amebiasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.

Top Publications

  1. Schuster F, Guglielmo B, Visvesvara G. In-vitro activity of miltefosine and voriconazole on clinical isolates of free-living amebas: Balamuthia mandrillaris, Acanthamoeba spp., and Naegleria fowleri. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2006;53:121-6 pubmed
    ..Miltefosine and voriconazole are potentially useful drugs for treatment of free-living amebic infections, though sensitivities differ between genera, species, and strains...
  2. Visvesvara G, Moura H, Schuster F. Pathogenic and opportunistic free-living amoebae: Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri, and Sappinia diploidea. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2007;50:1-26 pubmed
    ..We also discuss the clinical profiles, mechanisms of pathogenesis, pathophysiology, immunology, antimicrobial sensitivity and molecular characteristics of these amoebae...
  3. Ximenez C, Moran P, Rojas L, Valadez A, Gomez A. Reassessment of the epidemiology of amebiasis: state of the art. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:1023-32 pubmed publisher
    The epidemiology of amebiasis has dramatically changed since the separation of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar species, and the worldwide prevalence of these species has not been estimated until recently...
  4. Seas R C, Bravo P F. [Amebic granulomatosis encephalitis due to Balamuthia mandrillaris: fatal disease increasingly recognized in Latin America]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2006;23:197-9 pubmed
  5. Verkerke H, Petri W, Marie C. The dynamic interdependence of amebiasis, innate immunity, and undernutrition. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:771-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Efforts to exhaustively characterize the pathogenesis of amebiasis have increased our understanding of the dynamic host-parasite interaction and the process by which E...
  6. Schuster F, Honarmand S, Visvesvara G, Glaser C. Detection of antibodies against free-living amoebae Balamuthia mandrillaris and Acanthamoeba species in a population of patients with encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1260-5 pubmed
    ..We have screened serum samples from hospitalized patients with encephalitis for antibodies against these 2 amoebae as a means of detecting a disease with few defining symptoms and a poor prognosis...
  7. Su S, Guo H, Chuang Y, Chen K, Lin C. Eradication of amebiasis in a large institution for adults with mental retardation in Taiwan. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2007;28:679-83 pubmed
    Investigation of a program to eradicate amebiasis using consecutive intensive mass screenings followed by medication in a large institute for adults with mental retardation in Taiwan. Prospective cohort study, with 3 years of follow-up...
  8. Kiderlen A, Laube U, Radam E, Tata P. Oral infection of immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice with Balamuthia mandrillaris amebae. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:775-82 pubmed
    ..mandrillaris leading to GAE is possible. Exit from the gastrointestinal tract and dissemination remains unresolved. Though stool cultures were negative, transmission of this highly pathogenic ameba via stool cannot be ruled out...
  9. Qvarnstrom Y, da Silva A, Schuster F, Gelman B, Visvesvara G. Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as a causative agent of amoebic encephalitis. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results illustrate the potential for other free-living amoebae, which are not normally associated with human disease, to cause occasional infections...

More Information

Publications72

  1. Barete S, Combes A, De Jonckheere J, Datry A, Varnous S, Martinez V, et al. Fatal disseminated Acanthamoeba lenticulata infection in a heart transplant patient. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:736-8 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was based on skin histopathologic results and confirmed by isolation of the ameba from involved skin and molecular analysis of a partial 18S rRNA gene sequence (DF3). ..
  2. Schuster F, Dunnebacke T, Booton G, Yagi S, Kohlmeier C, Glaser C, et al. Environmental isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3175-80 pubmed
    ..The environmental isolate is similar in its antimicrobial sensitivities and identical in its 16S ribosomal DNA sequences to the Balamuthia isolate from the deceased patient...
  3. Orozco L, Khan M, Fratkin J, Hanigan W. Asymptomatic aneurysm of the cavernous and supraclinoid internal carotid artery in a patient with Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis. J Clin Neurosci. 2011;18:1118-20 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report to demonstrate the risk of aneurysm formation associated with this infection. Prolonged anti-amebic treatment resulted in resolution of the aneurysm without clinical evidence of subarachnoid hemorrhage...
  4. Schuster F, Visvesvara G. Free-living amoebae as opportunistic and non-opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1001-27 pubmed
  5. Cary L, Maul E, Potter C, Wong P, Nelson P, Given C, et al. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis: survival of a pediatric patient. Pediatrics. 2010;125:e699-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Our observations suggest that early diagnosis and treatment may significantly reduce mortality and morbidity rates from this highly virulent organism...
