ciliophora infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with protozoa of the phylum CILIOPHORA.

Top Publications

  1. Yambot A, Song Y, Sung H. Characterization of Cryptocaryon irritans, a parasite isolated from marine fishes in Taiwan. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;54:147-56 pubmed
    ..Since manipulation of salinity in brackishwater ponds and marine cage sites is not feasible, there is a need to develop new strategies for the control and prevention of cryptocaryoniasis...
  2. Onara D, Forlenza M, Gonzalez S, Rakus K, Pilarczyk A, Irnazarow I, et al. Differential transcription of multiple forms of alpha-2-macroglobulin in carp (Cyprinus carpio) infected with parasites. Dev Comp Immunol. 2008;32:339-47 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis. A2M3 was the only a2M isoform with a highly upregulated transcription during infection, suggesting that this particular isoform is of foremost biological importance...
  3. Parama A, Castro R, Arranz J, Sanmartin M, Lamas J, Leiro J. Scuticociliate cysteine proteinases modulate turbot leucocyte functions. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;23:945-56 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi to modulate the innate immune response of turbot, which together with the inflammation mediators produced during infection, may play an important role in pathogenesis of the disease and in the survival of the parasite...
  4. Iglesias R, Parama A, Alvarez M, Leiro J, Sanmartin M. Antiprotozoals effective in vitro against the scuticociliate fish pathogen Philasterides dicentrarchi. Dis Aquat Organ. 2002;49:191-7 pubmed
    ..In view of these findings, we discuss the potential utility of chemotherapy as a strategy for the control of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot and sea bass...
  5. Lin T, Clark T, Dickerson H. Passive immunization of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) against the ciliated protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis by use of murine monoclonal antibodies. Infect Immun. 1996;64:4085-90 pubmed
    ..The implications of these findings for the development of a vaccine against I. multifiliis and immunity against surface pathogens of fish are discussed...
  6. Parama A, Iglesias R, Alvarez M, Sanmartin M, Leiro J. Chemotactic responses of the fish-parasitic scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi to blood and blood components of the turbot Scophthalmus maximus, evaluated using a new microplate multiassay. J Microbiol Methods. 2004;58:361-6 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi, in line with previous findings indicating that turbot with skin lesions show increased susceptibility to P. dicentrarchi infection...
  7. Parama A, Castro R, Lamas J, Sanmartin M, Santamarina M, Leiro J. Scuticociliate proteinases may modulate turbot immune response by inducing apoptosis in pronephric leucocytes. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:87-95 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi may induce host leucocyte programmed cell death via the production of cysteine proteinases, as a mechanism of pathogenesis and evasion of the turbot innate immune response...
  8. Luo X, Xie M, Zhu X, Li A. Protective immunity in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) following exposure to or injection with Cryptocaryon irritans. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:427-32 pubmed
    ..irritans. These findings indicated that humoral and skin mucosal immunity play important roles in fish against C. irritans infection...
  9. Jung S, Kitamura S, Song J, Oh M. Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) causes systemic infection of olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus and is a senior synonym of Philasterides dicentrarchi. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:227-34 pubmed
    ..Specimens in the current study were compared with previous reports on M. avidus and Philasterides dicentrarchi and confirmed consistently that these 2 taxa are conspecific...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Paramá A, Piazzon M, Lamas J, Sanmartín M, Leiro J. In vitro activity of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug indomethacin on a scuticociliate parasite of farmed turbot. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:318-24 pubmed
  2. Clark T, Lin T, Dickerson H. Surface antigen cross-linking triggers forced exit of a protozoan parasite from its host. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996;93:6825-9 pubmed
    ..These findings represent a novel instance among protists in which protective immunity (and evasion of the host response) result from an effect of antibody on parasite behavior...
  3. Dickerson H, Clark T. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis: a model of cutaneous infection and immunity in fishes. Immunol Rev. 1998;166:377-84 pubmed
    ..The development of Ichthyophthirius as an experimental system and how it might be used to address these issues are discussed in this review...
  4. Wang X, Clark T, Noe J, Dickerson H. Immunisation of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis immobilisation antigens elicits serotype-specific protection. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2002;13:337-50 pubmed
    ..The utility of i-antigens, as well as the existence of other potential vaccine candidates for the prevention of 'white-spot' disease, are discussed...
