sarcocystosis

Summary

Summary: Infection of the striated muscle of mammals by parasites of the genus SARCOCYSTIS. Disease symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, muscle weakness, and paralysis are produced by sarcocystin, a toxin produced by the organism.

Top Publications

  1. Thomas N, Dubey J, Lindsay D, Cole R, Meteyer C. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137:102-21 pubmed
    ..neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters...
  2. Witonsky S, Ellison S, Yang J, Gogal R, Lawler H, Suzuki Y, et al. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1047-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection...
  3. Ecco R, Luppi M, Malta M, Araujo M, Guedes R, Shivaprasad H. An outbreak of sarcocystosis in psittacines and a pigeon in a zoological collection in Brazil. Avian Dis. 2008;52:706-10 pubmed
    This report describes an outbreak of acute pulmonary sarcocystosis in different species of captive psittacines and in a Luzon bleeding-heart pigeon (Gallicolumba luzonica) in a zoological collection in Brazil...
  4. Fayer R. Sarcocystis spp. in human infections. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:894-902, table of contents pubmed
    ..suihominis after eating raw meat from cattle and pigs, respectively. The prevalence of intestinal sarcocystosis in humans is low and is only rarely associated with illness, except in volunteers who ingest large numbers of ..
  5. Wendte J, Miller M, Nandra A, Peat S, Crosbie P, Conrad P, et al. Limited genetic diversity among Sarcocystis neurona strains infecting southern sea otters precludes distinction between marine and terrestrial isolates. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:37-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this study suggest a population genetic structure for S. neurona similar to that reported for the related parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, dominated by a limited number of successful genotypes...
  6. Olias P, Gruber A, Heydorn A, Kohls A, Mehlhorn H, Hafez H, et al. A novel Sarcocystis-associated encephalitis and myositis in racing pigeons. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:121-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical, histopathological, electron microscopic and genetic data are unlike any previously described protozoan infections in pigeons, suggesting a novel, severe disease due to an as yet undescribed Sarcocystis species...
  7. Butcher M, Lakritz J, Halaney A, Branson K, Gupta G, Kreeger J, et al. Experimental inoculation of domestic cats (Felis domesticus) with Sarcocystis neurona or S. neurona-like merozoites. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:1-14 pubmed
    ..neurona merozoites originally derived from a horse with EPM. These results indicate present biological differences between the culture-derived merozoites of two Sarcocystis isolates, Sn-UCD 1 and Sn-Mucat 2...
  8. Wunschmann A, Armien A, Reed L, Gruber A, Olias P. Sarcocystis calchasi-associated neurologic disease in a domestic pigeon in North America. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:526-30 pubmed publisher
    ..calchasi. Sarcocystis calchasi is the cause of an emerging lethal disease in pigeons in Germany. This is the first description of the parasite outside of Germany...
  9. Sundar N, Asmundsson I, Thomas N, Samuel M, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana)...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Witonsky S, Gogal R, Duncan R, Norton H, Ward D, Lindsay D. Prevention of meningo/encephalomyelitis due to Sarcocystis neurona infection in mice is mediated by CD8 cells. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:113-23 pubmed
    ..Flow cytometry confirmed the lack of CD8 cells. Taken together, these data support previous studies suggesting a critical role for CD8 cells in the prevention of menigoencephalitis in S. neurona-infected mice...
  2. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Saville W, Reed S, Granstrom D, Speer C. A review of Sarcocystis neurona and equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:89-131 pubmed
    ..This paper reviews information on the history, structure, life cycle, biology, pathogenesis, induction of disease in animals, clinical signs, diagnosis, pathology, epidemiology, and treatment of EPM caused by S. neurona...
  3. Dubey J, Chapman J, Rosenthal B, Mense M, Schueler R. Clinical Sarcocystis neurona, Sarcocystis canis, Toxoplasma gondii, and Neospora caninum infections in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:36-49 pubmed
    ..Further work is necessary to delineate the causative agent(s) of other cases of canine sarcocystosis, and in particular to specify the attributes of S...