  6. Sarica F, Tufan K, Cekinmez M, Erdogan B, Altinors M. A rare but fatal case of granulomatous amebic encephalitis with brain abscess: the first case reported from Turkey. Turk Neurosurg. 2009;19:256-9 pubmed
    ..This paper presents a case of GAE with abscess formation in a 75-year-old male patient...
  7. Shirwadkar C, Samant R, Sankhe M, Deshpande R, Yagi S, Schuster F, et al. Acanthamoeba encephalitis in patient with systemic lupus, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:984-6 pubmed
    ..Diagnosis was made by identification of amebas in brain sections by immunofluorescence analysis and confirmed by demonstrating Acanthamoeba mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in brain tissue sections...
  8. Duarte A, Sattar F, Granwehr B, Aronson J, Wang Z, Lick S. Disseminated acanthamoebiasis after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2006;25:237-40 pubmed
    ..Early institution of combination anti-microbial therapy is therefore necessary for effective treatment and prevention of lethal spread to the central nervous system...
  9. Martínez D, Seas C, Bravo F, Legua P, Ramos C, Cabello A, et al. Successful treatment of Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebic infection with extensive neurological and cutaneous involvement. Clin Infect Dis. 2010;51:e7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a young, female patient who presented with extensive cutaneous and neurological involvement and who recovered after receiving prolonged treatment with miltefosine, fluconazole, and albendazole...
  10. Jayasekera S, Sissons J, Tucker J, Rogers C, Nolder D, Warhurst D, et al. Post-mortem culture of Balamuthia mandrillaris from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of a case of granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis, using human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:1007-12 pubmed
    ..The role of HBMECs in understanding the interactions of B. mandrillaris with the blood-brain barrier is discussed...
  11. Intalapaporn P, Suankratay C, Shuangshoti S, Phantumchinda K, Keelawat S, Wilde H. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis: the first case in southeast Asia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:666-9 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this case is the first reported case of B. mandrillaris in Southeast Asia...
  12. Houpt E, Barroso L, Lockhart L, Wright R, Cramer C, Lyerly D, et al. Prevention of intestinal amebiasis by vaccination with the Entamoeba histolytica Gal/GalNac lectin. Vaccine. 2004;22:611-7 pubmed
    ..These results show for the first time that immunization with the Gal/GalNAc lectin can prevent intestinal amebiasis in mice and suggest a protective role for fecal anti-lectin IgA in vivo.
  13. Marciano Cabral F, MacLean R, Mensah A, LaPat Polasko L. Identification of Naegleria fowleri in domestic water sources by nested PCR. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5864-9 pubmed
    ..Organisms attached to the filter also tested positive by PCR. The two samples that tested negative for N. fowleri were one that was obtained from a kitchen sink trap and a swipe sample from the garbage disposal of one home...
  14. Sheehan K, Fagg J, Ferris M, Henson J. PCR detection and analysis of the free-living amoeba Naegleria in hot springs in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2003;69:5914-8 pubmed
  15. Gianinazzi C, Schild M, Zumkehr B, Wüthrich F, Nüesch I, Ryter R, et al. Screening of Swiss hot spring resorts for potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:45-53 pubmed publisher
    ..healyi were suggestive of being potentially pathogenic to immunocompromised persons. However, the presence of these isolates was limited to the filtration units, and an effective threat for health can therefore be excluded...
  16. Tavares M, Correia da Costa J, Carpenter S, Santos L, Afonso C, Aguiar A, et al. Diagnosis of first case of Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis in Portugal by immunofluorescence and PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:2660-3 pubmed
    ..Despite initiation of empirical antimicrobial therapy for balamuthiasis, the patient died 3 weeks after being admitted to the hospital. No source of infection was readily apparent...
  17. Watanabe K, Gatanaga H, Escueta de Cadiz A, Tanuma J, Nozaki T, Oka S. Amebiasis in HIV-1-infected Japanese men: clinical features and response to therapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1318 pubmed publisher
    ..To characterize the clinical and epidemiological features of invasive amebiasis in HIV-1 patients, the medical records of 170 co-infected cases were analyzed retrospectively, and E...
  18. Trabelsi H, Dendana F, Sellami A, Sellami H, Cheikhrouhou F, Neji S, et al. Pathogenic free-living amoebae: epidemiology and clinical review. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2012;60:399-405 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we present some information about epidemiology, ecology and the types of diseases caused by these pathogens amoebae...
