protozoan infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.

Top Publications

  1. Pozio E, Morales M. The impact of HIV-protease inhibitors on opportunistic parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:58-63 pubmed
  2. Utzinger J, Botero Kleiven S, Castelli F, Chiodini P, Edwards H, Kohler N, et al. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis...
  3. Marcos L, Gotuzzo E. Intestinal protozoan infections in the immunocompromised host. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..However, pathogenesis of infection is still poorly understood, diagnostic tests remain insensitive, and management continues to pose a challenge...
  4. Raes G, Beschin A, Ghassabeh G, De Baetselier P. Alternatively activated macrophages in protozoan infections. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007;19:454-9 pubmed
    ..pro-inflammatory response inducing classically activated macrophages is crucial for parasite control during protozoan infections but can also contribute to the development of immunopathological disease symptoms...
  5. Stockdale H, Givens M, Dykstra C, Blagburn B. Tritrichomonas foetus infections in surveyed pet cats. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..foetus had diarrhea at the time the fecal sample was taken. Other enteric pathogens were present in nine of the 17 positive cats. Our results support that trichomoniasis is a disease of younger male and female cats of all breeds...
  6. Takizawa M, Falavigna D, Gomes M. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2009;51:31-5 pubmed
    ..9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00)...
  7. Guillermo L, Pereira W, De Meis J, Ribeiro Gomes F, Silva E, Kroll Palhares K, et al. Targeting caspases in intracellular protozoan infections. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009;31:159-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss how pharmacological inhibition of caspases might affect the immunity to protozoan infections, by either blocking or delaying apoptosis.
  8. Stuart K, Brun R, Croft S, Fairlamb A, Gürtler R, McKerrow J, et al. Kinetoplastids: related protozoan pathogens, different diseases. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1301-10 pubmed publisher
  9. Gunn Moore D, McCann T, Reed N, Simpson K, Tennant B. Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats with diarrhoea in the UK. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:214-8 pubmed
    ..In agreement with studies from the USA, infected cats were predominantly of a year of age or less and of a pedigree breed, with Siamese and Bengal cats specifically over-represented in this population...
  10. Huh J, Moon S, Lim Y. A survey of intestinal protozoan infections among gastroenteritis patients during a 3-year period (2004-2006) in Gyeonggi-do (province), South Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:303-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection rate gradually increased from 2004 to 2006. This study shows that parasite-mediated gastroenteritis may be significant among children in Korea and that parasite infection surveillance should be constantly performed...

Detail Information

Publications71

  1. Pozio E, Morales M. The impact of HIV-protease inhibitors on opportunistic parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:58-63 pubmed
  2. Utzinger J, Botero Kleiven S, Castelli F, Chiodini P, Edwards H, Kohler N, et al. Microscopic diagnosis of sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-fixed stool samples for helminths and intestinal protozoa: a comparison among European reference laboratories. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2010;16:267-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Continued external quality assessment and the establishment of a formal network of reference laboratories is necessary to further enhance both accuracy and uniformity in parasite diagnosis...
  3. Marcos L, Gotuzzo E. Intestinal protozoan infections in the immunocompromised host. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..However, pathogenesis of infection is still poorly understood, diagnostic tests remain insensitive, and management continues to pose a challenge...
  4. Raes G, Beschin A, Ghassabeh G, De Baetselier P. Alternatively activated macrophages in protozoan infections. Curr Opin Immunol. 2007;19:454-9 pubmed
    ..pro-inflammatory response inducing classically activated macrophages is crucial for parasite control during protozoan infections but can also contribute to the development of immunopathological disease symptoms...
  5. Stockdale H, Givens M, Dykstra C, Blagburn B. Tritrichomonas foetus infections in surveyed pet cats. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:13-7 pubmed publisher
    ..foetus had diarrhea at the time the fecal sample was taken. Other enteric pathogens were present in nine of the 17 positive cats. Our results support that trichomoniasis is a disease of younger male and female cats of all breeds...