  4. Witonsky S, Gogal R, Duncan R, Norton H, Ward D, Yang J, et al. Humoral immunity is not critical for protection against experimental infection with Sarcocystis neurona in B-cell-deficient mice. J Parasitol. 2005;91:830-7 pubmed
    ..Flow cytometry confirmed the lack of B cells. Overall, these data suggest that B cells are not critical to the protective immune response to SN infection...
  5. Asmundsson I, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. A genetically diverse but distinct North American population of Sarcocystis neurona includes an overrepresented clone described by 12 microsatellite alleles. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:352-60 pubmed
    ..Isolates associated with clinical neurological disease bear no obvious distinction as measured by these presumably neutral genetic markers...
  6. Tappe D, Abdullah S, Heo C, Kannan Kutty M, Latif B. Human and animal invasive muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia--recent cases, review and hypotheses. Trop Biomed. 2013;30:355-66 pubmed
    b>Sarcocystosis, an unusual parasitic zoonotic disease, is caused by coccidian/ apicomplexan protozoa in humans and animals...
  7. Olias P, Olias L, Krucken J, Lierz M, Gruber A. High prevalence of Sarcocystis calchasi sporocysts in European Accipiter hawks. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:230-6 pubmed publisher
    ..in Germany serve as natural final hosts of S. calchasi and suggest that falconry and pigeon sport may serve as risk factors for the spread of this pathogen in domestic pigeons...
  8. Sellon D, Knowles D, Greiner E, Long M, Hines M, Hochstatter T, et al. Depletion of natural killer cells does not result in neurologic disease due to Sarcocystis neurona in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency. J Parasitol. 2004;90:782-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that IFN-gamma mediates protection from neurologic disease in SCID mice. Protective levels of IFN-gamma may originate from a low number of nondepleted NK cells or from a non-T cell, non-NK cell population...
  9. Miller M, Barr B, Nordhausen R, James E, Magargal S, Murray M, et al. Ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of Sarcocystis neurona tissue cysts in the central nervous system of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe this is the first ultrastructural and molecular confirmation of the development of S. neurona tissue cysts in the CNS of any animal. ..
  10. Spencer J, Ellison S, Guarino A, Blagburn B. Cell-mediated immune responses in horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Parasitol. 2004;90:428-30 pubmed
    ..It appears that the parasite is also able to induce an immunosuppression toward parasite-derived antigens as parasite-specific responses are decreased...
  11. Olias P, Gruber A, Kohls A, Hafez H, Heydorn A, Mehlhorn H, et al. Sarcocystis species lethal for domestic pigeons. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:497-9 pubmed publisher
    ..that causes lethal neurologic disease in domestic pigeons in Germany. Experimental infections indicated transmission by northern goshawks, and sequence analyses indicated transnational distribution. Worldwide spread is possible...
  12. Rejmanek D, Miller M, Grigg M, Crosbie P, Conrad P. Molecular characterization of Sarcocystis neurona strains from opossums (Didelphis virginiana) and intermediate hosts from Central California. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:20-9 pubmed publisher
    ..neurona sporocysts shed by opossums. ..
  13. Chapman J, Mense M, Dubey J. Clinical muscular sarcocystosis in a dog. J Parasitol. 2005;91:187-90 pubmed
    Muscular sarcocystosis is a rare infection in dogs. Clinical myositis associated with an unidentified species of Sarcocystis was diagnosed in an adult dog from Canada...
  14. Olias P, Gruber A, Heydorn A, Kohls A, Hafez H, Lierz M. Unusual biphasic disease in domestic pigeons (Columba livia f. domestica) following experimental infection with Sarcocystis calchasi. Avian Dis. 2010;54:1032-7 pubmed
    ..The findings further characterize the new highly pathogenic disease in domestic pigeons, which clinically mimics paramyxovirosis and salmonellosis in both phases of the disease and exclude chickens as further intermediate host species...
  15. Wendte J, Miller M, Lambourn D, Magargal S, Jessup D, Grigg M. Self-mating in the definitive host potentiates clonal outbreaks of the apicomplexan parasites Sarcocystis neurona and Toxoplasma gondii. PLoS Genet. 2010;6:e1001261 pubmed publisher
  16. Yabsley M, Ellis A, Stallknecht D, Howerth E. Characterization of Sarcocystis from four species of hawks from Georgia, USA. J Parasitol. 2009;95:256-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition to assisting with determining species richness of Sarcocystis in raptors, molecular analysis should be useful in the identification of potential intermediate hosts...
