trypanosomiasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with protozoa of the genus TRYPANOSOMA.

Top Publications

  1. Desquesnes M, Bossard G, Patrel D, Herder S, Patout O, Lepetitcolin E, et al. First outbreak of Trypanosoma evansi in camels in metropolitan France. Vet Rec. 2008;162:750-2 pubmed
    ..No parasites were observed in other animals on the farm or on neighbouring farms, but some of the sheep on these farms were positive by PCR or serology. ..
  2. Vanhollebeke B, Truc P, Poelvoorde P, Pays A, Joshi P, Katti R, et al. Human Trypanosoma evansi infection linked to a lack of apolipoprotein L-I. N Engl J Med. 2006;355:2752-6 pubmed
    ..Trypanolytic activity was restored by the addition of recombinant APOL1. The lack of APOL1 explained the patient's infection with T. evansi. ..
  3. Lima L, Espinosa Álvarez O, Hamilton P, Neves L, Takata C, Campaner M, et al. Trypanosoma livingstonei: a new species from African bats supports the bat seeding hypothesis for the Trypanosoma cruzi clade. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:221 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi, hence, providing further support for the bat seeding hypothesis to explain the origin of T. cruzi and T. rangeli. ..
  4. Navarro M, Gabbiani C, Messori L, Gambino D. Metal-based drugs for malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis: recent achievements and perspectives. Drug Discov Today. 2010;15:1070-8 pubmed publisher
    ..opportunities to find new 'leads' against the major protozoan diseases such as malaria, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. A few metal-based drugs are already available in this therapeutic area, and others are currently being ..
  5. Maia da Silva F, Junqueira A, Campaner M, Rodrigues A, Crisante G, Ramirez L, et al. Comparative phylogeography of Trypanosoma rangeli and Rhodnius (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) supports a long coexistence of parasite lineages and their sympatric vectors. Mol Ecol. 2007;16:3361-73 pubmed
    ..ecotopes. A polymerase chain reaction assay based on SL intergenic sequences was developed for simultaneous identification and lineage genotyping of T. rangeli in epidemiological surveys. ..
  6. Konnai S, Mekata H, Mingala C, Abes N, Gutierrez C, Herrera J, et al. Development and application of a quantitative real-time PCR for the diagnosis of Surra in water buffaloes. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:449-52 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi...
  7. Dhollander S, Jallow A, Mbodge K, Kora S, Sanneh M, Gaye M, et al. Equine trypanosomosis in the Central River Division of The Gambia: a study of veterinary gate-clinic consultation records. Prev Vet Med. 2006;75:152-62 pubmed
    ..The study showed that the analysis of consultation records at a gate-clinic can provide complementary information to conventional epidemiological studies in the same research area. ..
  8. Karlsbakk E, Nylund A. Trypanosomes infecting cod Gadus morhua L. in the North Atlantic: a resurrection of Trypanosoma pleuronectidium Robertson, 1906 and delimitation of T. murmanense Nikitin, 1927 (emend.), with a review of other trypanosomes from North Atlantic and Medi. Syst Parasitol. 2006;65:175-203 pubmed
    ..laternae Lebailly, 1904; T. myoxocephali Fantham, Porter & Richardson, 1942; T. platessae Lebailly, 1904; T. scorpaenae Neumann, 1909; T. soleae Laveran & Mesnil, 1901; T. triglae Neumann, 1909; and T. yakimovi Yakimov, 1911. ..
  9. Gutierrez C, Corbera J, Juste M, Doreste F, Morales I. Clinical, hematological, and biochemical findings in an outbreak of abortion and neonatal mortality associated with Trypanosoma evansi infection in dromedary camels. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1081:325-7 pubmed
    ..The most characteristic finding in the examined females would be the uremia, probably due to the higher protein metabolism. ..

More Information

Publications92

  1. Paim F, Duarte M, Costa M, Da Silva A, Wolkmer P, Silva C, et al. Cytokines in rats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:365-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a synergism among IL-1, TNF-? and IFN-? contributing to the development of anemia. This increase is associated with the regulation of immune responses against the parasite...