  6. Takizawa M, Falavigna D, Gomes M. Enteroparasitosis and their ethnographic relationship to food handlers in a tourist and economic center in Paraná, Southern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2009;51:31-5 pubmed
    ..9%), Blastocystis hominis (28.2%), Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (10.1%) and Giardia duodenalis (8.4%). Protozoan infections were more common than helminth infections (p = 0.00)...
  7. Guillermo L, Pereira W, De Meis J, Ribeiro Gomes F, Silva E, Kroll Palhares K, et al. Targeting caspases in intracellular protozoan infections. Immunopharmacol Immunotoxicol. 2009;31:159-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we discuss how pharmacological inhibition of caspases might affect the immunity to protozoan infections, by either blocking or delaying apoptosis.
  8. Stuart K, Brun R, Croft S, Fairlamb A, Gürtler R, McKerrow J, et al. Kinetoplastids: related protozoan pathogens, different diseases. J Clin Invest. 2008;118:1301-10 pubmed publisher
  9. Gunn Moore D, McCann T, Reed N, Simpson K, Tennant B. Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats with diarrhoea in the UK. J Feline Med Surg. 2007;9:214-8 pubmed
    ..In agreement with studies from the USA, infected cats were predominantly of a year of age or less and of a pedigree breed, with Siamese and Bengal cats specifically over-represented in this population...
  10. Huh J, Moon S, Lim Y. A survey of intestinal protozoan infections among gastroenteritis patients during a 3-year period (2004-2006) in Gyeonggi-do (province), South Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:303-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The detection rate gradually increased from 2004 to 2006. This study shows that parasite-mediated gastroenteritis may be significant among children in Korea and that parasite infection surveillance should be constantly performed...
  11. Graczyk T, Fried B. Human waterborne trematode and protozoan infections. Adv Parasitol. 2007;64:111-60 pubmed
    Waterborne trematode and protozoan infections inflict considerable morbidity on healthy, i.e., immunocompetent people, and may cause life-threatening diseases among immunocompromised and immunosuppressed populations...
  12. Al Haddad A, Baswaid S. Frequency of intestinal parasitic infection among children in Hadhramout governorate (Yemen). J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2010;40:479-88 pubmed
    ..5%), abdominal pain (23.3%), abdominal distention (17.3%), constipation (9.1%), nausea and vomiting (8.02%) and fever (5.1%). The parasitosis reflected the hygienic problems and their influence on public health of Hadhramout...
  13. Gookin J, Stauffer S, Coccaro M, Poore M, Levy M, Papich M. Efficacy of tinidazole for treatment of cats experimentally infected with Tritrichomonas foetus. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:1085-8 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy of tinidazole for treatment of cats with experimentally induced Tritrichomonas foetus infection...
  14. Bottieau E, Vekemans M, Van Gompel A. Therapy of vector-borne protozoan infections in nonendemic settings. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:583-608 pubmed publisher
    Vector-borne protozoan infections are responsible for a wide variety of illnesses (mainly malaria, trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis) affecting tropical and subtropical areas, but increasingly diagnosed in nonendemic settings...
  15. Alyousefi N, Mahdy M, Mahmud R, Lim Y. Factors associated with high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients in Sana'a City, Yemen. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e22044 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study is a cross-sectional study aimed at determining the factors associated with the high prevalence of intestinal protozoan infections among patients seeking health care in Sana'a City, the capital of Yemen.
  16. Ashtiani M, Monajemzadeh M, Saghi B, Shams S, Mortazavi S, Khaki S, et al. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among children referred to Children's Medical Center during 18 years (1991-2008), Tehran, Iran. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011;105:507-12 pubmed publisher
    ..001) and the rate for protozoal infection were 14.9% and 4.3%, respectively (P < 0.001). The prevalence of intestinal parasites was reduced during recent years; however, more attempts should be performed to make it lower...
  17. Matthys B, Tschannen A, Tian Bi N, Comoé H, Diabaté S, Traoré M, et al. Risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in urban farming communities in western Côte d'Ivoire. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:709-23 pubmed
    ..To identify risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections in urban farming communities, and to investigate small-scale spatial patterns of infection prevalence...