  19. Kiderlen A, Tata P, Ozel M, Laube U, Radam E, Schäfer H. Cytopathogenicity of Balamuthia mandrillaris, an opportunistic causative agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2006;53:456-63 pubmed
    ..mandrillaris is essentially cell contact-dependent. Standard and fluorescence light microscopy, as well as scanning and transmission electron microscopy support and extend these findings at the ultrastructural level...
  20. Diaz J. The public health threat from Balamuthia mandrillaris in the southern United States. J La State Med Soc. 2011;163:197-204 pubmed
    ..Brain dead victims of BAE are not suitable organ donors and have transmitted fatal BAE to organ transplant recipients...
  21. Ozkoc S, Tuncay S, Delibas S, Akisu C, Ozbek Z, Durak I, et al. Identification of Acanthamoeba genotype T4 and Paravahlkampfia sp. from two clinical samples. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:392-6 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the Paravahlkampfia isolate is believed to be the first strain that has been isolated from a keratitis patient and has been molecularly differentiated from Vahlkampfia...
  22. Khan N. Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2006;30:564-95 pubmed
  23. Hung C, Sun H, Chang S. Infection by human immunodeficiency virus-1 is not a risk factor for amebiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:775; author reply 775-6 pubmed
  24. Greub G, Berger P, Papazian L, Raoult D. Parachlamydiaceae as rare agents of pneumonia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:755-6 pubmed
  25. Siddiqui R, Khan N. Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis: an emerging disease with fatal consequences. Microb Pathog. 2008;44:89-97 pubmed
    ..Here, we present a brief overview of the current understanding of the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of BAE, available diagnostic methods, possible therapeutic interventions and biology of the causative agent...
  26. Mortazavi P, Goldsworthy G, Kirk R, Khan N. Novel model for the in vivo study of central nervous system infection due to Acanthamoeba spp. (T4 genotype). J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the view that locusts can be used as a model for the study of Acanthamoeba pathogenesis in vivo...
  27. Pritt B, Clark C. Amebiasis. Mayo Clin Proc. 2008;83:1154-9; quiz 1159-60 pubmed publisher
    b>Amebiasis is defined as infection with Entamoeba histolytica, regardless of associated symptomatology. In resource-rich nations, this parasitic protozoan is seen primarily in travelers to and emigrants from endemic areas...
  28. Campos Rodríguez R, Jarillo Luna R, Larsen B, Rivera Aguilar V, Ventura Juárez J. Invasive amebiasis: a microcirculatory disorder?. Med Hypotheses. 2009;73:687-97 pubmed publisher
    The two current models of invasive amebiasis both hold that direct contact of toxic molecules and amebas with tissue produces the necrotic areas characteristic of this disorder...
  29. Bloch K, Schuster F. Inability to make a premortem diagnosis of Acanthamoeba species infection in a patient with fatal granulomatous amebic encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3003-6 pubmed
    ..Although Acanthamoeba polyphaga that is sensitive to multiple antimicrobials grew from brain tissue, an inability to make a premortem diagnosis precluded therapy...
  30. Winck M, Caumo K, Rott M. Prevalence of acanthamoeba from tap water in rio grande do Sul, Brazil. Curr Microbiol. 2011;63:464-9 pubmed publisher
  31. Stanley S. Amoebiasis. Lancet. 2003;361:1025-34 pubmed
    ..New models of disease have linked E histolytica induction of intestinal inflammation and hepatocyte programmed cell death to the pathogenesis of amoebic colitis and amoebic liver abscess...
  32. Bakardjiev A, Azimi P, Ashouri N, Ascher D, Janner D, Schuster F, et al. Amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris: report of four cases. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2003;22:447-53 pubmed
    ..Three of the four children developed hydrocephalus during their illness. Increased awareness and timely diagnosis of this disease entity might lead to earlier intervention with improved outcome...
  33. Cursons R, Sleigh J, Hood D, Pullon D. A case of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: North Island, New Zealand. N Z Med J. 2003;116:U712 pubmed
  34. Blessmann J, Le Van A, Tannich E. Epidemiology and treatment of amebiasis in Hué, Vietnam. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:270-2 pubmed
    ..histolytica infections as well as (iii) comparative randomized treatment trials in order to optimize the therapeutic regimen for ALA and for asymptomatic E. histolytica infection...