  2. Milocco C, Kamyingkird K, Desquesnes M, Jittapalapong S, Herbreteau V, Chaval Y, et al. Molecular demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi DNA in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2013;60:17-26 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi were recently described in India and by T. lewisi in India and Thailand. As sequencing PCR products is expensive, the development of new molecular and serological tools for rodents would be very useful...
  3. Marcili A, Lima L, Cavazzana M, Junqueira A, Veludo H, Maia da Silva F, et al. A new genotype of Trypanosoma cruzi associated with bats evidenced by phylogenetic analyses using SSU rDNA, cytochrome b and Histone H2B genes and genotyping based on ITS1 rDNA. Parasitology. 2009;136:641-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that the complexity of T. cruzi is larger than currently known, and confirmed bats as important reservoirs and potential source of T. cruzi infections to humans. ..
  4. Truc P, Gibson W, Herder S. Genetic characterization of Trypanosoma evansi isolated from a patient in India. Infect Genet Evol. 2007;7:305-7 pubmed
    The first human case of trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi was recently discovered in India. We have focused on the parasite to investigate whether this atypical infection was due to a particular genotype of T. evansi...
  5. McInnes L, Gillett A, Ryan U, Austen J, Campbell R, Hanger J, et al. Trypanosoma irwini n. sp (Sarcomastigophora: Trypanosomatidae) from the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus). Parasitology. 2009;136:875-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on biological and genetic characterization data, this trypanosome species infecting koalas is proposed to be a new species Trypanosome irwini n. sp. ..
  6. Ribeiro C, Pontes M, Bird S, Chadzinska M, Scheer M, Verburg van Kemenade B, et al. Trypanosomiasis-induced Th17-like immune responses in carp. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e13012 pubmed publisher
    ..carassii infection, along with an increased gene expression of metalloproteinase-9 and chemokines. This is the first study that provides evidence for a Th17-like immune response in fish in response to infection with a protozoan parasite...
  7. Pruvot M, Kamyingkird K, Desquesnes M, Sarataphan N, Jittapalapong S. The effect of the DNA preparation method on the sensitivity of PCR for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi in rodents and implications for epidemiological surveillance efforts. Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:203-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we encourage laboratories to carefully select their sample preparation and PCR protocols, depending on the aimed sensitivity, cost, safety, time requirement and objectives...
  8. Marin Neto J, Rassi A, Morillo C, Avezum A, Connolly S, Sosa Estani S, et al. Rationale and design of a randomized placebo-controlled trial assessing the effects of etiologic treatment in Chagas' cardiomyopathy: the BENznidazole Evaluation For Interrupting Trypanosomiasis (BENEFIT). Am Heart J. 2008;156:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy in preventing clinical complications in patients with preexisting cardiac disease is unknown...
  9. Madeira M, Sousa M, Barros J, Figueiredo F, Fagundes A, Schubach A, et al. Trypanosoma caninum n. sp. (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) isolated from intact skin of a domestic dog ( Canis familiaris) captured in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Parasitology. 2009;136:411-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Isoenzyme analysis at 8 loci demonstrated a very peculiar banding pattern clearly distinct from those of T. rangeli and T. cruzi. We conclude that this isolate is a new Trypanosoma species. The name T. caninum is suggested. ..
  10. Ohaeri C, Eluwa M. Abnormal biochemical and haematological indices in trypanosomiasis as a threat to herd production. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:199-202 pubmed publisher
    Blood samples were collected from 46 domestic ruminants comprising of 23 trypanosomiasis infected and 23 uninfected control groups to study some biochemical and haematological effects of trypanosomiasis under natural condition...
  11. MacGregor P, Savill N, Hall D, Matthews K. Transmission stages dominate trypanosome within-host dynamics during chronic infections. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:310-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reveal the dominance of transmission stages throughout infection, a consequence being austere use of the parasite's antigen repertoire. ..
  12. Joerink M, Forlenza M, Ribeiro C, de Vries B, Savelkoul H, Wiegertjes G. Differential macrophage polarisation during parasitic infections in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:561-71 pubmed
    ..carassii-infected fish. Our results indicate that T. borreli-infected carp are more prone to increase nitrite production by caMF while T. carassii-infected fish are more prone to increase arginase activity by aaMF. ..
