knowledge and level of individual and community participation in the control of Human African trypanosomiasis in Urambo District, western Tanzania...
  30. Garcia A, Courtin D, Solano P, Koffi M, Jamonneau V. Human African trypanosomiasis: connecting parasite and host genetics. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:405-9 pubmed
    ..b.) gambiense causes a chronic form of Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) that might last several years, whereas T. b...
  31. Dauvilliers Y, Bisser S, Chapotot F, Vatunga G, Cespuglio R, Josenando T, et al. Hypocretin and human African trypanosomiasis. Sleep. 2008;31:348-54 pubmed
    ..g.) human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) at different stages of evolution and to measure and compare cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of ..
  32. Likeufack A, Brun R, Fomena A, Truc P. Comparison of the in vitro drug sensitivity of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense strains from West and Central Africa isolated in the periods 1960-1995 and 1999-2004. Acta Trop. 2006;100:11-6 pubmed
    The situation of human African trypanosomiasis remains serious with one of the main threats being the increasing number of relapses or treatment failures after melarsoprol treatment...
  33. Thuita J, Kagira J, Mwangangi D, Matovu E, Turner C, Masiga D. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense transmitted by a single tsetse fly bite in vervet monkeys as a model of human African trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e238 pubmed publisher
    ..The study shows that the fly-transmitted model accurately mimics the human disease and is therefore a suitable gateway to understanding human African trypanosomiasis (HAT; sleeping sickness).
  34. Ngure R, Eckersall P, Jennings F, Mburu J, Burke J, Mungatana N, et al. Acute phase response in mice experimentally infected with Trypanosoma congolense: a molecular gauge of parasite-host interaction. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:14-20 pubmed
    ..Haptoglobin was shown to be an earlier indicator of infection and a better marker in monitoring the response to treatment...
  35. MacLean L, Odiit M, MacLeod A, Morrison L, Sweeney L, Cooper A, et al. Spatially and genetically distinct African Trypanosome virulence variants defined by host interferon-gamma response. J Infect Dis. 2007;196:1620-8 pubmed
    We describe 2 spatially distinct foci of human African trypanosomiasis in eastern Uganda...
  36. Blum J, Schmid C, Hatz C, Kazumba L, Mangoni P, Rutishauser J, et al. Sleeping glands? - The role of endocrine disorders in sleeping sickness (T.b. gambiense Human African Trypanosomiasis). Acta Trop. 2007;104:16-24 pubmed
    ..weakness, hypotension or paraesthesia, are frequently reported in the literature in patients with Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT), but an endocrine origin for these symptoms has not yet been demonstrated...
  37. Courtioux B, Pervieux L, Vatunga G, Marin B, Josenando T, Jauberteau Marchan M, et al. Increased CXCL-13 levels in human African trypanosomiasis meningo-encephalitis. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of the B-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-13, which may initiate B-cell trafficking and IgM production in diagnosing HAT meningo-encephalitis...
  38. Tabel H, Wei G, Shi M. T cells and immunopathogenesis of experimental African trypanosomiasis. Immunol Rev. 2008;225:128-39 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we review recent work on experimental African trypanosomiasis, especially infections with Trypanosoma congolense, in mice with regard to mechanisms of ..
  39. Urbaniak M, Tabudravu J, Msaki A, Matera K, Brenk R, Jaspars M, et al. Identification of novel inhibitors of UDP-Glc 4'-epimerase, a validated drug target for african sleeping sickness. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2006;16:5744-7 pubmed
    ..The inhibitors possess low micromolar potency against the T. brucei and human enzymes in vitro, display a degree of selectivity between the two enzymes, and are cytotoxic to cultured T. brucei and mammalian cells...
  40. Grab D, Kennedy P. Traversal of human and animal trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier. J Neurovirol. 2008;14:344-51 pubmed publisher
    The neurological complications of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in man caused by the unicellular protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b...