  17. Mansfield L, Mehler S, Nelson K, Elsheikha H, Murphy A, Knust B, et al. Brown-headed cowbirds (Molothrus ater) harbor Sarcocystis neurona and act as intermediate hosts. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:24-43 pubmed publisher
    ..1% (3/265) had S. neurona sarcocysts, and 0.8% (2/265) had both. These results show that some cowbirds have S. neurona as well as S. falcatula in their leg muscles and can act as intermediate hosts for both parasites...
  18. Miller M, Conrad P, Harris M, Hatfield B, Langlois G, Jessup D, et al. A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:183-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of a localized epizootic in marine wildlife caused by apicomplexan protozoa. ..
  19. Resendes A, Juan Sallés C, Almeria S, Majo N, Domingo M, Dubey J. Hepatic sarcocystosis in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Spanish Mediterranean coast. J Parasitol. 2002;88:206-9 pubmed
    Fatal hepatic sarcocystosis was diagnosed in a striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the northeastern Spanish Mediterranean coast based on pathologic findings and the microscopic and ultrastructural characteristics of the ..
  20. Dubey J, Rosenthal B, Speer C. Sarcocystis lindsayi n. sp. (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the South American opossum, Didelphis albiventris from Brazil. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;48:595-603 pubmed
    ..Natural intermediate hosts for S. lindsayi n. sp. are not known, and fuller characterization of these and other Sarcocystis species would benefit from experimental avian hosts that are more permissive to the maturation of sarcocysts...
  21. Saville W, Stich R, Reed S, Njoku C, Oglesbee M, Wunschmann A, et al. Utilization of stress in the development of an equine model for equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:211-22 pubmed
    ..There is also evidence to suggest that horses in nature may clear the organism routinely, which may explain the relatively high number of normal horses with CSF antibodies to S. neurona compared to the prevalence of EPM...
  22. Latif B, Vellayan S, Omar E, Abdullah S, Mat Desa N. Sarcocystosis among wild captive and zoo animals in Malaysia. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:213-7 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), diaphragm (25%), and esophagus (12.5%). Further ultrastructural studies are required to identify the species of Sarcocystis that infect captive wild animals and their possible role in zoonosis...
  23. Cheadle M, Cunningham M, Greiner E. Prevalence of sarcocysts in Florida black bears (Ursus americanus floridanus). J Parasitol. 2002;88:629-30 pubmed
    ..Two of 132 (1.5%) black bears had muscle sections containing sarcocysts. One sarcocyst was observed per muscle section. The sarcocysts averaged 181.5 x 99.0 microm by light microscopy of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections. ..
  24. Yang Z, Wei C, Zen J, Song J, Zuo Y, He Y, et al. A taxonomic re-appraisal of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Protozoa: Sarcocystidae) from the monkey Macaca fascicularis in Yunnan, PR China. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:75-81 pubmed
    ..Evidence is presented that S. nesbitti may be one of the species infecting humans in South Asia and that the monkey may be a potential reservoir host. ..
  25. Lindsay D, Thomas N, Dubey J. Biological characterisation of Sarcocystis neurona isolated from a Southern sea otter (Enhydra lutris nereis). Int J Parasitol. 2000;30:617-24 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to S. neurona but not Sarcocystis falcatula, Toxoplasma gondii, or Neospora caninum were present in the serum of inoculated mice. This is the first isolation of S. neurona from the brain of a non-equine host. ..
  26. Reiner G, Clemens N, Fischer R, Kohler F, Berge T, Hepp S, et al. Mapping of quantitative trait loci for clinical-chemical traits in swine. Anim Genet. 2009;40:57-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Single QTL explained up to 21.7% of F(2) phenotypic variance. Our analysis confirms that variation of clinical-chemical traits is associated with multiple chromosomal regions. ..
  27. Witonsky S, Morrow J, Leger C, Dascanio J, Buechner Maxwell V, Palmer W, et al. Sarcocystis neurona-specific immunoglobulin G in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of horses administered S neurona vaccine. J Vet Intern Med. 2004;18:98-103 pubmed
    ..Caution must be used in interpreting WB analysis from neurologic horses that have been recently vaccinated for EPM. ..