  18. Carmen J, Sinai A. Suicide prevention: disruption of apoptotic pathways by protozoan parasites. Mol Microbiol. 2007;64:904-16 pubmed
    ..Dissection of the host-pathogen interactions involved in modulating apoptosis reveals a dynamic and complex interaction that recent studies are beginning to unravel...
  19. Goodman C, McFadden G. Fatty acid synthesis in protozoan parasites: unusual pathways and novel drug targets. Curr Pharm Des. 2008;14:901-16 pubmed
    ..Pathways used by parasites to scavenge and modify host lipids are also described briefly and their potential for therapeutics discussed...
  20. Hotez P, Molyneux D, Fenwick A, Kumaresan J, Sachs S, Sachs J, et al. Control of neglected tropical diseases. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1018-27 pubmed
  21. Plattner F, Soldati Favre D. Hijacking of host cellular functions by the Apicomplexa. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2008;62:471-87 pubmed publisher
  22. McKerrow J, Rosenthal P, Swenerton R, Doyle P. Development of protease inhibitors for protozoan infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:668-72 pubmed publisher
    ..These roles include processing of host or parasite surface proteins for invasion of host cells, digestion of host proteins for nutrition, and inactivation of host immune defense mediators...
  23. Frey C, Schild M, Hemphill A, Stünzi P, Muller N, Gottstein B, et al. Intestinal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats in Switzerland detected by in vitro cultivation and PCR. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A total homology with published T. foetus sequences was confirmed in all of the cases. T. foetus therefore appears to range among those organisms that can cause chronic diarrhea in cats in Switzerland...
  24. Escobedo A, Almirall P, Alfonso M, Cimerman S, Rey S, Terry S. Treatment of intestinal protozoan infections in children. Arch Dis Child. 2009;94:478-82 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal protozoan infections are a worldwide problem in both industrialised and unindustrialised countries; in the latter they may be the cause of significant morbidity and mortality...
  25. Burgener I, Frey C, Kook P, Gottstein B. [Tritrichomonas fetus: a new intestinal parasite in Swiss cats]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 2009;151:383-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, T. fetus has to be considered an important causative agent of large bowel diarrhea in cats in Switzerland, especially in young indoor pedigree cats...
  26. Nasiri V, Esmailnia K, Karim G, Nasir M, Akhavan O. Intestinal parasitic infections among inhabitants of Karaj City, Tehran province, Iran in 2006-2008. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:265-8 pubmed publisher
    ..7%) were positive for intestinal parasites. Among them, 13 (0.09%) had worm and 636 (4.6%) had protozoan infections. Maximum infections belonged to Giardia intestinalis, and 534 (3.8%) samples had this infection...
  27. Nahrevanian H. Involvement of nitric oxide and its up/down stream molecules in the immunity against parasitic infections. Braz J Infect Dis. 2009;13:440-8 pubmed
    ..In the present review, the role of parasitic infections will be discussed in the controversy related to the NO production and iNOS gene expression in different parasites and a variety of experimental models...
  28. Barratt J, Harkness J, Marriott D, Ellis J, Stark D. Importance of nonenteric protozoan infections in immunocompromised people. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2010;23:795-836 pubmed publisher
    ..The nonenteric microsporidia, some trypanosomatids, Toxoplasma spp., Neospora spp., some free-living amoebae, Plasmodium spp., and Babesia spp. are discussed...
  29. Mbuh J, Ntonifor N, Ojong J. The epidemiology of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections in south-west Cameroon. J Helminthol. 2012;86:30-7 pubmed publisher
    A cross-sectional study of the prevalence, intensity and effects of soil-transmitted helminth and protozoan infections was undertaken among patients at the Buea Hospital Annex located in Buea sub-division of Cameroon...
  30. Wright S. Protozoan infections of the gastrointestinal tract. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012;26:323-39 pubmed publisher
    ..The nitroimidazole compounds are the mainstay of treatment for giardia and amebiasis with no major advance in therapeutics since their role was appreciated. Nitazoxanide was shown to be effective for cryptosporidiosis in the 1990s...
