mucocutaneous leishmaniasis

Summary

Summary: A disease characterized by the chronic, progressive spread of lesions from New World cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by species of the L. braziliensis complex to the nasal, pharyngeal, and buccal mucosa some time after the appearance of the initial cutaneous lesion. Nasal obstruction and epistaxis are frequent presenting symptoms.

Top Publications

  1. Acestor N, Masina S, Ives A, Walker J, Saravia N, Fasel N. Resistance to oxidative stress is associated with metastasis in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. J Infect Dis. 2006;194:1160-7 pubmed
    b>Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in South and Central America is characterized by the dissemination (metastasis) of Leishmania Viannia subgenus parasites from a cutaneous lesion to nasopharyngeal tissues...
  2. Motta A, Arruda D, Souza C, Foss N. Disseminated mucocutaneous leishmaniasis resulting from chronic use of corticosteroid. Int J Dermatol. 2003;42:703-6 pubmed
    b>Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a granulomatous disease clinically characterized by ulcerated skin and mucosal lesions whose clinical manifestations can regress spontaneously, but with possible long subclinical evolution...
  3. Boaventura V, de Oliveira J, Costa J, Novais F, de Oliveira C, Barral Netto M, et al. The value of the otorhinolaryngologic exam in correct mucocutaneous leishmaniasis diagnosis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:384-6 pubmed
    An increase in mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) cases in northern (Brazil) motivated this study. In 44 ML patients with clinical diagnosis, only 13 parasitologically confirmed cases exhibited mucosal lesion suggestive of ML...
  4. Ameen M. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: emerging therapies and progress in disease management. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2010;11:557-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Its incidence continues to increase, and disease control and management are challenging. Available therapies remain inadequate and are associated with low efficacy, toxicity, difficulties with administration, or are expensive...
  5. Di Lella F, Vincenti V, Zennaro D, Afeltra A, Baldi A, Giordano D, et al. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: report of a case with massive involvement of nasal, pharyngeal and laryngeal mucosa. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2006;35:870-2 pubmed
  6. Nolder D, Roncal N, Davies C, Llanos Cuentas A, Miles M. Multiple hybrid genotypes of Leishmania (viannia) in a focus of mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:573-8 pubmed
    The principal agent of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is the South American protozoan parasite Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. This organism is generally considered to be clonal, that is, it does not to undergo genetic exchange...
  7. Guthmann J, Arlt D, Garcia L, Rosales M, de Jesus Sanchez J, Alvarez E, et al. Control of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, a neglected disease: results of a control programme in Satipo Province, Peru. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:856-62 pubmed
    b>Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is an important health problem in many rural areas of Latin America, but there are few data on the results of programmatic approaches to control the disease...
  8. Brahn E, Pegues D, Yao Q, Craft N. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masquerading as Wegener granulomatosis. J Clin Rheumatol. 2010;16:125-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite multiple nasopharyngeal biopsies, for a 6-year span, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis masqueraded as Wegener's granulomatosis...
  9. David C, Craft N. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Dermatol Ther. 2009;22:491-502 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Characteristics of both the human host and the parasite species influence the clinical disease ..