  35. Khan N. Acanthamoeba invasion of the central nervous system. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:131-8 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have identified several molecular mechanisms associated with Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier and targeting those may help develop therapeutic interventions and/or design preventative strategies...
  36. Gunther J, Shafir S, Bristow B, Sorvillo F. Short report: Amebiasis-related mortality among United States residents, 1990-2007. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:1038-40 pubmed publisher
    Despite the endemic nature of Entamoeba histolytica infection in the United States there is a lack of data on amebiasis-related mortality...
  37. Alsam S, Sissons J, Jayasekera S, Khan N. Extracellular proteases of Acanthamoeba castellanii (encephalitis isolate belonging to T1 genotype) contribute to increased permeability in an in vitro model of the human blood-brain barrier. J Infect. 2005;51:150-6 pubmed
    ..Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of Acanthamoeba on the permeability of an in vitro blood-brain barrier model and factors contributing to these changes...
  38. Schuster F, Yagi S, Gavali S, Michelson D, Raghavan R, Blomquist I, et al. Under the radar: balamuthia amebic encephalitis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009;48:879-87 pubmed publisher
    ..We present data from 9 years (1999-2008) of tests for Balamuthia mandrillaris, an agent of amebic encephalitis that were conducted as part of the California Encephalitis Project...
  39. Dudley R, Alsam S, Khan N. The role of proteases in the differentiation of Acanthamoeba castellanii. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2008;286:9-15 pubmed publisher
    ..castellanii. Furthermore, both encystment and excystment of A. castellanii was found to be dependent on serine protease function...
  40. Marciano Cabral F, Cabral G. Acanthamoeba spp. as agents of disease in humans. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2003;16:273-307 pubmed
    ..Since an increase in the number of cases of Acanthamoeba infections has occurred worldwide, these protozoa have become increasingly important as agents of human disease...
  41. He C, Nora G, Schneider E, Kerr I, Hansell E, Hirata K, et al. A novel Entamoeba histolytica cysteine proteinase, EhCP4, is key for invasive amebiasis and a therapeutic target. J Biol Chem. 2010;285:18516-27 pubmed publisher
    ..histolytica, the protozoan cause of human amebiasis. EhCPs are encoded by 50 genes, of which ehcp4 (ehcp-a4) is the most up-regulated during invasion and ..
  42. Bravo F, Alvarez P, Gotuzzo E. Balamuthia mandrillaris infection of the skin and central nervous system: an emerging disease of concern to many specialties in medicine. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2011;24:112-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The ability of the clinician in recognizing the skin lesion early in the course of the disease may lead to a successful therapeutic intervention in an otherwise fatal disease...
  43. Moon E, Chung D, Hong Y, Kong H. Characterization of a serine proteinase mediating encystation of Acanthamoeba. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:1513-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these results indicate that EMSP plays an important role in the differentiation of Acanthamoeba by promoting autolysis...
  44. Walochnik J, Aichelburg A, Assadian O, Steuer A, Visvesvara G, Vetter N, et al. Granulomatous amoebic encephalitis caused by Acanthamoeba amoebae of genotype T2 in a human immunodeficiency virus-negative patient. J Clin Microbiol. 2008;46:338-40 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge this, is the first case of GAE involving genotype T2...
  45. Guarner J, Bartlett J, Shieh W, Paddock C, Visvesvara G, Zaki S. Histopathologic spectrum and immunohistochemical diagnosis of amebic meningoencephalitis. Mod Pathol. 2007;20:1230-7 pubmed
    ..The term amebic meningoencephalitis describes better the histopathologic findings than the currently used classification of primary amebic meningoencephalitis and granulomatous amebic encephalitis...
  46. Khan N. Acanthamoeba and the blood-brain barrier: the breakthrough. J Med Microbiol. 2008;57:1051-7 pubmed publisher
    ..This review of the literature describes the parasite factors and immune-mediated mechanisms involved in the blood-brain barrier dysfunction leading to neuropathogenesis...
  47. Deetz T, Sawyer M, Billman G, Schuster F, Visvesvara G. Successful treatment of Balamuthia amoebic encephalitis: presentation of 2 cases. Clin Infect Dis. 2003;37:1304-12 pubmed
    ..These 2 individuals are the only known survivors of this otherwise fatal type of amoebic encephalitis...