  28. Dubey J, Ross A, Fritz D. Clinical Toxoplasma gondii, Hammondia heydorni, and Sarcocystis spp. infections in dogs. Parassitologia. 2003;45:141-6 pubmed
    ..None of the protozoa in these dogs reacted with antibodies to Neospora caninum. Feeding of uncooked tissue of sheep was considered to be the likely source of infection for these coccidians in dogs. ..
  29. Franklin R, MacKay R, Gillis K, Tanhauser S, Ginn P, Kennedy T. Effect of a single dose of ponazuril on neural infection and clinical disease in Sarcocystis neurona-challenged interferon-gamma knockout mice. Vet Parasitol. 2003;114:123-30 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that single-dose administration of ponazuril for prevention of CNS infection is partially protective when given between days 4 and 14 pi. ..
  30. Abdel Ghaffar F, Bashtar A, Al Quraishy S, Al Nasr I, Mehlhorn H. Sarcocystis infecting reptiles in Saudi Arabia : 1--Light and electron microscopic study on Sarcocysts of Sarcocystis turcicii sp. nov. infecting the gecko Hemidactylus turcicus Linnaeus. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Events of endodyogeny represented the only mode of reproduction inside the cysts. While comparing the morphology of these cysts with other descriptions of cysts in reptiles, they were described as a new species (Sarcocystis turcicii). ..
  31. Dubey J, Calero Bernal R, Verma S, Mowery J. Pathology, immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural findings associated with neurological sarcocystosis in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2016;223:147-52 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of morphological characteristics and the type of lesions, the parasite was likely due to an unidentified Sarcocystis species, different from S. cruzi. ..
  32. Amairia S, Amdouni Y, Rjeibi M, Rouatbi M, Awadi S, Gharbi M. First molecular detection and characterization of Sarcocystis species in slaughtered cattle in North-West Tunisia. Meat Sci. 2016;122:55-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Consumption of raw or undercooked infected meat is a risk factor of human intestinal sarcocystosis. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of Sarcocystis species infecting slaughtered Tunisian ..
  33. Ellison S, Witonsky S. Evidence that antibodies against recombinant SnSAG1 of Sarcocystis neurona merozoites are involved in infection and immunity in equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Can J Vet Res. 2009;73:176-83 pubmed
    ..The study showed that vaccination with rSnSAG-1 produced antibodies in horses that neutralized merozoites when tested by in vitro culture and significantly reduced clinical signs demonstrated by in vivo challenge. ..
  34. Avapal R, Sharma J, Juyal P. Pathological changes in Sarcocystis infection in domestic pigs (Sus scrofa). Vet J. 2004;168:358-61 pubmed
  35. Duarte P, Daft B, Conrad P, Packham A, Gardner I. Comparison of a serum indirect fluorescent antibody test with two Western blot tests for the diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2003;15:8-13 pubmed
    ..2% (72.6-95.7%), and 69.2% (52.4-83%), respectively. The overall accuracy of the IFAT was shown to be better than that of the WBs and, therefore, the test has potential for use in the diagnosis of EPM caused by Sarcocystis neurona. ..
  36. Claveria F, Cruz M. Sarcocystis levinei infection in Philippine water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Parasitol Int. 2000;48:243-7 pubmed
    ..The ground substance is 0.42-0.57 micron thick. This paper documents the first report of S. levinei in Philippine water buffaloes possessing the type 7 cyst wall. ..
  37. Rimoldi G, Speer B, Wellehan J, Bradway D, Wright L, Reavill D, et al. An outbreak of Sarcocystis calchasi encephalitis in multiple psittacine species within an enclosed zoological aviary. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2013;25:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The current report documents that multiple psittacine species are susceptible intermediate hosts of S. calchasi, and that infection can cause encephalitis resulting in significant morbidity and mortality in psittacine aviaries. ..
  38. McAllister C, Upton S, Trauth S, Dixon J. Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa) from snakes in the southcentral and southwestern United States: new host and geographic records. J Parasitol. 1995;81:63-8 pubmed
    ..This report documents 27 new host and several distributional records for coccidians from snakes in the southcentral and southwestern United States...