  13. Marcello L, Barry J. Analysis of the VSG gene silent archive in Trypanosoma brucei reveals that mosaic gene expression is prominent in antigenic variation and is favored by archive substructure. Genome Res. 2007;17:1344-52 pubmed
    ..The small subfamily structure of the archive appears to be fundamental in providing the interacting donors for mosaic formation. ..
  14. Tamarit A, Gutierrez C, Arroyo R, Jimenez V, Zagalá G, Bosch I, et al. Trypanosoma evansi infection in mainland Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:74-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first T. evansi outbreak to have occurred in mainland Spain and the second in mainland Europe, both occurring after the introduction of dromedary camels from the Canary Islands...
  15. Rodrigues C, Olinda R, Silva T, Vale R, da Silva A, Lima G, et al. Follicular degeneration in the ovaries of goats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax from the Brazilian semi-arid region. Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:146-53 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, through PCR, we detected T. vivax DNA in the ovarian tissues of the infected goats. Our findings contributed to understand the female reproductive failure associated with trypanosomosis caused by T. vivax. ..
  16. Umeyama T, Wang C. Polo-like kinase is expressed in S/G2/M phase and associated with the flagellum attachment zone in both procyclic and bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1582-90 pubmed publisher
    ..An indicated TbPLK-EYFP association with the FAZs of G(2)/M cells may thus represent a timely localization to a potential initiation site of cytokinesis, which agrees with the recognized role of TbPLK in cytokinetic initiation. ..
  17. Kurup S, Tewari A. Induction of protective immune response in mice by a DNA vaccine encoding Trypanosoma evansi beta tubulin gene. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:9-16 pubmed publisher
  18. Moreno S, Concepcion J, Nava M, Molinari J. Importance of the horse and financial impact of equine trypanosomiasis on cattle raising in Venezuela. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2013;45:1669-76 pubmed publisher
    ..In the Llanos region of the country, equine trypanosomiasis is responsible for a high mortality in horses, causing considerable financial losses to cattle ranches...
  19. Otto M, Da Silva A, Gressler L, Farret M, Tavares K, Zanette R, et al. Susceptibility of Trypanosoma evansi to human blood and plasma in infected mice. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:1-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Besides the longer longevity, treatments were capable of curing 50% of mice of group B, 37.5% of group C, 37.5% of group D and 25% of the animals from group E...
  20. Baral T, De Baetselier P, Brombacher F, Magez S. Control of Trypanosoma evansi infection is IgM mediated and does not require a type I inflammatory response. J Infect Dis. 2007;195:1513-20 pubmed
    ..that Trypanosoma evansi, the etiological agent of the livestock disease "surra," can cause human trypanosomiasis. In contrast to trypanosomes causing human African trypanosomiasis, T...
  21. Oliveira C, Da Silva A, Souza V, Costa M, Jaques J, Leal D, et al. NTPDase activity in lymphocytes of rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitology. 2012;139:232-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering these data it is suggested that NTPDase activity is altered on the surface of lymphocytes of rats infected with T. evansi at different time-points of infection...
  22. Li S, Reid S, Fung M, Inoue N, Lun Z. Analysis of gene expression profiles in the liver and spleen of mice infected with Trypanosoma evansi by using a cDNA microarray. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:385-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a comprehensive profile of changes in gene expression in the liver and spleen of mice infected with T. evansi and may be helpful in understanding the pathogenesis of Surra at a molecular level...
  23. Mandal M, Laha R, Sasmal N. First report of establishment of Trypanosoma evansi infection in pigeon nestlings (Columba livia). J Parasitol. 2008;94:1428-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, polymerase chain reaction studies confirmed that the genomic DNA of trypanosomes in pigeon blood was the same as that of T. evansi. This is the first report of the establishment of T. evansi infection in pigeon nestlings...
  24. Nurulaini R, Jamnah O, Adnan M, Zaini C, Khadijah S, Rafiah A, et al. Mortality of domesticated java deer attributed to Surra. Trop Biomed. 2007;24:67-70 pubmed
    This paper reports an outbreak of trypanosomiasis due to Trypanosoma evansi in Java deer (Cervus timorensis) on a government deer farm in Lenggong, Perak. Seventeen adult female Java deer were found dead within a week...