  48. Schuster F, Visvesvara G. Opportunistic amoebae: challenges in prophylaxis and treatment. Drug Resist Updat. 2004;7:41-51 pubmed
  49. Kiderlen A, Laube U. Balamuthia mandrillaris, an opportunistic agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, infects the brain via the olfactory nerve pathway. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:49-52 pubmed
    ..A similar invasion pathway has been described for N. fowleri. The data suggest that the olfactory nerve pathway is a likely route for natural infection of the brain by B. mandrillaris amebae...
  50. Yagi S, Booton G, Visvesvara G, Schuster F. Detection of Balamuthia mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in clinical specimens by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3192-7 pubmed
    ..2 ameba per reaction mixture. A single Balamuthia ameba contains multiple mitochondrial targets; thus, 0.2 ameba represents multiple targets for amplification and is not equivalent to 0.2 of an ameba as a target...
  51. Sissons J, Kim K, Stins M, Jayasekera S, Alsam S, Khan N. Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2704-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
  52. Ustun S, Dagci H, Aksoy U, Guruz Y, Ersoz G. Prevalence of amebiasis in inflammatory bowel disease in Turkey. World J Gastroenterol. 2003;9:1834-5 pubmed
    To explore the prevalence of amebiasis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in Turkey.
  53. Okuda D, Hanna H, Coons S, Bodensteiner J. Naegleria fowleri hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis: report of two fatalities in children. J Child Neurol. 2004;19:231-3 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic and immunochemistry analysis of brain tissue revealed the presence of Naegleria trophozoites in both cases...
  54. Cogo P, Scagli M, Gatti S, Rossetti F, Alaggio R, Laverda A, et al. Fatal Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis, Italy. Emerg Infect Dis. 2004;10:1835-7 pubmed
    ..Naegleria fowleri was characterized as genotype I on the basis of polymerase chain reaction test results...
  55. De Jonckheere J. Origin and evolution of the worldwide distributed pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence of virulence differences between the types of N. fowleri. Two other Naegleria spp. are pathogenic for mice, but human infections due to these two other Naegleria spp. are not known...
  56. Booton G, Visvesvara G, Byers T, Kelly D, Fuerst P. Identification and distribution of Acanthamoeba species genotypes associated with nonkeratitis infections. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1689-93 pubmed
    ..However, the genotypes that were isolated from brains have not been observed in environmental isolates of Acanthamoeba, and their natural ecological niche is unknown...
  57. Doyle J, Campbell E, Fuller A, Spelman D, Cameron R, Malham G, et al. Balamuthia mandrillaris brain abscess successfully treated with complete surgical excision and prolonged combination antimicrobial therapy. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:458-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It illustrates the risk of dissemination from cutaneous to cerebral amoebic lesions, potential progression with corticosteroid therapy, and the prospect for curative excision...
  58. Vargas Zepeda J, Gómez Alcalá A, Vásquez Morales J, Licea Amaya L, De Jonckheere J, Lares Villa F. Successful treatment of Naegleria fowleri meningoencephalitis by using intravenous amphotericin B, fluconazole and rifampicin. Arch Med Res. 2005;36:83-6 pubmed
    ..Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is an emerging disease with a rapidly fatal outcome. Only eight reports of cured cases have appeared in the medical literature to date...
  59. Chaudhry O, Petri W. Vaccine prospects for amebiasis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2005;4:657-68 pubmed
    ..However, a vaccine for amebiasis could make a significant impact on the morbidity and mortality from the disease...
  60. Tsutsumi V, Shibayama M. Experimental amebiasis: a selected review of some in vivo models. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:210-20 pubmed
    The use of in vivo animal models in amebiasis has contributed significantly to the knowledge of this common human parasitic disease...
  61. Ximenez C. Epidemiology of amebiasis in Mexico: a molecular approach. Arch Med Res. 2006;37:263-5 pubmed
    ..characterization in the last decade of the twentieth century led to the need to re-evaluate the epidemiology of amebiasis in terms of prevalence and morbidity of the infection in the world's population, particularly in those ..
  62. Khan N. Pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections. Microb Pathog. 2003;34:277-85 pubmed
    ..Elucidation of the biochemical, cellular and molecular basis of the pathogenesis of diseases caused by Acanthamoeba may lead to the development of therapeutic interventions...
  63. Schild M, Gianinazzi C, Gottstein B, Muller N. PCR-based diagnosis of Naegleria sp. infection in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections. J Clin Microbiol. 2007;45:564-7 pubmed