  5. Quintela J, Peinador C, Gonzalez L, Iglesias R, Paramá A, Alvarez F, et al. Piperazine N-substituted naphthyridines, pyridothienopyrimidines and pyridothienotriazines: new antiprotozoals active against Philasterides dicentrarchi. Eur J Med Chem. 2003;38:265-75 pubmed
    ..Pyridothienotriazine (12k) presents the same activity (Lethal Dose, LD=0.8/1.5 mg L(-1)) as the well-known antiparasitics niclosamide and oxyclozanide...
  6. Coyne R, Hannick L, Shanmugam D, Hostetler J, Brami D, Joardar V, et al. Comparative genomics of the pathogenic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, its free-living relatives and a host species provide insights into adoption of a parasitic lifestyle and prospects for disease control. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R100 pubmed publisher
    ..Indeed, it is closely related to the model organism Tetrahymena thermophila. Genomic studies represent a promising strategy to reduce the impact of this disease and to understand the evolutionary transition to parasitism...
  7. Jee B, Kim K, Park S, Kim Y. A new strain of Cryptocaryon irritans from the cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2000;43:211-5 pubmed
    ..irritans with respect to clinical, histopathological, and morphological characters, suggesting that it is a new strain of C. irritans, adapted to lower water temperature...
  8. von Gersdorff Jørgensen L, Heinecke R, Skjødt K, Rasmussen K, Buchmann K. Experimental evidence for direct in situ binding of IgM and IgT to early trophonts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Fouquet) in the gills of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2011;34:749-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This study indicates that antibodies play an important part in the protection of immune fish against Ich although additional humoral and cellular factors may contribute to this reaction...
  9. Wahli T, Matthews R. Ichthyophthiriasis in carp Cyprinus carpio: infectivity of trophonts prematurely exiting both the immune and non-immune host. Dis Aquat Organ. 1999;36:201-7 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in relation to theront transformation and evasion of the host immune response...
  10. Xu D, Klesius P, Shelby R. Immune responses and host protection of channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus (Rafinesque), against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis after immunization with live theronts and sonicated trophonts. J Fish Dis. 2004;27:135-41 pubmed
    ..p. injection or with sonicated trophonts by i.p. injection. There was a positive correlation between higher levels of anti-Ich antibodies and host survival in the immunized fish...
  11. Kim S, Cho J, Kim S, Nam Y, Kim K. Occurrence of scuticociliatosis in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus by Phiasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora: scuticociliatida). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;62:233-8 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi, and sequenced the SS rRNA gene in order to design P. dicentrarchi specific primers. This is the first report on scuticociliatosis caused by P. dicentrarchi from marine fish in Asia...
  12. Gonzalez S, Buchmann K, Nielsen M. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infection induces massive up-regulation of serum amyloid A in carp (Cyprinus carpio). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;115:172-8 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that SAA plays a major role in the acute phase response in fish infected with I. multifiliis and emphasize the importance of the fish skin as an active organ in response to an ectoparasite infection...
  13. Maki J, Dickerson H. Systemic and cutaneous mucus antibody responses of channel catfish immunized against the protozoan parasite Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2003;10:876-81 pubmed
    ..Whether elicited by infection or intraperitoneal injection of i-antigen, the serum and mucus antibody responses of channel catfish immunized against I. multifiliis did not occur synchronously...
  14. Xu D, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Effect of immunization of channel catfish with inactivated trophonts on serum and cutaneous antibody titers and survival against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2009;26:614-8 pubmed publisher
    ..859, p < 0.01). These results indicate that doses of sonicated trophonts, but not formalin-inactivated or freeze-thawed trophonts provided both serum and cutaneous antibody responses and survival to live trophont challenge...
  15. von Gersdorff Jorgensen L, Nemli E, Heinecke R, Raida M, Buchmann K. Immune-relevant genes expressed in rainbow trout following immunisation with a live vaccine against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;80:189-97 pubmed publisher
    ..i. Genes encoding immunoglobulins were not up-regulated, but a specific low titer IgM response (titer 25) against parasite antigens was detected by a modified ELISA 4 wk p.i...
  16. Sitja Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O, Alvarez Pellitero P. Immune response of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.) (Pisces: Teleostei), to formalin-killed scuticociliates (Ciliophora) and adjuvanted formulations. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2008;24:1-10 pubmed
    ..The obtained information could be useful for further design of immunoprophylactic formulations against scuticociliatosis...