  25. Kumar R, Kumar S, Khurana S, Yadav S. Development of an antibody-ELISA for seroprevalence of Trypanosoma evansi in equids of North and North-western regions of India. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..36% in North and North-western regions of India. The results indicated that surra is endemic in equids of North and North-western parts of India. ..
  26. Hatama S, Shibahara T, Suzuki M, Kadota K, Uchida I, Kanno T. Isolation of a Megatrypanum trypanosome from sika deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) in Japan. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:56-64 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetically TSD1 is closely related to T. theileri, a common trypanosome of cattle, but is distinguishable from T. theileri by some morphometrical and biological features...
  27. Martinkovic F, Matanović K, Rodrigues A, Garcia H, Teixeira M. Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) melophagium in the sheep ked Melophagus ovinus from organic farms in Croatia: phylogenetic inferences support restriction to sheep and sheep keds and close relationship with trypanosomes from other ruminant species. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2012;59:134-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings indicate that with the expansion of organic farms, both sheep keds and T. melophagium may re-emerge as parasitic infections of sheep...
  28. Pruvot M, Kamyingkird K, Desquesnes M, Sarataphan N, Jittapalapong S. A comparison of six primer sets for detection of Trypanosoma evansi by polymerase chain reaction in rodents and Thai livestock. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These results confirmed that TBR1/2 primers remain the reference for the detection of Trypanozoon DNA and should therefore be included in subsequent evaluations of new diagnosis tools based on DNA detection...
  29. Amer S, Ryu O, Tada C, Fukuda Y, Inoue N, Nakai Y. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi from dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius) in Egypt, a pilot study. Acta Trop. 2011;117:39-46 pubmed publisher
    Animal trypanosomiasis is one of the major constraints of livestock industry in developing countries...
  30. Gu Z, Wang J, Li M, Zhang J, Ke X, Gong X. Morphological and genetic differences of Trypanosoma in some Chinese freshwater fishes: difficulties of species identification. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:723-30 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that three species of trypanosomes, at least three genotypes occur in Niushan Lake fishes, and P. fulvidraco in this region appear to contain both types, although the identification of T. pseudobagri remains a problem...
  31. Hargrove J, Ouifki R, Kajunguri D, Vale G, Torr S. Modeling the control of trypanosomiasis using trypanocides or insecticide-treated livestock. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1615 pubmed publisher
    In Uganda, Rhodesian sleeping sickness, caused by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, and animal trypanosomiasis caused by T. vivax and T. congolense, are being controlled by treating cattle with trypanocides and/or insecticides...
  32. Leishman W. On the possibility of the occurrence of trypanosomiasis in India. 1903. Indian J Med Res. 2006;123:1252-4; discussion 79 pubmed
  33. Hilali M, Abdel Gawad A, Nassar A, Abdel Wahab A. Hematological and biochemical changes in water buffalo calves (Bubalus bubalis) infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Vet Parasitol. 2006;139:237-43 pubmed
    ..Kidney function tests revealed significant decrease of both creatinine and urea...
  34. Joshi P, Chaudhari A, Shegokar V, Powar R, Dani V, Somalwar A, et al. Treatment and follow-up of the first case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in India. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:989-91 pubmed
    The first reported human case of trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi was treated using suramin. Patient follow-up indicates that the drug and specific regimen used were well tolerated...
  35. Da Silva A, Paim F, Santos R, Sangoi M, Moresco R, Lopes S, et al. Nitric oxide level, protein oxidation and antioxidant enzymes in rats infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Exp Parasitol. 2012;132:166-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on the physiological role of NO(), we can conclude that its increased concentration is related to an inflammatory response against the parasite, once a redox imbalance was observed during infection...
  36. Paparini A, Irwin P, Warren K, McInnes L, de Tores P, Ryan U. Identification of novel trypanosome genotypes in native Australian marsupials. Vet Parasitol. 2011;183:21-30 pubmed publisher
  37. Baptista M, Wainwright M. Photodynamic antimicrobial chemotherapy (PACT) for the treatment of malaria, leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2011;44:1-10 pubmed
  38. von Wissmann B, Machila N, Picozzi K, Fèvre E, Dec Bronsvoort B, Handel I, et al. Factors associated with acquisition of human infective and animal infective trypanosome infections in domestic livestock in Western Kenya. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e941 pubmed publisher
    b>Trypanosomiasis is regarded as a constraint on livestock production in Western Kenya where the responsibility for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control has increasingly shifted from the state to the individual livestock owner...