More Information

Publications94

  1. Padovese V, Terranova M, Toma L, Barnabas G, Morrone A. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Tigray, northern Ethiopia: clinical aspects and therapeutic concerns. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:707-11 pubmed publisher
    ..to our knowledge, the first aimed at elucidating the clinical-epidemiological features of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Tigray, northern Ethiopia...
  2. Llanos Cuentas A, Echevarria J, Seas C, Chang E, Cruz M, Alvarez E, et al. Parenteral aminosidine is not effective for Peruvian mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:1128-31 pubmed
    Few therapeutic options are available for mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL)...
  3. Dedet J, Melogno R, Cardenas F, Valda L, David C, Fernandez V, et al. Rural campaign to diagnose and treat mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Bolivia. Bull World Health Organ. 1995;73:339-45 pubmed
    b>Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is endemic in the tropical Amazonian lowlands of Bolivia, an area that regularly receives influxes of migratory populations...
  4. Nogueira M, Goto H, Sotto M, Cucé L. Cytokine profile in Montenegro skin test of patients with localized cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008;50:333-7 pubmed
    ..leishmaniasis presents as two major clinical forms: localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL)...
  5. Camuset G, Remy V, Hansmann Y, Christmann D, Gomes de Albuquerque C, Sena Casseb G. [Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Brazilian Amazonia]. Med Mal Infect. 2007;37:343-6 pubmed
    ..This study had for aim to describe the clinical aspects and favoring factors of mucosal Leishmaniasis in an Amazonian population of 30,000 habitants in Guajara-Mirim (Rondonia-Brazil)...
  6. Costa J, Milner D, Maguire J. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in a US citizen. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2003;96:573-7 pubmed
    b>Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) is endemic to many areas of Central and South America. A case of MCL in a US citizen is reported here. An ulcer appeared on the patient's left hard palate, years after a working trip to Peru...
  7. Oliveira M, Amorim R, Freitas R, Costa A. [A fatal case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis after pentavalent antimonial use]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2005;38:258-60 pubmed
    The authors report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in a 45-year-old patient who was unsuccessfully treated with pentavalent antimonial for 30 days...
  8. Matos D, Azeredo Coutinho R, Schubach A, Conceição Silva F, Baptista C, Moreira J, et al. Differential interferon- gamma production characterizes the cytokine responses to Leishmania and Mycobacterium leprae antigens in concomitant mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and lepromatous leprosy. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:e5-12 pubmed
    ..Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and lepromatous leprosy represent the anergic end of the spectrum, whereas mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and tuberculoid leprosy are associated with marked antigen-specific cellular immune response.
  9. Turetz M, Machado P, Ko A, Alves F, Bittencourt A, Almeida R, et al. Disseminated leishmaniasis: a new and emerging form of leishmaniasis observed in northeastern Brazil. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1829-34 pubmed
    ..05) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P<.05) production, compared with patients with LCL. DL is an emerging clinical distinct form of leishmaniasis associated with agricultural activities and host immunological response...
  10. Sanchez P, Bosch R, De Galvez M, Rodrigo A, Herrera E. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with the human immunodeficiency virus. Int J STD AIDS. 2001;12:687-9 pubmed
    We report a case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL) in a patient with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Stage A2, with no previous history of cutaneous or systemic leishmaniasis...
  11. Schleucher R, Zanger P, Gaessler M, Knobloch J. Successful diagnosis and treatment 50 years after exposure: is mucocutaneous leishmaniasis still a neglected differential diagnosis?. J Travel Med. 2008;15:466-7 pubmed publisher
    We present a case of a long-term history of imported mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, illustrating the importance of this differential diagnosis even decades after exposure...
  12. Sosa Estani S, Campanini A, Sinagra A, Luna C, Peralta M, Coutada V, et al. [Clinical features and diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in patients of an endemic area in Salta]. Medicina (B Aires). 1998;58:685-91 pubmed
    A total of 39 patients with a clinical diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, in an endemic area for leishmaniasis in Salta, Argentina, were examined between June 1990 and December 1992...
  13. Andrade M, Courtenay O, Brito M, Carvalho F, Carvalho A, Soares F, et al. Infectiousness of Sylvatic and Synanthropic Small Rodents Implicates a Multi-host Reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0004137 pubmed publisher
    ..for maintaining transmission of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causing human cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is tested by comparative analysis of infection progression and infectiousness to sandflies in rodent ..