  17. Sanmartin M, Parama A, Castro R, Cabaleiro S, Leiro J, Lamas J, et al. Vaccination of turbot, Psetta maxima (L.), against the protozoan parasite Philasterides dicentrarchi: effects on antibody production and protection. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:135-40 pubmed publisher
    ..dicentrarchi after the administration of the two vaccinations, and that this preparation can be used as a vaccine against the pathogen...
  18. Parama A, Iglesias R, Alvarez M, Leiro J, Ubeira F, Sanmartin M. Cysteine proteinase activities in the fish pathogen Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida). Parasitology. 2004;128:541-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, the histolytic activity of the ciliate in turbot fibroblast monolayers was strongly reduced in the presence of E-64, confirming the importance of secreted cysteine proteinases in the biology of Philasterides dicentrarchi...
  19. Shinn A, Wootten R, Côté I, Sommerville C. Efficacy of selected oral chemotherapeutants against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora: Ophyroglenidae) infecting rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Dis Aquat Organ. 2003;55:17-22 pubmed
    ..6 and 32.2% for amprolium, 20.1% for clopidol and 80.2, 71.9 and 93.3% respectively for salinomycin sodium. ..
  20. Garcia L, Becker A, Bertuzzi T, Cunha M, Kochhann D, Finamor I, et al. Oxidative stress parameters in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles infected with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and maintained at different levels of water pH. Vet Parasitol. 2011;178:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, I. multifiliis infection induces liver and gill damage via lipid peroxidation products in silver catfish, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity could indicate a greater degree of protection against this parasite. ..
  21. Niu S, Jin Y, Xu X, Qiao Y, Wu Y, Mao Y, et al. Characterization of a novel piscidin-like antimicrobial peptide from Pseudosciaena crocea and its immune response to Cryptocaryon irritans. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:513-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, these data provided new insights into P. crocea innate immunity against external protozoan parasite and microbial infections and facilitate the evaluation of Pc-pis as a therapeutic agent against pathogen invasion. ..
  22. Zuo R, Ai Q, Mai K, Xu W, Wang J, Xu H, et al. Effects of dietary n-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids on growth, nonspecific immunity, expression of some immune related genes and disease resistance of large yellow croaker (Larmichthys crocea) following natural infestation of parasites (Cryptocaryo. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;32:249-58 pubmed publisher
  23. Vallo P, Petrzelkova K, Profousová I, Petrášová J, Pomajbíková K, Leendertz F, et al. Molecular diversity of entodiniomorphid ciliate Troglodytella abrassarti and its coevolution with chimpanzees. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012;148:525-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Alternatively, the molecular uniformity of T. abrassarti may imply a historical overlap of the species' distribution ranges. ..
  24. Takagishi N, Yoshinaga T, Ogawa K. Effect of hyposalinity on the infection and pathogenicity of Miamiensis avidus causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2009;86:175-9 pubmed publisher
    ..It was experimentally demonstrated that hyposaline conditions can be a key factor for the development and outbreak of scuticociliatosis in olive flounder...
  25. Gürellı G. [About ciliates Entodinium palmare and E. okoppensis (Ciliophora: Ophryoscolecidae) in the rumen of domestic cattles (Bos taurus taurus) in the vicinity of Kastamonu]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2012;36:228-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This study concluded that the feeding habits and feeding frequencies of cattle, the physiological conditions of rumen or competition between species can be important reasons for this situation. ..
  26. Harikrishnan R, Jin C, Kim J, Balasundaram C, Heo M. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations. Exp Parasitol. 2012;130:239-45 pubmed publisher
    ..dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder. ..
  27. Khoo C, Abdul Murad A, Kua B, Mohd Adnan A. Cryptocaryon irritans infection induces the acute phase response in Lates calcarifer: a transcriptomic perspective. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:788-94 pubmed publisher
    ..irritans infection is similar to the responses observed in bacterial infections of teleosts. This response demonstrates the importance of first line defenses in teleost innate immune responses against ectoparasite infection. ..
  28. Parama A, Iglesias R, Alvarez F, Leiro J, Quintela J, Peinador C, et al. In vitro efficacy of new antiprotozoals against Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;62:97-102 pubmed
    ..The most promising compound was the pyridothienotriazine 12k, with activity similar to that of the salicylanilides niclosamide and oxiclozanide (MLC 0.8 mg l(-1) in PBS, 1.5 mg l(-1) in seawater; MLC = minimum 24 h lethal concentration)...