  39. Galiza G, Garcia H, Assis A, Oliveira D, Pimentel L, Dantas A, et al. High mortality and lesions of the central nervous system in trypanosomosis by Trypanosoma vivax in Brazilian hair sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:359-63 pubmed publisher
    ..vivax was introduced to the farm and the susceptible flock by buffalos that were asymptomatic carriers of the infection; T. vivax was most likely transmitted by Tabanus spp. bites and also iatrogenically...
  40. Batista J, Oliveira A, Rodrigues C, Damasceno C, Oliveira I, Alves H, et al. Infection by Trypanosoma vivax in goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid region: from acute disease outbreak to chronic cryptic infection. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:131-5 pubmed publisher
    ..vivax infection and also play a role as asymptomatic carriers and important sources of T. vivax to ruminants in general...
  41. Li S, Yang W, Lun Z, Ma L, Xi S, Chen Q, et al. Immunization with recombinant actin from Trypanosoma evansi induces protective immunity against T. evansi, T. equiperdum and T. b. brucei infection. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:429-35 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi, T. equiperdum, and T. b. brucei infection and may be useful in the development of a vaccine with other cytoskeletal proteins to prevent animal trypanosomiasis caused by these three trypanosome species.
  42. Torr S, Maudlin I, Vale G. Less is more: restricted application of insecticide to cattle to improve the cost and efficacy of tsetse control. Med Vet Entomol. 2007;21:53-64 pubmed
    ..This would cut the cost of insecticide by 40%, improve efficacy by 27% and reduce the threats to non-target organisms and the enzootic stability of tick-borne diseases...
  43. Austen J, Jefferies R, Friend J, Ryan U, Adams P, Reid S. Morphological and molecular characterization of Trypanosoma copemani n. sp. (Trypanosomatidae) isolated from Gilbert's potoroo ( Potorous gilbertii) and quokka ( Setonix brachyurus). Parasitology. 2009;136:783-92 pubmed publisher
    ..The new species is proposed to be named Trypanosoma copemani n. sp...
  44. Smith A, Clark P, Averis S, Lymbery A, Wayne A, Morris K, et al. Trypanosomes in a declining species of threatened Australian marsupial, the brush-tailed bettong Bettongia penicillata (Marsupialia: Potoroidae). Parasitology. 2008;135:1329-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Although it appears unlikely that the parasite is solely responsible for the decline in woylie population size, it may (singularly or in conjunction with other infectious agents) predispose woylies to increased mortality...
  45. Maia da Silva F, Marcili A, Ortiz P, Epiphanio S, Campaner M, Catão Dias J, et al. Phylogenetic, morphological and behavioural analyses support host switching of Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) lewisi from domestic rats to primates. Infect Genet Evol. 2010;10:522-9 pubmed publisher
    ..lewisi from their natural rodent species to primates. This and previous studies reporting T. lewisi in humans suggest that this trypanosome can cause sporadic and opportunistic flea-borne infection in primates...
  46. Yang C, Suo X, Huang X, Zhang G, Jia Y, Wang Q, et al. Protection of mice against homologous or heterologous infections with antiserum mixture to the predominant variable antigen type repertoire of Trypanosoma evansi YNB stock. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:53-8 pubmed
    ..evansi was limited and small, and have important implications in the consideration of treating human trypanosomosis due to drug resistant strains with antiserum mixture...
  47. Myburgh E, Coles J, Ritchie R, Kennedy P, McLatchie A, Rodgers J, et al. In vivo imaging of trypanosome-brain interactions and development of a rapid screening test for drugs against CNS stage trypanosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2384 pubmed publisher
    HUMAN AFRICAN TRYPANOSOMIASIS (HAT) MANIFESTS IN TWO STAGES OF DISEASE: firstly, haemolymphatic, and secondly, an encephalitic phase involving the central nervous system (CNS)...