  41. Morrison L, Tait A, McCormack G, Sweeney L, Black A, Truc P, et al. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense Type 1 populations from human patients are clonal and display geographical genetic differentiation. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:847-54 pubmed publisher
    ..1 is composed of genetically homogenous populations by examining the parasite population present in Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) patients from the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Cameroon (CAM)...
  42. Price H, Güther M, Ferguson M, Smith D. Myristoyl-CoA:protein N-myristoyltransferase depletion in trypanosomes causes avirulence and endocytic defects. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;169:55-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Critically we show that following NMT knockdown, T. brucei bloodstream form cells are unable to establish an infection in a mouse model, therefore providing further validation of this enzyme as a target for drug development. ..
  43. Inojosa W, Augusto I, Bisoffi Z, Josenado T, Abel P, Stich A, et al. Diagnosing human African trypanosomiasis in Angola using a card agglutination test: observational study of active and passive case finding strategies. BMJ. 2006;332:1479 pubmed
    To assess the operational feasibility of detecting human African trypanosomiasis by active and passive case finding using the card agglutination test with serial dilution of serum to guide treatment.
  44. Simo G, Cuny G, Demonchy R, Herder S. Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: study of population genetic structure of Central African stocks using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:172-80 pubmed
    To understand the maintenance and resurgence of historical Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) foci, AFLP was used to genotype 100 Central African Trypanosoma brucei s.l. stocks. This technique confirmed the high genetic stability of T...
  45. Guilliams M, Oldenhove G, Noel W, Herin M, Brys L, Loi P, et al. African trypanosomiasis: naturally occurring regulatory T cells favor trypanotolerance by limiting pathology associated with sustained type 1 inflammation. J Immunol. 2007;179:2748-57 pubmed
    ..Collectively, these data suggest a cardinal role for naturally occurring Tregs in the development of a trypanotolerant phenotype during African trypanosomiasis.
  46. Berrang Ford L, Berke O, Abdelrahman L, Waltner Toews D, McDermott J. Spatial analysis of sleeping sickness, southeastern Uganda, 1970-2003. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:813-20 pubmed
    ..Results show rapid propagation of sleeping sickness from its epicenter in southern Iganga District and its spread north into new districts and foci...
  47. Courtin D, Berthier D, Thevenon S, Dayo G, Garcia A, Bucheton B. Host genetics in African trypanosomiasis. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:229-38 pubmed publisher
    In Africa, the protozoan parasite of the genus Trypanosoma causes animal (AAT) and human African trypanosomiasis (HAT)...
  48. Barrett M. The rise and fall of sleeping sickness. Lancet. 2006;367:1377-8 pubmed
  49. Masocha W, Rottenberg M, Kristensson K. Migration of African trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier. Physiol Behav. 2007;92:110-4 pubmed
  50. Guilliams M, Bosschaerts T, Herin M, Hunig T, Loi P, Flamand V, et al. Experimental expansion of the regulatory T cell population increases resistance to African trypanosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:781-91 pubmed publisher
    ..expansion of the T(reg) cell population coupled with the induction of alternatively activated macrophages can restore the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory signals and thereby limit the pathogenicity of African trypanosomiasis.
  51. Bisser S, N Siesi F, Lejon V, Preux P, Van Nieuwenhove S, Miaka mia Bilenge C, et al. Equivalence trial of melarsoprol and nifurtimox monotherapy and combination therapy for the treatment of second-stage Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:322-9 pubmed
    ..Treatment of second-stage sleeping sickness relies mainly on melarsoprol. Nifurtimox has been successfully used to cure melarsoprol-refractory sleeping sickness caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense infection...
  52. Vanhollebeke B, Nielsen M, Watanabe Y, Truc P, Vanhamme L, Nakajima K, et al. Distinct roles of haptoglobin-related protein and apolipoprotein L-I in trypanolysis by human serum. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007;104:4118-23 pubmed
    ..Thus, apoL-I is responsible for the trypanolytic activity of normal human serum, whereas Hpr allows fast uptake of the carrier HDL particles, presumably through their binding to an Hp/Hpr surface receptor of the parasite...