  31. Tuli L, Gulati A, Sundar S, Mohapatra T. Correlation between CD4 counts of HIV patients and enteric protozoan in different seasons - an experience of a tertiary care hospital in Varanasi (India). BMC Gastroenterol. 2008;8:36 pubmed publisher
    b>Protozoan infections are the most serious among all the superimposed infections in HIV patients and claim a number of lives every year...
  32. Morrissette N, Sibley L. Cytoskeleton of apicomplexan parasites. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2002;66:21-38; table of contents pubmed
    ..We discuss the unusual properties of actin and myosin in the Apicomplexa, the highly stereotyped microtubule populations in apicomplexans, and a network of recently discovered novel intermediate filament-like elements in these parasites...
  33. Leiby D. Threats to blood safety posed by emerging protozoan pathogens. Vox Sang. 2004;87 Suppl 2:120-2 pubmed
  34. Shoemaker R. Residential and recreational acquisition of possible estuary-associated syndrome: a new approach to successful diagnosis and treatment. Environ Health Perspect. 2001;109 Suppl 5:791-6 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, definitive diagnosis of PEAS and association with TPC toxin(s) must await identification of, and a serologic test for, the putative TPC toxin(s)...
  35. Nwaka S, Ridley R. Virtual drug discovery and development for neglected diseases through public-private partnerships. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2003;2:919-28 pubmed
  36. Foster D, Gookin J, Poore M, Stebbins M, Levy M. Outcome of cats with diarrhea and Tritrichomonas foetus infection. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2004;225:888-92 pubmed
    ..To determine the long-term outcome of cats infected with Tritrichomonas foetus and identify treatment and management strategies influencing resolution of infection or associated diarrhea...
  37. Keiser J, N Goran E, Traoré M, Lohourignon K, Singer B, Lengeler C, et al. Polyparasitism with Schistosoma mansoni, geohelminths, and intestinal protozoa in rural Côte d'Ivoire. J Parasitol. 2002;88:461-6 pubmed
    ..a detailed assessment is reported for the epidemiology of Schistosoma mansoni, geohelminths, and intestinal protozoan infections, with particular emphasis on polyparasitism among 260 community members in rural C?te d'Ivoire...
  38. Arsić Arsenijević V, Dzamić A, Mitrović S, Radonjić I, Kranjcić Zec I. [Characteristics of the immune response in protozoan infections]. Med Pregl. 2003;56:557-63 pubmed
    ..Protozoa cause chronic and persistent infections, because natural immunity against them is weak and because protozoa have evolved multiple mechanisms for evading and resisting specific immunity...
  39. Diaz E, Mondragon J, Ramirez E, Bernal R. Epidemiology and control of intestinal parasites with nitazoxanide in children in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:384-5 pubmed
    ..Overall, 84% of the protozoa and 95% of the helminths were completely eliminated from the patients. Nitazoxanide was very well tolerated, with no serious adverse effects reported...
  40. Gookin J, Birkenheuer A, Breitschwerdt E, Levy M. Single-tube nested PCR for detection of tritrichomonas foetus in feline feces. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:4126-30 pubmed
  41. Reesink H. European strategies against the parasite transfusion risk. Transfus Clin Biol. 2005;12:1-4 pubmed
    ..More research is needed to establish the theoretical risk of TT-T. cruzi and TT-Leishmania infection in Europe, before preventive measures may be considered...
  42. Gookin J, Copple C, Papich M, Poore M, Stauffer S, Birkenheuer A, et al. Efficacy of ronidazole for treatment of feline Tritrichomonas foetus infection. J Vet Intern Med. 2006;20:536-43 pubmed
    ..To determine the efficacy of ronidazole (RDZ), tinidazole (TDZ), and metronidazole (MDZ) against Tritrichomonas foetus in vitro and of RDZ for treatment of feline naturally occurring or experimentally induced T. foetus infection...