  48. Wolkmer P, Silva C, Paim F, Duarte M, Castro V, Palma H, et al. Pre-treatment with curcumin modulates acetylcholinesterase activity and proinflammatory cytokines in rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Parasitol Int. 2013;62:144-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings reveal that the preventive use of Cur stimulates anti-inflammatory mechanisms, reducing an excessive inflammatory response...
  49. Gutierrez C, Corbera J, Morales M, Büscher P. Trypanosomosis in goats: current status. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1081:300-10 pubmed
    ..Pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of the different trypanosomes are also described. The possible role in the epidemiology of the disease in the different areas is also discussed...
  50. Torr S, Prior A, Wilson P, Schofield S. Is there safety in numbers? The effect of cattle herding on biting risk from tsetse flies. Med Vet Entomol. 2007;21:301-11 pubmed
    ..transmit species of Trypanosoma which threaten 45-50 million cattle with trypanosomiasis. These livestock are subject to various herding practices which may affect biting rates on individual cattle ..
  51. Coetzer T, Goldring J, Huson L. Oligopeptidase B: a processing peptidase involved in pathogenesis. Biochimie. 2008;90:336-44 pubmed
    ..This review highlights the structure-function properties of oligopeptidase B in context with its physiological and/or pathological roles which make the enzyme a promising drug target...
  52. Lima L, Silva F, Neves L, Attias M, Takata C, Campaner M, et al. Evolutionary insights from bat trypanosomes: morphological, developmental and phylogenetic evidence of a new species, Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) erneyi sp. nov., in African bats closely related to Trypanosoma (Schizotrypanum) cruzi and allied speci. Protist. 2012;163:856-72 pubmed publisher
    ..cruzi in the New World...
  53. Anderson N, Mubanga J, Fèvre E, Picozzi K, Eisler M, Thomas R, et al. Characterisation of the wildlife reservoir community for human and animal trypanosomiasis in the Luangwa Valley, Zambia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1211 pubmed publisher
    Animal and human trypanosomiasis are constraints to both animal and human health in Sub-Saharan Africa, but there is little recent evidence as to how these parasites circulate in wild hosts in natural ecosystems...
  54. Pepin J, Plamondon M, Alves A, Beaudet M, Labbe A. Parenteral transmission during excision and treatment of tuberculosis and trypanosomiasis may be responsible for the HIV-2 epidemic in Guinea-Bissau. AIDS. 2006;20:1303-11 pubmed
    ..We sought to verify the hypothesis that parenteral transmission was the key factor in the building-up of the HIV-2 epidemic...
  55. Shegokar V, Powar R, Joshi P, Bhargava A, Dani V, Katti R, et al. Short report: Human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in a village in India: preliminary serologic survey of the local population. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:869-70 pubmed
    ..from the village of origin of the patient in India was performed using the card agglutination test for trypanosomiasis and T. evansi. A total of 410 (22...
  56. Mekata H, Konnai S, Mingala C, Abes N, Gutierrez C, Dargantes A, et al. Kinetics of regulatory dendritic cells in inflammatory responses during Trypanosoma evansi infection. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:318-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results showed that a subset of regulatory DCs acted as a potential regulator of the inflammatory responses...
  57. Gutierrez C, Desquesnes M, Touratier L, Büscher P. Trypanosoma evansi: recent outbreaks in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:26-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, procedures including diagnosis, curative or preventive treatment and quarantine should be established to insure the status of the animals moving from a country to another...
  58. Salim B, Bakheit M, Kamau J, Nakamura I, Sugimoto C. Molecular epidemiology of camel trypanosomiasis based on ITS1 rDNA and RoTat 1.2 VSG gene in the Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:31 pubmed publisher
  59. Cano J, Descalzo M, Ndong Mabale N, Ndong Asumu P, Bobuakasi L, Nzambo Ondo S, et al. Predicted distribution and movement of Glossina palpalis palpalis (Diptera: Glossinidae) in the wet and dry seasons in the Kogo trypanosomiasis focus (Equatorial Guinea). J Vector Ecol. 2007;32:218-25 pubmed
    ..an effective instrument for reducing the density of the tsetse fly populations, although given that the Kogo trypanosomiasis focus extends from the southern Equatorial Guinea to northern Gabon, interventions need to be planned on a ..