  53. Blum J, Burri C, Hatz C, Kazumba L, Mangoni P, Zellweger M. Sleeping hearts: the role of the heart in sleeping sickness (human African trypanosomiasis). Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1422-32 pubmed
    To estimate the frequency and evolution of heart involvement in human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) using electrocardiogram (ECG) findings; to describe these findings and to assess the frequency and clinical relevance of symptoms and ..
  54. Ezzedine K, Darie H, Le Bras M, Malvy D. Skin features accompanying imported human African trypanosomiasis: hemolymphatic Trypanosoma gambiense infection among two French expatriates with dermatologic manifestations. J Travel Med. 2007;14:192-6 pubmed
  55. Kennedy P. The continuing problem of human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness). Ann Neurol. 2008;64:116-26 pubmed publisher
    Human African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, is a neglected disease, and it continues to pose a major threat to 60 million people in 36 countries in sub-Saharan Africa...
  56. Masumu J, Marcotty T, Ndeledje N, Kubi C, Geerts S, Vercruysse J, et al. Comparison of the transmissibility of Trypanosoma congolense strains, isolated in a trypanosomiasis endemic area of eastern Zambia, by Glossina morsitans morsitans. Parasitology. 2006;133:331-4 pubmed
    ..This observation confirms the theory for the evolution and maintenance of virulence in a parasite population and may explain the persistence of virulent trypanosome strains in a susceptible host population...
  57. Farikou O, Njiokou F, Mbida Mbida J, Njitchouang G, Djeunga H, Asonganyi T, et al. Tripartite interactions between tsetse flies, Sodalis glossinidius and trypanosomes--an epidemiological approach in two historical human African trypanosomiasis foci in Cameroon. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:115-21 pubmed publisher
    Epidemiological surveys were conducted in two historical human African trypanosomiasis foci in South Cameroon, Bipindi and Campo. In each focus, three sampling areas were defined...
  58. Matovu E, Mugasa C, Ekangu R, Deborggraeve S, Lubega G, Laurent T, et al. Phase II evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of PCR and NASBA followed by oligochromatography for diagnosis of human African trypanosomiasis in clinical samples from D.R. Congo and Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e737 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the PCR-OC and NASBA-OC for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense human African trypanosomiasis (HAT).
  59. Hong Y, Kinoshita T. Trypanosome glycosylphosphatidylinositol biosynthesis. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:197-204 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on the trypanosome GPI biosynthesis pathway. Studies on GPI that will be described indicate the potential for the design of drugs that specifically inhibit trypanosome GPI biosynthesis...
  60. Simarro P, Franco J, Ndongo P, Nguema E, Louis F, Jannin J. The elimination of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness in the focus of Luba, Bioko Island, Equatorial Guinea. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:636-46 pubmed
    ..First-stage cases were treated with pentamidine and second-stage cases with melarsoprol. A few relapses and very advanced cases were treated with eflornithine. The last sleeping sickness case was identified and treated in 1995...
  61. Poinsignon A, Cornelie S, Remoue F, Grebaut P, Courtin D, Garcia A, et al. Human/vector relationships during human African trypanosomiasis: initial screening of immunogenic salivary proteins of Glossina species. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:327-33 pubmed
    ..brucei gambiense by detecting immunogenic proteins in humans residing in an area endemic for human African trypanosomiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo...
  62. Reid C, Ebikeme C, Barrett M, Patzewitz E, Muller S, Robins D, et al. Synthesis of novel benzamidine- and guanidine-derived polyazamacrocycles: Selective anti-protozoal activity for human African trypanosomiasis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2008;18:5399-401 pubmed publisher
    ..Biological testing of these compounds showed highly selective anti-protozoal activity against trypanosomes...
  63. Priotto G, Pinoges L, Fursa I, Burke B, Nicolay N, Grillet G, et al. Safety and effectiveness of first line eflornithine for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness in Sudan: cohort study. BMJ. 2008;336:705-8 pubmed publisher
    To assess the safety and effectiveness of eflornithine as first line treatment for human African trypanosomiasis.