  39. Dubey J, Lindsay D, Hill D, Romand S, Thulliez P, Kwok O, et al. Prevalence of antibodies to Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in sera of domestic cats from Brazil. J Parasitol. 2002;88:1251-2 pubmed
    ..caninum-specific antibodies confirmed by 2 tests. This is the first documentation of natural exposure of cats to N. caninum. ..
  40. Colegrove K, Grigg M, Carlson Bremer D, Miller R, Gulland F, Ferguson D, et al. Discovery of three novel coccidian parasites infecting California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), with evidence of sexual replication and interspecies pathogenicity. J Parasitol. 2011;97:868-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that sea lions likely serve as definitive hosts for 3 newly described coccidian parasites, at least 1 of which is pathogenic in a marine mammal intermediate host species. ..
  41. Kutkiene L, Prakas P, Sruoga A, Butkauskas D. Sarcocystis in the birds family Corvidae with description of Sarcocystis cornixi sp. nov. from the hooded crow (Corvus cornix). Parasitol Res. 2009;104:329-36 pubmed publisher
    ..glareoli, S. muris, S. neurona and the unnamed Sarcocystis species whose intermediate hosts are birds. S. cornixi is the most closely related to Sarcocystis sp. (cyst type I) from the white-fronted geese. ..
  42. Abdel Baki A, Allam G, Sakran T, El Malah E. Lambs infected with UV-attenuated sporocysts of Sarcocystis ovicanis produced abnormal sarcocysts and induced protective immunity against a challenge infection. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:131-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These lambs showed high survival and less clinical signs of sarcocystosis than normal infected lambs...
  43. Larkin J, Gabriel M, Gerhold R, Yabsley M, Wester J, Humphreys J, et al. Prevalence to Toxoplasma gondii and Sarcocystis spp. in a reintroduced fisher (Martes pennanti) population in Pennsylvania. J Parasitol. 2011;97:425-9 pubmed publisher
    ..3% to 99.1% identity to several avian Sarcocystis spp. sequences in GenBank. Data from our study suggest that a high percentage of fishers in Pennsylvania have been exposed to T. gondii and are infected with Sarcocystis spp. ..
  44. Yan W, Qian W, Li X, Wang T, Ding K, Huang T. Morphological and molecular characterization of Sarcocystis miescheriana from pigs in the central region of China. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:975-80 pubmed publisher
    b>Sarcocystosis is an important food-borne parasitosis in humans and various animals. Sarcocystis miescheriana and Sarcocystis suihominis are pathogenic to pigs; S. suihominis is also distinctly pathogenic to humans...
  45. Tenter A. Comparison of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect fluorescent antibody test for the detection of IgG antibodies to Sarcocystis muris. Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg A. 1987;267:259-71 pubmed
    ..Both serotests showed only slight crossreactions with high titred Toxoplasma gondii sera at a serum dilution of 1:10. The activity of the antigen lasted for at least 13 months in the ELISA and for at least eight months in the IFAT. ..
  46. Vardeleon D, Marsh A, Thorne J, Loch W, Young R, Johnson P. Prevalence of Neospora hughesi and Sarcocystis neurona antibodies in horses from various geographical locations. Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:273-82 pubmed
    ..We concluded that, in testing for antibodies against Neospora antigens using either IFAT or immunoblot analysis, as described, positive results should not be attributed to the presence of antibodies to S. neurona...
  47. Dubey J, Moré G, van Wilpe E, Calero Bernal R, Verma S, Schares G. Sarcocystis rommeli, n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) from Cattle (Bos taurus) and its Differentiation from Sarcocystis hominis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2016;63:62-8 pubmed publisher
    ..rommeli was not orally infectious for two human volunteers and a red fox (Vulpes vulpes). The Sarcocystis described here is molecularly different from S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis based on 18S rRNA and cox1 gene sequences. ..