  60. Salem M, Werbovetz K. Natural products from plants as drug candidates and lead compounds against leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13:2571-98 pubmed
    ..developing world are affected by diseases caused by the kinetoplastid parasites: the leishmaniases, African trypanosomiasis, and Chagas disease...
  61. Kaur R, Gupta V, Dhariwal A, Jain D, Shiv L. A rare case of trypanosomiasis in a two month old infant in Mumbai, India. J Commun Dis. 2007;39:71-4 pubmed
    Human Trypanosomiasis is a rare occurrence in India. In the cases reported so far the disease causative species have been the species infective to animals viz., Trypanosoma lewisi and Trypanosoma evansi...
  62. Singla L, Juyal P, Sharma N. Immune responses to haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS) vaccination in Trypanosoma evansi infected buffalo-calves. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2010;42:589-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunosuppressive effect to HS vaccination was observed in T. evansi-infected buffalo-calves, and trypanocidal therapy enabled the calves to mount the responses similar to uninfected controls...
  63. da Silva A, Zanette R, Wolkmer P, Costa M, Garcia H, Lopes S, et al. Diminazene aceturate in the control of Trypanosoma evansi infection in cats. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Hemogram was normalized in all the cured animals. Therefore, the therapy used is effective in controlling T. evansi in cats...
  64. Dobson R, Dargantes A, Mercado R, Reid S. Models for Trypanosoma evansi (surra), its control and economic impact on small-hold livestock owners in the Philippines. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1115-23 pubmed publisher
    ..9 million pesos per annum (US $158,000). The value added to buffaloes, cattle, horses, goats/sheep and pigs as a result of this control was US $88, $84, $151, $7, $114 per animal/year, respectively...
  65. Barry J, Hall J, Plenderleith L. Genome hyperevolution and the success of a parasite. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1267:11-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Coordination of antigenic variation, and thereby transmission, occurs through networking of trypanosome traits expressed at different scales from molecules to host populations...
  66. Rodrigues A, Garcia H, Batista J, Minervino A, Góes Cavalcante G, Maia da Silva F, et al. Characterization of spliced leader genes of Trypanosoma ( Megatrypanum) theileri: phylogeographical analysis of Brazilian isolates from cattle supports spatial clustering of genotypes and parity with ribosomal markers. Parasitology. 2010;137:111-22 pubmed publisher
    ..PCR-RFLP of SL genes revealed valuable markers for genotyping T. theileri. The results of this study emphasize the genetic complexity and corroborate the geographical structuring of T. theileri genotypes found in cattle...
  67. Mekata H, Konnai S, Mingala C, Abes N, Gutierrez C, Dargantes A, et al. Isolation, cloning, and pathologic analysis of Trypanosoma evansi field isolates. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:1513-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings suggest that the epidemic of T. evansi in the Philippines is characterized by T. evansi strains with varying virulences from low to very high pathogenicity in cattle...
  68. Sarataphan N, Vongpakorn M, Nuansrichay B, Autarkool N, Keowkarnkah T, Rodtian P, et al. Diagnosis of a Trypanosoma lewisi-like (Herpetosoma) infection in a sick infant from Thailand. J Med Microbiol. 2007;56:1118-21 pubmed
    ..Human trypanosomiasis is not endemic to Thailand, so parasite identification was undertaken to determine likely sources of the ..
  69. Morales I, de León M, Morales M, Dalla F, Gutierrez C. Ocular lesions associated with Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected goats. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:325-9 pubmed
    ..It could be concluded that Trypanosoma evansi can produce ocular lesion but without apparent loss of vision in goats...
  70. Costa M, Dos Anjos Lopes S, França R, Da Silva A, Paim F, Palma H, et al. Role of acute phase proteins in the immune response of rabbits infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Res Vet Sci. 2013;95:182-8 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi...
  71. Cottontail V, Wellinghausen N, Kalko E. Habitat fragmentation and haemoparasites in the common fruit bat, Artibeus jamaicensis (Phyllostomidae) in a tropical lowland forest in Panamá. Parasitology. 2009;136:1133-45 pubmed publisher
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    ..However, the number of cases of atypical human trypanosomoses might be underestimated. Thus, improvement, evaluation of new diagnostic tests, and field investigations are required for detection and confirmation of these atypical cases. ..