  64. Bosschaerts T, Guilliams M, Noel W, Herin M, Burk R, Hill K, et al. Alternatively activated myeloid cells limit pathogenicity associated with African trypanosomiasis through the IL-10 inducible gene selenoprotein P. J Immunol. 2008;180:6168-75 pubmed
    ..effectors by which M2 contribute to lower the pathogenicity and the associated susceptibility to African trypanosomiasis have been explored...
  65. Louis F, Kohagne Tongue L, Ebo O Eyenga V, Simarro P. [Organizing an active screening campaign for human African trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:11-6 pubmed
    Organization of an active screening program for human African trypanosomiasis in an outbreak area is subject to strict guidelines that must take into account the size of the population, the specificity and sensitivity of the diagnostic ..
  66. Thuita J, Karanja S, Wenzler T, Mdachi R, Ngotho J, Kagira J, et al. Efficacy of the diamidine DB75 and its prodrug DB289, against murine models of human African trypanosomiasis. Acta Trop. 2008;108:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..The activity was compared in three common mouse models that mimic the first stage of human African trypanosomiasis. The mice were infected with the pleomorphic T .b...
  67. Zoller T, Fèvre E, Welburn S, Odiit M, Coleman P. Analysis of risk factors for T. brucei rhodesiense sleeping sickness within villages in south-east Uganda. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:88 pubmed publisher
    ..e. within affected villages. In the present work, we use a case-control methodology to analyse both behavioural and spatial risk factors for HAT in an endemic area...
  68. Jetton N, Rothberg K, Hubbard J, Wise J, Li Y, Ball H, et al. The cell cycle as a therapeutic target against Trypanosoma brucei: Hesperadin inhibits Aurora kinase-1 and blocks mitotic progression in bloodstream forms. Mol Microbiol. 2009;72:442-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these data demonstrate that cell cycle progression is essential for infections with T. brucei and that parasite Aurora kinases can be targeted with small-molecule inhibitors...
  69. Bouyer J, Ravel S, Dujardin J, de Meeus T, Vial L, Thevenon S, et al. Population structuring of Glossina palpalis gambiensis (Diptera: Glossinidae) according to landscape fragmentation in the Mouhoun river, Burkina Faso. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:788-95 pubmed
    ..The impact of the fragmentation of riparian landscapes on tsetse population structure is discussed in the context of control campaigns currently promoted by Pan African Tsetse and Trypanosomosis Eradication Campaign...
  70. Delespaux V, Geysen D, Van den Bossche P, Geerts S. Molecular tools for the rapid detection of drug resistance in animal trypanosomes. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:236-42 pubmed publisher
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    African trypanosomes of the Trypanosoma brucei species are extra-cellular parasites that cause human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) as well as infections in game animals and livestock...
  72. Antoine Moussiaux N, Magez S, Desmecht D. Contributions of experimental mouse models to the understanding of African trypanosomiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:411-8 pubmed publisher
    b>African trypanosomiasis is the collective name for a wide variety of trypanosome infections that affect humans and livestock...
  73. Waiswa C, Picozzi K, Katunguka Rwakishaya E, Olaho Mukani W, Musoke R, Welburn S. Glossina fuscipes fuscipes in the trypanosomiasis endemic areas of south eastern Uganda: apparent density, trypanosome infection rates and host feeding preferences. Acta Trop. 2006;99:23-9 pubmed
    ..The implication of this, in relation to the cycle of transmission for human infective trypanosomes between domestic animals and man, is discussed...
  74. Deborggraeve S, Claes F, Laurent T, Mertens P, Leclipteux T, Dujardin J, et al. Molecular dipstick test for diagnosis of sleeping sickness. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2884-9 pubmed
    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) or sleeping sickness is a neglected disease that affects poor rural populations across sub-Saharan Africa...
  75. Checkley A, Pepin J, Gibson W, Taylor M, Jager H, Mabey D. Human African trypanosomiasis: diagnosis, relapse and survival after severe melarsoprol-induced encephalopathy. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:523-6 pubmed
    We describe a case of human African trypanosomiasis with a number of unusual features. The clinical presentation was subacute, but the infection was shown to be due to Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense...