  29. Kaur T, Singh J, Lindsay D. Prevalence of Troglodytella abrassarti Brumpt and Joyeux, 1912 in wild chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) at Mahale Mountains National Park in Western Tanzania. J Parasitol. 2010;96:209-10 pubmed publisher
    ..abrassarti. The high prevalence of T. abrassarti in these chimpanzees is consistent with previous reports of this organism in chimpanzees...
  30. Woo P. Protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases. Parassitologia. 2007;49:185-91 pubmed
    ..The live Cryptobia vaccine protects salmonids from infections while the DNA-vaccine stimulates production of antibodies to neutralize the disease causing factor (metalloprotease) in cryptobiosis; hence infected fish recover more rapidly...
  31. Olsen M, Kania P, Heinecke R, Skjoedt K, Rasmussen K, Buchmann K. Cellular and humoral factors involved in the response of rainbow trout gills to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infections: molecular and immunohistochemical studies. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:859-69 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis...
  32. Xu D, Klesius P, Bosworth B, Chatakondi N. Susceptibility of three strains of blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus (Valenciennes), to Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. J Fish Dis. 2012;35:887-95 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that there are differences among strains of blue catfish for susceptibility to Ich, and these differences will be useful in the development of improved catfish germplasm for commercial aquaculture. ..
  33. Maceda Veiga A, Salvadó H, Vinyoles D, de Sostoa A. Outbreaks of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis in redtail barbs Barbus haasi in a Mediterranean stream during drought. J Aquat Anim Health. 2009;21:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Further studies are needed to establish the incidence of freshwater fish diseases in Mediterranean watersheds, and water management policies should be reviewed to improve the conservation of native fish fauna. ..
  34. Leiro J, Arranz J, Iglesias R, Ubeira F, Sanmartin M. Effects of the histiophagous ciliate Philasterides dicentrarchi on turbot phagocyte responses. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2004;17:27-39 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi. These results suggest that the amphizoic nature of this parasite may reflect the ease with which it can develop mechanisms of evasion of the host immune response. ..
  35. Salinas I, Maas E, Munoz P. Characterization of acid phosphatases from marine scuticociliate parasites and their activation by host's factors. Parasitology. 2011;138:836-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results highlight the importance of PTPs in histophagous parasites and their interaction with fish host's factors. ..
  36. Swennes A, Noe J, Findly R, Dickerson H. Differences in virulence between two serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;69:227-32 pubmed
    ..This report represents the first experimental evidence for differences in virulence between serotypes of I. multifiliis...
  37. Huang X, Sun Z, Guo G, Zheng C, Xu Y, Yuan L, et al. Cloning and characterization of a surface antigen CiSA-32.6 from Cryptocaryon irritans. Exp Parasitol. 2012;130:189-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This study provides the basis of further investigations into the pathogenic biology of C. irritans and the control of cryptocaryosis. ..
  38. Misumi I, Leong J, Takemura A, Lewis T. Immune protection of Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) exposed to different infectious doses of ectoparasite (Cryptocaryon irritans). Parasitol Res. 2012;110:363-72 pubmed publisher
    ..g. 300 theronts per fish). Moreover, as the result of the protein analysis, we identified 28 kD proteins that could be responsible for the immobilizing antigen. ..
  39. Budiño B, Lamas J, Pata M, Arranz J, Sanmartín M, Leiro J. Intraspecific variability in several isolates of Philasterides dicentrarchi (syn. Miamiensis avidus), a scuticociliate parasite of farmed turbot. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:260-72 pubmed publisher
    ..The existence of this intraspecific variation must be taken into account in the design of an effective vaccine to control scuticociliatosis. ..
  40. Moustafa E, Tange N, Shimada A, Morita T. Experimental Scuticociliatosis in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) infected with Miamiensis avidus: pathological study on the possible neural routes of invasion and dissemination of the scuticociliate inside the fish body. J Vet Med Sci. 2010;72:1557-63 pubmed
  41. Gürellı G, Göçmen B. Intestinal ciliate composition found in the feces of racing horses from Izmir, Turkey. Eur J Protistol. 2012;48:215-26 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, Didesmis and Prorodonopsis were only observed at a low frequency. Bundleia nana, Blepharoconus hemiciliatus, Paraisotrichopsis composita, Prorodonopsis coli and Spirodinium equi were newly recorded from Turkey...