  48. Lindsay D, Dubey J. Determination of the activity of pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, sulfonamides, and combinations of pyrimethamine and sulfonamides against Sarcocystis neurona in cell cultures. Vet Parasitol. 1999;82:205-10 pubmed
    ..0 microg/ml. None of the sulfonamides had activity when used alone at 50.0 or 100.0 microg/ml. Combinations of sulfonamides (5.0 or 10.0 microg/ml) with 0.1 microg/ml pyrimethamine demonstrated improved activity. ..
  49. Dubey J, Saville W, Stanek J, Lindsay D, Rosenthal B, Oglesbee M, et al. Sarcocystis neurona infections in raccoons (Procyon lotor): evidence for natural infection with sarcocysts, transmission of infection to opossums (Didelphis virginiana), and experimental induction of neurologic disease in raccoons. Vet Parasitol. 2001;100:117-29 pubmed
    ..neurona-associated encephalomyelitis was found in raccoons killed 14 and 22 days after feeding sporocysts; schizonts and merozoites were seen in encephalitic lesions. ..
  50. Moré G, Bacigalupe D, Basso W, Rambeaud M, Venturini M, Venturini L. Serologic profiles for Sarcocystis sp. and Neospora caninum and productive performance in naturally infected beef calves. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:689-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of serological profiles for Sarcocystis sp. and N. caninum by IFAT in naturally infected beef calves and their relationship to different transmission routes and productive performance. ..
  51. Brock A, Broke A, Matika O, Wilson A, Anderson J, Morin A, et al. An intronic polymorphism in the porcine IRF7 gene is associated with better health and immunity of the host during Sarcocystis infection, and affects interferon signalling. Anim Genet. 2011;42:386-94 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings would suggest that IRF7, as a transcriptional regulator, is involved in the defence mechanism against a larger spectrum of pathogens, and in more host species, than initially anticipated. ..
  52. Radchenko A, Beier T. [The structure of the surface apparatus in sarcocysts of Sarcosporidia in the persistence process]. Tsitologiia. 2002;44:599-604 pubmed
    ..In addition, another way of substance transporting was observed, when the cystic substances, not surrounded with any membrane coating, are thrown from open protrusions directly into the immediate cytoplasm of the host cell. ..
  53. Li J, Lin Z, Du J, Qin Y. [Experimental infection of Sarcocystis suihominis in pig and human volunteer in Guangxi]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2007;25:466-8 pubmed
    ..To confirm existence of Sarcocystis suihominis and possible transmission cycle between human and pigs...
  54. Brown C, Morrow J, Carleton C, Ramanathan B, Reddy R, Vaidya V, et al. Persistence of serum antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in horses moved from North America to India. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:994-7 pubmed
    ..neurona)...
  55. Smith J, Neill P, Box E. Pathogenesis of Sarcocystis falcatula (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus). III. Pathologic and quantitative parasitologic analysis of extrapulmonary disease. J Parasitol. 1989;75:270-87 pubmed
    ..These lesions weakly correlated with meront burdens in most sites during early infection (up to 50 days PI)...
  56. Sykes J, Dubey J, Lindsay L, Prato P, Lappin M, Guo L, et al. Severe myositis associated with Sarcocystis spp. infection in 2 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2011;25:1277-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Dogs are definitive hosts for numerous species of the intracellular protozoan parasite Sarcocystis. Reports of sarcocysts in muscles of dogs most often represent incidental findings...
  57. Vangeel L, Houf K, Geldhof P, Nollet H, Vercruysse J, Ducatelle R, et al. Intramuscular inoculation of cattle with Sarcocystis antigen results in focal eosinophilic myositis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:224-30 pubmed publisher
    ..MHC class II(+) staining was found amongst others in muscle cells surrounding the lesion. These results show that Sarcocystis antigens can induce an inflammatory response in bovine muscle having the characteristics of natural BEM...
  58. Radchenko A, Beier T. [Effect of developing Sarcocystis muris tissue cysts on ultrastructural change of murine muscle fibers]. Tsitologiia. 2001;43:708-13 pubmed
    ..And it dos not seem unlikely that various biologically active substances, produced by the parasite, may be vesicle transported to SFN through the endomysium space...