  73. De Clare Bronsvoort B, von Wissmann B, Fèvre E, Handel I, Picozzi K, Welburn S. No gold standard estimation of the sensitivity and specificity of two molecular diagnostic protocols for Trypanosoma brucei spp. in Western Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e8628 pubmed publisher
    African animal trypanosomiasis is caused by a range of tsetse transmitted protozoan parasites includingTrypanosoma vivax, Trypanosoma congolense and Trypansoma brucei. In Western Kenya and other parts of East Africa two subspecies of T...
  74. Forlenza M, Magez S, Scharsack J, Westphal A, Savelkoul H, Wiegertjes G. Receptor-mediated and lectin-like activities of carp (Cyprinus carpio) TNF-alpha. J Immunol. 2009;183:5319-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, we demonstrate a crucial protective role for membrane-bound TNF-alpha, which has a yet unexploited function in fish...
  75. Li F, Lai D, Lukes J, Chen X, Lun Z. Doubts about Trypanosoma equiperdum strains classed as Trypanosoma brucei or Trypanosoma evansi. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:55-6; author reply 58-9 pubmed
  76. Desquesnes M, Bossard G, Thevenon S, Patrel D, Ravel S, Pavlovic D, et al. Development and application of an antibody-ELISA to follow up a Trypanosoma evansi outbreak in a dromedary camel herd in France. Vet Parasitol. 2009;162:214-20 pubmed publisher
    ..evansi in camels and the need to use several diagnostic techniques to optimize detection of infected animals. A warning is raised on surra, a potentially emerging disease in Europe...
  77. Powar R, Shegokar V, Joshi P, Dani V, Tankhiwale N, Truc P, et al. A rare case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:72-4 pubmed
    ..We are reporting an unusual case of trypanosomiasis from the rural parts of Chandrapur district in Maharashtra...
  78. Savani E, Nunes V, Galati E, Castilho T, Araujo F, Ilha I, et al. Occurrence of co-infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi in a dog in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005;100:739-41 pubmed
    ..This case, as far as we know, is the first report of a dog co-infected with these parasites, suggesting that besides L. (L.) chagasi, the natural transmission of T. (T.) evansi occurs in the area under study...
  79. Longoni S, Marín C, Sauri Arceo C, López Céspedes A, Rodríguez Vivas R, Villegas N, et al. An iron-superoxide dismutase antigen-based serological screening of dogs indicates their potential role in the transmission of cutaneous leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis in Yucatan, Mexico. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:815-21 pubmed publisher
    ..is a significant prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi, suggesting that the dog may be a source of transmission of trypanosomiasis. However, a more thorough epidemiological study on the dog population, both wild as well as urban, of the ..
  80. Rodrigues A, Garcia H, Ortiz P, Cortez A, Martinkovic F, Paiva F, et al. Cysteine proteases of Trypanosoma (Megatrypanum) theileri: cathepsin L-like gene sequences as targets for phylogenetic analysis, genotyping diagnosis. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:318-25 pubmed publisher
    ..Results from this work agree with previous data using ribosomal and spliced leader genes demonstrating that CATL gene sequences are useful for diagnosis, population genotyping and evolutionary studies of T. theileri trypanosomes...
  81. Akoda K, van den Bossche P, Marcotty T, Kubi C, Coosemans M, De Deken R, et al. Nutritional stress affects the tsetse fly's immune gene expression. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:195-201 pubmed publisher
    Tsetse-transmitted trypanosomiasis poses a serious threat to human and animal health in sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of tsetse flies (Glossina spp...
  82. Maidana N, Ferreira W. The geographic spread of "El mal de las caderas" in Capybaras (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris). Bull Math Biol. 2008;70:1216-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The speed of propagation for this model is obtained as function of model parameters followed by a discussion of strategies for controlling the spread of the disease...
  83. Jittapalapong S, Inpankaew T, Sarataphan N, Herbreteau V, Hugot J, Morand S, et al. Molecular detection of divergent trypanosomes among rodents of Thailand. Infect Genet Evol. 2008;8:445-9 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that multiple Herpetosoma species or strains are enzootic to Thailand, and that Rattus and Bandicota species are possible sources of human exposure to these parasites...