  42. Dan X, Zhong Z, Li Y, Luo X, Li A. Cloning and expression analysis of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) M-CSFR gene post Cryptocaryon irritans infection and distribution of M-CSFR(+) cells. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2013;35:240-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible activation mechanism of macrophage via EcM-CSFR signal transduction in the fish anti-C. irritans infection was discussed. ..
  43. Yin F, Sun P, Wang J, Gao Q. Transcriptome analysis of dormant tomonts of the marine fish ectoparasitic ciliate Cryptocaryon irritans under low temperature. Parasit Vectors. 2016;9:280 pubmed publisher
  44. Martins M, Xu D, Shoemaker C, Klesius P. Temperature effects on immune response and hematological parameters of channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus vaccinated with live theronts of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;31:774-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The fish showed no anti-Ich antibodies and suffered high mortality similar to non vaccinated control fish...
  45. Pádua S, Martins M, Carrijo Mauad J, Ishikawa M, Jerônimo G, Dias Neto J, et al. First record of Chilodonella hexasticha (Ciliophora: Chilodonellidae) in Brazilian cultured fish: a morphological and pathological assessment. Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:154-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In Brazilian-farmed fish this is the first record of C. hexasticha, which has great pathogenic potential in cultured freshwater species. In addition, two new hosts are presented. ..
  46. Wang P, Wang J, Su Y, Mao Y, Zhang J, Wu C, et al. Transcriptome analysis of the Larimichthys crocea liver in response to Cryptocaryon irritans. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2016;48:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..croceas for the first time and not only sheds new light on the molecular mechanisms underlying the host-C. irritans interaction but also facilitates future studies on L. croceas gene expression and functional genomics. ..
  47. Shinn A, Picon Camacho S, Bron J, Conway D, Yoon G, Guo F, et al. The anti-protozoal activity of bronopol on the key life-stages of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 (Ciliophora). Vet Parasitol. 2012;186:229-36 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis (protomonts, tomont and theronts), thus suggesting that bronopol may serve a useful role in the control of I. multifiliis infections. ..
  48. Li Y, Luo X, Dan X, Huang X, Qiao W, Zhong Z, et al. Orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides) TLR2, MyD88 and IL-1? involved in anti-Cryptocaryon irritans response. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1230-40 pubmed publisher
    ..irritans infection. These findings indicate the TLR signaling pathway may play an important role in host defense against C. irritans. ..
  49. Iglesias R, Parama A, Alvarez M, Leiro J, Fernandez J, Sanmartin M. Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatida) as the causative agent of scuticociliatosis in farmed turbot Scophthalmus maximus in Galicia (NW Spain). Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;46:47-55 pubmed
    ..We discuss possible routes of entry into the host, and environmental factors possibly facilitating infection...
  50. León Rodriguez L, Luzardo Alvarez A, Blanco Méndez J, Lamas J, Leiro J. A vaccine based on biodegradable microspheres induces protective immunity against scuticociliatosis without producing side effects in turbot. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2012;33:21-7 pubmed publisher
  51. Ling F, Wang J, Liu Q, Li M, Ye L, Gong X. Prevention of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation in goldfish (Carassius auratus) by potassium ferrate(VI) treatment. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:212-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05), but also the prevalence of ichthyophthiriasis (P<0.05). Potassium ferrate(VI) at a concentration of 4.80mg/L was considered to be the lowest effective dose to prevent infestation of I. multifiliis in goldfish...
  52. Sviderskii V, Lobzin I, Gorelkin V, Plotnikova S. [Motor activity of infusoria: fundamental and applied aspects]. Zh Evol Biokhim Fiziol. 2007;43:379-90 pubmed
    ..The eradication of infusoria parasitizing in humans and animals by interrupting of locomotion of the protista is also discussed...
  53. Pritchett K, Sanders G. Epistylididae ectoparasites in a colony of African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci. 2007;46:86-91 pubmed
    ..We discuss the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of Epistylis and the importance of water-quality monitoring and husbandry in the care of these research animals...