  43. Huh S, Yu J, Kim J, Gotov C, Janchiv R, Seo J. Intestinal protozoan infections and echinococcosis in the inhabitants of Dornod and Selenge, Mongolia (2003). Korean J Parasitol. 2006;44:171-4 pubmed
    ..There is a possibility of endemic transmission of water-borne protozoan diseases in these areas. The clinical echinococcosis is needed to be searched from the seropositive inhabitants...
  44. Morris J, Grattan L, Wilson L, Meyer W, McCarter R, Bowers H, et al. Occupational exposure to pfiesteria species in estuarine waters is not a risk factor for illness. Environ Health Perspect. 2006;114:1038-43 pubmed
    ..S. mid-Atlantic region...
  45. Baggish A, Hill D. Antiparasitic agent atovaquone. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2002;46:1163-73 pubmed
  46. Mohandas -, Sehgal R, Sud A, Malla N. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic pathogens in HIV-seropositive individuals in Northern India. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2002;55:83-4 pubmed
  47. Curry A. Emerging human protozoan infections in the temperate European climate. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 2004;36:105-19 pubmed
    ..in the last twenty years or so mainly as a result of the recognition of HIV infection and the opportunistic protozoan infections associated with it...
  48. Cox F. History of human parasitology. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2002;15:595-612 pubmed
    ..This review is concerned with the major helminth and protozoan infections of humans: ascariasis, trichinosis, strongyloidiasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, loasis, ..
  49. Brink A, Mahe C, Watera C, Lugada E, Gilks C, Whitworth J, et al. Diarrhea, CD4 counts and enteric infections in a community-based cohort of HIV-infected adults in Uganda. J Infect. 2002;45:99-106 pubmed
    ..To examine relationships between diarrhoea, CD4 cell counts and stool pathogens in a community-based cohort of HIV-infected adults in Uganda...
  50. Saab B, Musharrafieh U, Nassar N, Khogali M, Araj G. Intestinal parasites among presumably healthy individuals in Lebanon. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:34-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence period of intestinal parasites among presumably healthy subjects in Lebanon...
  51. Raso G, Luginbühl A, Adjoua C, Tian Bi N, Silué K, Matthys B, et al. Multiple parasite infections and their relationship to self-reported morbidity in a community of rural Côte d'Ivoire. Int J Epidemiol. 2004;33:1092-102 pubmed
    ..We investigated the extent of polyparasitism and parasite associations, and related these findings to self-reported morbidity...
  52. Ferreira M, Borges A. Some aspects of protozoan infections in immunocompromised patients- a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2002;97:443-57 pubmed
  53. Cheun H, Cho S, Lee J, Lim Y, Jeon J, Yu J, et al. Infection status of hospitalized diarrheal patients with gastrointestinal protozoa, bacteria, and viruses in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:113-20 pubmed publisher
  54. Bargieri D, Lagal V, Andenmatten N, Tardieux I, Meissner M, Menard R. Host cell invasion by apicomplexan parasites: the junction conundrum. PLoS Pathog. 2014;10:e1004273 pubmed publisher
  55. Deponte M, Rahlfs S, Becker K. Peroxiredoxin systems of protozoal parasites. Subcell Biochem. 2007;44:219-29 pubmed
  56. Vanhamme L. Trypanosome RNA polymerases and transcription factors: sensible trypanocidal drug targets?. Curr Drug Targets. 2008;9:979-96 pubmed
    ..It is becoming clear that these unique mechanisms are performed by dedicated molecular players. The first of them have been recently characterized. They are reviewed and their suitability as drug targets is commented. ..
  57. Malebo H, Wenzler T, Cal M, Swaleh S, Omolo M, Hassanali A, et al. Anti-protozoal activity of aporphine and protoberberine alkaloids from Annickia kummeriae (Engl. & Diels) Setten & Maas (Annonaceae). BMC Complement Altern Med. 2013;13:48 pubmed publisher
    ..001 - 14.3 ± 0.001 ?g/ml, SI 2.3-28.1) and anti-leishmanial activity IC50 2.7 ± 0.001 - 20.4 ± 0.003 ?g/ml, SI 1.7-15.6). The strong anti-plasmodial activity makes these alkaloids good lead structures for drug development programs. ..