  76. Harris T, Cooney N, Mansfield J, Paulnock D. Signal transduction, gene transcription, and cytokine production triggered in macrophages by exposure to trypanosome DNA. Infect Immun. 2006;74:4530-7 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that T. brucei rhodesiense DNA serves as a ligand for innate immune cells and may play an important contributory role in early stimulation of the host immune response during trypanosomiasis...
  77. Amin D, Rottenberg M, Thomsen A, Mumba D, Fenger C, Kristensson K, et al. Expression and role of CXCL10 during the encephalitic stage of experimental and clinical African trypanosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:1556-65 pubmed publisher
    Human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei, involves an early hemolymphatic stage followed by a late encephalitic stage.
  78. Bouteille B, Mpandzou G, Cespuglio R, Ngampo S, Peeling R, Vincendeau P, et al. Cerebrospinal fluid B lymphocyte identification for diagnosis and follow-up in human African trypanosomiasis in the field. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:454-61 pubmed publisher
    In human African trypanosomiasis (HAT, sleeping sickness), staging of disease and treatment follow-up relies on white cell count in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)...
  79. Wamwiri F, Nkwengulila G, Clausen P. Hosts of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. pallidipes in areas of western Kenya with endemic sleeping sickness, as determined using an egg-yolk (IgY) ELISA. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:225-32 pubmed
    Bloodmeal sources of Glossina fuscipes fuscipes and G. pallidipes, from the western Kenyan foci of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) on Mageta Island and in Busia district, were identified using an ELISA based on chicken egg-yolk (IgY) ..
  80. Batchelor N, Atkinson P, Gething P, Picozzi K, Fèvre E, Kakembo A, et al. Spatial predictions of Rhodesian Human African Trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) prevalence in Kaberamaido and Dokolo, two newly affected districts of Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e563 pubmed publisher
    The continued northwards spread of Rhodesian sleeping sickness or Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) within Uganda is raising concerns of overlap with the Gambian form of the disease...
  81. Berg M, Kohl L, Van der Veken P, Joossens J, Al Salabi M, Castagna V, et al. Evaluation of nucleoside hydrolase inhibitors for treatment of African trypanosomiasis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2010;54:1900-8 pubmed publisher
    ..49 +/- 0.31 microM). Validation in an in vivo model of African trypanosomiasis showed promising results for this compound...
  82. Frearson J, Brand S, McElroy S, Cleghorn L, Smid O, Stojanovski L, et al. N-myristoyltransferase inhibitors as new leads to treat sleeping sickness. Nature. 2010;464:728-32 pubmed publisher
    African sleeping sickness or human African trypanosomiasis, caused by Trypanosoma brucei spp., is responsible for approximately 30,000 deaths each year...
  83. Mbida Mbida J, Mimpfoundi R, Njiokou F, Manga L, Laveissiere C. [Distribution and ecology of the Savannah human African trypanosomiasis vectors in disturbed forest zone in south Cameroon: about case in the Doumé forest]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2009;102:101-5 pubmed
    ..areas is rather difficult because of the wide spreading of tsetse flies and transmission sites of human African trypanosomiasis. In fact, traps should be a priori set up everywhere to stop the transmission...
  84. Kennedy P. Cytokines in central nervous system trypanosomiasis: cause, effect or both?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:213-4 pubmed publisher
    The late, or encephalitic, stage of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is typified by a diffuse meningoencephalitis characterised neuropathologically by perivascular infiltration of inflammatory cells...
  85. Berrang Ford L, Odiit M, Maiso F, Waltner Toews D, McDermott J. Sleeping sickness in Uganda: revisiting current and historical distributions. Afr Health Sci. 2006;6:223-31 pubmed
    ..The disease continues to pose a public health burden in Uganda, which experienced a widespread outbreak in 1900-1920, and a more recent outbreak in 1976-1989. The disease continues to spread to uninfected districts...