  54. Swennes A, Findly R, Dickerson H. Cross-immunity and antibody responses to different immobilisation serotypes of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2007;22:589-97 pubmed
  55. Hader D, Schmidl J, Hilbig R, Oberle M, Wedekind H, Richter P. Treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with photodynamically active chlorophyllin. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1509-17 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis infection was observed. We propose that chlorophyllin (or other photodynamic substances) is a possible effective countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture. ..
  56. Sigh J, Lindenstrøm T, Buchmann K. The parasitic ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis induces expression of immune relevant genes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2004;27:409-17 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that complement is involved in immune reactions against I. multifiliis and that mucosal antibodies might be produced at the site of infection...
  57. Minguez L, Boiché A, Sroda S, Mastitsky S, Brulé N, Bouquerel J, et al. Cross-effects of nickel contamination and parasitism on zebra mussel physiology. Ecotoxicology. 2012;21:538-47 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data, therefore, confirm that the parasitism in D. polymorpha represents a potential confounding factor in ecotoxicological studies that involve this bivalve...
  58. Mallo N, Lamas J, Defelipe A, Decastro M, Sueiro R, Leiro J. Presence of an isoform of H+-pyrophosphatase located in the alveolar sacs of a scuticociliate parasite of turbot: physiological consequences. Parasitology. 2016;143:576-87 pubmed publisher
    ..Gene and protein expression in this isoform are significantly regulated by variations in salinity, indicating a possible physiological role of this enzyme and the alveolar sacs in osmoregulation and salt tolerance in P. dicentrarchi. ..
  59. Martins M, Marchiori N, Roumbedakis K, Lami F. Trichodina nobilis Chen, 1963 and Trichodina reticulata Hirschmann et Partsch, 1955 from ornamental freshwater fishes in Brazil. Braz J Biol. 2012;72:281-6 pubmed
    ..nobilis was found in C. auratus, P. reticulata and X. maculatus and T. reticulata was only observed in C. auratus. The importance of adequate handling in ornamental fish culture are also discussed...
  60. Alvarez Pellitero P, Palenzuela O, Padrós F, Sitja Bobadilla A, Riaza A, Silva R, et al. Histophagous scuticociliatids (Ciliophora) parasitizing turbot Scophthalmus maximus: morphology, in vitro culture and virulence. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2004;51:177-87 pubmed
    ..The need of further studies to confirm such virulence variability and its implications in pathogenesis and prevention of turbot scuticociliatoses is stressed...
  61. Al Rasheid K, Ali M, Sakran T, Abdel Baki A, Abdel Ghaffar F. Trichodinid ectoparasites (Ciliophora: Peritrichida) of some River Nile fish, Egypt. Parasitol Int. 2000;49:131-7 pubmed
    ..These species are: Trichodina heterodentata Duncan, 1977, Trichodina fahaka sp. n., Trichodinella epizootica Raabe, 1950, Tripartiella dactylodentata sp. n. Photomicrographs and morphometric data are presented for each species...
  62. Acorn A, Clark K, Jones S, Després B, Munro S, Cawthorn R, et al. Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and gene expression changes under different growth conditions for the ciliate Anophryoides haemophila, the causative agent of bumper car disease in the American lobster (Homarus americanus). J Invertebr Pathol. 2011;107:146-54 pubmed publisher
  63. Jung S, Bae M, Oh M, Lee J. Sequence conservation in the internal transcribed spacers and 5.8S ribosomal RNA of parasitic scuticociliates Miamiensis avidus (Ciliophora, Scuticociliatia). Parasitol Int. 2011;60:216-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This study exhibits the first detailed analysis of the ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2 rRNA regions of M. avidus...
  64. Jones S, Prosperi Porta G, LaPatra S. First isolation of Pseudocohnilembus persalinus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) from freshwater-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1014-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A cyst-like stage may have facilitated the novel occurrence of this organism as an endosymbiont in rainbow trout...
  65. Gouda H. The effect of peritrich ciliates on some freshwater leeches from Assiut, Egypt. J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;93:143-9 pubmed
    ..The present study represents the first report of the effect of Epistylis on leeches collected from Egypt...
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    ..irritans elicited stronger protective immunity than the trophont and tomont stages in grouper. The tentative identification of protective antigen provides the solid foundation for the development of a defined vaccine against C. irritans...
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    ..multifiliis and D. ctenopharyngodonid, then the two parasites were eliminated by oral administration of the medicated feed with an immunostimulant (Chinese medicine compound). ..