  58. Ferguson D, Sahoo N, Pinches R, Bumstead J, Tomley F, Gubbels M. MORN1 has a conserved role in asexual and sexual development across the apicomplexa. Eukaryot Cell. 2008;7:698-711 pubmed publisher
    ..These observations suggest a conserved role for MORN1 in both asexual and sexual development across the Apicomplexa. ..
  59. Duhagon M, Smircich P, Forteza D, Naya H, Williams N, Garat B. Comparative genomic analysis of dinucleotide repeats in Tritryps. Gene. 2011;487:29-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Distinctive non-uniform density patterns were also found in the intergenic regions, with predominance at the vicinity of the ORFs. These findings further support that DRs may control genome structure and gene expression...
  60. Joerink M, Groeneveld A, Ducro B, Savelkoul H, Wiegertjes G. Mixed infection with Trypanoplasma borreli and Trypanosoma carassii induces protection: involvement of cross-reactive antibodies. Dev Comp Immunol. 2007;31:903-15 pubmed
    ..carassii on the resistance to T. borreli, possibly mediated via cross-reactive antibodies. We suggest an evolutionary advantage for a co-evolution of T. borreli and T. carassii in carp...
  61. Kassi R, Kouassi R, Yavo W, Barro Kiki C, Bamba A, Menan H, et al. [Cryptosporidiosis and isosporiasis in children suffering from diarrhoea in Abidjan]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2004;97:280-2 pubmed
    ..Parasitism by coccidia was not related to AIDS serological status of the children. These results point out the necessity to make common coccidian parasitical diagnosis in children under 5 years old suffering from diarrhoea...
  62. Decker B, Palmore T. The role of water in healthcare-associated infections. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2013;26:345-51 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim is to discuss the epidemiology of infections that arise from contaminated water in healthcare settings, including Legionnaires' disease, other Gram-negative pathogens, nontuberculous mycobacteria, and fungi...
  63. Parsons M, Karnataki A, Feagin J, DeRocher A. Protein trafficking to the apicoplast: deciphering the apicomplexan solution to secondary endosymbiosis. Eukaryot Cell. 2007;6:1081-8 pubmed
  64. Thanikachalam M, Kasemsuk Y, Mak J, Sharifah Emilia T, Kandasamy P. A study of parasitic infections in the luminal contents and tissue sections of appendix specimens. Trop Biomed. 2008;25:166-72 pubmed
    ..Parasites, both helminths and protozoa have been suggested to be the cause of acute appendicitis. Studies have demonstrated that parasites are present in the appendix specimens removed from surgery methods...
  65. Goldston A, Powell R, Temesvari L. Sink or swim: lipid rafts in parasite pathogenesis. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:417-26 pubmed publisher
    ..Discerning the mechanism by which lipid rafts regulate parasite pathogenesis is essential to our understanding of virulence. Such insight may guide the development of new drugs for disease management...
  66. Salcedo Cifuentes M, Florez O, Bermúdez A, Hernández L, Araujo C, Bolaños M. Intestinal parasitism prevalence amongst children from six indigenous communities residing in Cali, Colombia. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2012;14:156-68 pubmed
    ..Establishing the prevalence of intestinal parasitism in children aged 5 to 14 years of age from six indigenous communities residing in the city of Cali...
  67. Palíková M, Navrátil S, Papezikova I, Ambroz P, Vesely T, Pokorová D, et al. Combined exposure of carps (Cyprinus carpio L.) to cyanobacterial biomass and white spot disease. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2012;33 Suppl 3:77-83 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that influence of cyanobacterial biomass and an infection agent represented by the white spot disease can combine to enhance the effects on fish...
  68. Taylor G, Feng C, Sher A. Control of IFN-gamma-mediated host resistance to intracellular pathogens by immunity-related GTPases (p47 GTPases). Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1644-51 pubmed
    ..Underlying their roles in host resistance, IRG proteins regulate the processing of pathogen-containing vacuoles in host cells, and regulate hematopoiesis following infection...