  59. Xiang Z, He Y, Zhao H, Rosenthal B, Dunams D, Li X, et al. Sarcocystis cruzi: comparative studies confirm natural infections of buffaloes. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:460-6 pubmed publisher
    ..levinei. Either that taxon was missed by our sampling effort, or it may represent a junior synonym to S. cruzi, which would then cycle between dogs and a broader range of intermediate bovine hosts than was previously considered...
  60. Mitchell S, Richardson D, Cheadle M, Zajac A, Lindsay D. Prevalence of agglutinating antibodies to Sarcocystis neurona in skunks (Mephitis Mephitis), raccoons (Procyon lotor), and opossums (Didelphis Virginiana) from Connecticut. J Parasitol. 2002;88:1027-9 pubmed
    ..neurona by intermediate hosts is high in Connecticut. The absence of antibodies in opossums collected from the same areas is most likely because of the absence of systemic infection in the definitive host...
  61. Reiner G, Fischer R, Kohler F, Berge T, Hepp S, Willems H. Heritabilities and quantitative trait loci for blood gases and blood pH in swine. Anim Genet. 2009;40:142-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The results demonstrate that pH and blood gases are influenced by multiple chromosomal areas, each with relatively small effects...
  62. Tian M, Chen Y, Wu L, Rosenthal B, Liu X, He Y, et al. Phylogenetic analysis of Sarcocystis nesbitti (Coccidia: Sarcocystidae) suggests a snake as its probable definitive host. Vet Parasitol. 2012;183:373-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Among those congeners available for comparison, it shares closest affinity with those species of Sarcocystis which use snakes as definitive hosts. We therefore hypothesize that a snake may serve as the definitive host for S. nesbitti...
  63. Lindsay D, Dubey J. Determination of the activity of pyrantel tartrate against Sarcocystis neurona in gamma-interferon gene knockout mice. Vet Parasitol. 2001;97:141-4 pubmed
    ..No activity was seen against sporocyst-induced Sarcocystis neurona infections in mice treated prophylacticly with 4-5mg pyrantel tartrate per mouse per day in the drinking water...
  64. Abdel Ghaffar F, Al Johany A. A light and electron microscope study of Sarcocystis mitrani (sp. nov.) infecting the skink Scincus mitranus in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:102-6 pubmed
    ..Secondary cyst wall was completely absent. Alterations in the infected host cell were observed...
  65. Rossano M, Schott H, Kaneene J, Murphy A, Kruttlin E, Hines M, et al. Effect of daily administration of pyrantel tartrate in preventing infection in horses experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona. Am J Vet Res. 2005;66:846-52 pubmed
    ..To determine whether daily administration of pyrantel tartrate can prevent infection in horses experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona...
  66. Wee S, Shin S. Experimental induction of the two-host life cycle of Sarcocystis cruzi between dogs and Korean native calves. Korean J Parasitol. 2001;39:227-32 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the Sarcocystis cruzi found in Korean native cattle has a 2-host life cycle with dogs as the definitive host and Korean native calves as the intermediate host...
  67. Dahlgren S, Gjerde B. Sarcocystis in Norwegian roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): molecular and morphological identification of Sarcocystis oviformis n. sp. and Sarcocystis gracilis and their phylogenetic relationship with other Sarcocystis species. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:993-1003 pubmed publisher
    ..gracilis and other canine-transmitted Sarcocystis species, whereas S. oviformis formed a well-supported group with Sarcocystis hardangeri of reindeer and Sarcocystis ovalis of moose...
  68. Vangeel L, Houf K, Geldhof P, De Preter K, Vercruysse J, Ducatelle R, et al. Different Sarcocystis spp. are present in bovine eosinophilic myositis. Vet Parasitol. 2013;197:543-8 pubmed publisher
    ..hominis. However S. cruzi and S. hirsuta were also found, as well as an unidentified species. It can be concluded that Sarcocystis species present in lesions of BEM are not restricted to one species. ..
  69. Lindsay D, Mitchell S, Yang J, Dubey J, Gogal R, Witonsky S. Penetration of equine leukocytes by merozoites of Sarcocystis neurona. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:371-6 pubmed
    ..We postulate that S. neurona merozoites may cross the blood brain barrier hidden inside leukocytes. Once inside the CNS these merozoites can egress and invade additional cells and cause encephalitis...