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    ..g. the other ciliate fauna, bacterial population, inter-specific antagonism etc.)...
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    ..In contrast, the number of treatment repetitions played a minor role, and parasites were eliminated with five treatments in all experiments when the type of chemical and treatment interval were optimal...
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    ..This discovery is interesting as it suggests I. multifiliis may be found in tissues other than the skin and gills during the course of a normal infection...
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    ..Fluorescent E. ictaluri were observed on trophonts in skin and gill wet mounts of dead fish. This study demonstrated that Ich could vector E. ictaluri to channel catfish...
  73. Imai S, Matsumoto M, Watanabe A, Sato H. Establishment of a spinated type of Diplodinium rangiferi by transfaunation of the rumen ciliates of Japanese sika deer (Cervus nippon centralis) to the rumen of two Japanese shorthorn calves (Bos taurus taurus). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2002;49:38-41 pubmed
    ..The caudal spines of D. rangiferi did not disappear during the experiment, even when the diet of the calves was switched to the ration of sika deer from which the inoculum was obtained...
  74. Seo J, Jeon E, Jung S, Park M, Kim J, Kim K, et al. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of peptidase genes in the fish-pathogenic scuticociliate Miamiensis avidus. BMC Vet Res. 2013;9:10 pubmed publisher
    ..Like other parasites, the facultative histophagous ciliate Miamiensis avidus would possess peptidases that are closely associated with the invasion into the host tissue and survival in the host...
  75. Iglesias R, Parama A, Alvarez M, Leiro J, Ubeira F, Sanmartin M. Philasterides dicentrarchi (Ciliophora:Scuticociliatida) expresses surface immobilization antigens that probably induce protective immune responses in turbot. Parasitology. 2003;126:125-34 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi...
  76. Umehara A, Kosuga Y, Hirose H. Scuticociliata infection in the weedy sea dragon Phyllopteryx taeniolatus. Parasitol Int. 2003;52:165-8 pubmed
    ..We discuss the major factors that bring about the death of weedy sea dragons...
  77. Jin C, Harikrishnan R, Moon Y, Kim M, Kim J, Balasundaram C, et al. Effectiveness of chemotherapeutants against scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi, a parasite of olive flounder. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:19-24 pubmed publisher
    ..However, formalin was only moderately effective at this concentration. Therefore, hydrogen peroxide and Jenoclean are the promising compounds effective at low concentrations with short application time...
  78. Martins M, Marchiori N, Nunes G, Rodrigues M. First record of Trichodina heterodentata (Ciliophora: Trichodinidae) from channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus cultivated in Brazil. Braz J Biol. 2010;70:637-44 pubmed
    ..This work confirms the biometrical variation that exists in the different populations of T. heterodentata. A list of hosts and comparative measurements of T. heterodentata are presented and the channel catfish is considered a new host...
  79. Kim H, Choi S, Choi S, Kim M, Kim S, Nam Y, et al. Effects of bile acids on proliferation and production of proteinase activity of Uronema marinum (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida). Dis Aquat Organ. 2004;62:245-8 pubmed
    ..marinum, resulting in an increased possibility of scuticociliatosis in olive flounder farms...
  80. Gleeson D. Experimental infection of striped marshfrog tadpoles (Limnodynastes peronii) by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. J Parasitol. 1999;85:568-70 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that it has been demonstrated that I. multifiliis can infect a nonpiscine vertebrate host...
  81. Jee B, Kim Y, Park M. Morphology and biology of parasite responsible for scuticociliatosis of cultured olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Dis Aquat Organ. 2001;47:49-55 pubmed
    ..The ciliates propagated in a wide range of both temperature (6 to 30 degrees C) and salinity (10 to 35 ppt)...
  82. Li M, Wang J, Zhu D, Gu Z, Zhang J, Gong X. Study of Apiosoma piscicola (Blanchard 1885) occurring on fry of freshwater fishes in Hongze, China with consideration of the genus Apiosoma. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:931-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The telotroch was also observed, and its structures were described herein. Besides, the difficulties of the generic taxonomy were discussed and some suggestions were given...
  83. Sigh J, Lindenstrøm T, Buchmann K. Expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during an infection with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2004;17:75-86 pubmed
    ..Expression of the down regulatory IL-1RII was seen in all three tissues. The potential involvement of the expression of these genes and their relevance in an infection with I. multifiliis are discussed...