  70. Saez T, Ramos J, De Jalon J, Unzueta A, Loste A. Laryngeal hemiplegia in a ram associated with Sarcocystis species infection. Vet Rec. 2003;153:27-8 pubmed
  71. Furr M, MacKay R, Granstrom D, Schott H, Andrews F. Clinical diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM). J Vet Intern Med. 2002;16:618-21 pubmed
  72. Velásquez J, Di Risio C, Etchart C, Chertcoff A, Mendez N, Cabrera M, et al. Systemic sarcocystosis in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Hum Pathol. 2008;39:1263-7 pubmed publisher
    Sarcocystis sp is a tissue coccidian parasite in humans that causes intestinal and muscular sarcocystosis in immunocompetent patients...
  73. Wouda W, Snoep J, Dubey J. Eosinophilic myositis due to Sarcocystis hominis in a beef cow. J Comp Pathol. 2006;135:249-53 pubmed
    ..Circumstantial evidence indicated a human source of infection, human faecal material having been spread on the pasture grazed by the cattle. The findings supported a causal relationship between S. hominis infection and EM in cattle...
  74. Lau Y, Chang P, Tan C, Fong M, Mahmud R, Wong K. Sarcocystis nesbitti infection in human skeletal muscle: possible transmission from snakes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:361-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We believe these two patients were likely to have symptomatic acute muscular sarcocystosis after S. nesbitti infection that may have originated from snakes.
  75. Valinezhad A, Oryan A, Ahmadi N. Sarcocystis and its complications in camels (Camelus dromedarius) of eastern provinces of Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:229-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The wild and domestic carnivores especially dogs may be the final hosts of Sarcocystis spp. in this area...
  76. Lopes C, de Sá W, Botelho G. [Lesions in cross-breed pregnant cows, experimentally infected with Sarcocystis cruzi (Hasselmann, 1923) Wenyon, 1926 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocytidae)]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2005;14:79-83 pubmed
    ..However, meronts, young and mature cysts of S. cruzi were observed in striated muscle. In the aborted fetus, hemorrhage, was the main histological lesion observed in brain, cerebellum and kidneys...
  77. Vashisht K, Lichtensteiger C, Miller L, Gondim L, McAllister M. Naturally occurring Sarcocystis neurona-like infection in a dog with myositis. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:19-25 pubmed
    ..neurona...
  78. Houk A, Goodwin D, Zajac A, Barr S, Dubey J, Lindsay D. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1119-22 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively...
  79. Rossano M, Murphy A, Vrable R, Vanzo N, Lewis S, Sheline K, et al. Cross-sectional study of serum antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in cats tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2002;221:511-4 pubmed
    ..To determine apparent seroprevalence of antibodies against Sarcocystis neurona in a population of domestic cats previously tested for antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii...
  80. Gupta G, Lakritz J, Saville W, Livingston R, Dubey J, Middleton J, et al. Antigenic evaluation of a recombinant baculovirus-expressed Sarcocystis neurona SAG1 antigen. J Parasitol. 2004;90:1027-33 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of a baculovirus-expressed recombinant S. neurona antigen being used to detect anti-S. neurona antibodies in a variety of host species...
  81. Marsh A, Johnson P, Ramos Vara J, Johnson G. Characterization of a Sarcocystis neurona isolate from a Missouri horse with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Vet Parasitol. 2001;95:143-54 pubmed
    ..Evaluation of the antibodies from the affected horse and immunohistochemical results suggested that antigenic variation of S. neurona can result in variable antibody-antigen reactivity observed in the S. neurona immunoblot test...
  82. Daugschies A, Rupp U, Rommel M. Blood clotting disorders during experimental sarcocystiosis in calves. Int J Parasitol. 1998;28:1187-94 pubmed
    ..No evidence for a classical disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome could be found; however, it was demonstrated that S. cruzi alters plasma coagulation in a dose-dependent way...
  83. Rossano M, Schott H, Murphy A, Kaneene J, Sellon D, Hines M, et al. Parasitemia in an immunocompetent horse experimentally challenged with Sarcocystis neurona sporocysts. Vet Parasitol. 2005;127:3-8 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this is the first report of parasitemia with S. neurona in an immunocompetent horse...