  14. Maingon R, Feliciangeli D, Guzman B, Rodriguez N, Convit J, Adamson R, et al. Cutaneous leishmaniasis in Tachira State, Venezuela. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994;88:29-36 pubmed
    ..Two transmission cycles appear to occur: a peridomestic cycle in Lomas Bajas and a sylvatic one in Delicias and La Grita. ..
  15. Pereira E, Thomaz Soccol V, Lima H, Thomaz Soccol A, de Castro E, Mulinari Brenner F, et al. Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniosis in the Paraná state of southern Brazil. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular biology technique is also a faster and more specific diagnostic method compared with present parasitological procedures...
  16. Sampaio M, Barbosa A, Este M, Pirmez C, Bello A, Traub Cseko Y. A 245kb mini-chromosome impacts on Leishmania braziliensis infection and survival. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009;382:74-8 pubmed publisher
    Leishmania (V.) braziliensis, the causative agent of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World, may present an LD1 type genomic amplification that appears as a small 245 kb linear chromosome, and is not clearly associated to the ..
  17. Aliaga L, Cobo F, Mediavilla J, Bravo J, Osuna A, Amador J, et al. Localized mucosal leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum: clinical and microbiologic findings in 31 patients. Medicine (Baltimore). 2003;82:147-58 pubmed
    ..The treatment of choice for these patients is not established yet, but most patients respond to antimonial compounds given for 28 days or less. ..
  18. Barbosa J, de Figueiredo S, Monteiro F, Rocha Silva F, Gaciele Melo C, Coelho S, et al. New Approaches on Leishmaniasis Treatment and Prevention: A Review of Recent Patents. Recent Pat Endocr Metab Immune Drug Discov. 2015;9:90-102 pubmed
    ..Leishmania, being clinically divided into visceral leishmaniasis (VL), cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (MCL)...
  19. Mehlig A, Arnold A, Spicher T, Koch G, Hatz C, Laifer G. Late relapse of mucosal leishmaniasis of the tongue in a patient after thymectomy. Arch Dermatol. 2006;142:785-6 pubmed
  20. Riesco M, Quintana A, López E, Herce N, Santos Briz A, Pérez P. Ulcerative infiltrated plaques in a Bolivian boy. Pediatr Dermatol. 2007;24:657-8 pubmed
  21. Handler M, Patel P, Kapila R, Al Qubati Y, Schwartz R. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Differential diagnosis, diagnosis, histopathology, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73:911-26; 927-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A more effective method of vaccination would be welcome. ..
  22. Giudice A, Camada I, Leopoldo P, Pereira J, Riley L, Wilson M, et al. Resistance of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis to nitric oxide correlates with disease severity in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:7 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide (NO*) plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent in mouse macrophages. NO* resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with a severe outcome of these diseases...
  23. Handler M, Patel P, Kapila R, Al Qubati Y, Schwartz R. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Clinical perspectives. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73:897-908; quiz 909-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In the potentially deadly visceral form, the internal organs and bone marrow are affected. ..
  24. Galioto P, Fornaro V. A case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2002;81:46-8 pubmed
    ..We describe a long-undiagnosed case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis in Italy that might have been contracted in Costa Rica...
  25. Toran K, Sah S, Joshi A, Rani S. Ulcerative post-kala azar mucosal leishmaniasis masquerading as a carcinoma--a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2003;46:487-9 pubmed
    ..He came from endemic area for kala-azar and had a previous history of kala-azar. There were plenty of LD bodies in microsections and FNA of submandibular lymph node. ..
  26. Bari A. Clinical spectrum of nasal leishmaniasis in Muzaffarabad. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak. 2009;19:146-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Nose was a common site of involvement in CL, where the disease can present in various forms. In endemic areas, CL should be included in the differential diagnosis of all nasal lesions. ..
  27. Tuon F, Amato V. Mucosal leishmaniasis and miltefosine. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:1525-6; author reply 1526-7 pubmed
  28. Kaltoft M, Munch Petersen H, Møller H. [Leishmaniasis isolated to the larynx as cause of chronic laryngitis]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2010;172:2898-9 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction showed infection with L. donovani, L. infantum or L. tropica, species which do not normally cause isolated mucosal infection. This is the first reported case from Scandinavia...
  29. Gomes Silva A, Souza M, Afonso Cardoso S, Andrade L, Dietze R, Lemos E, et al. Serological reactivity of different antigenic preparations of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and the Leishmania braziliensis complex. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008;41:135-41 pubmed
    ..001). The results presented in this study suggest that the use of homologous antigens increases the efficiency of anti-Leishmania immunoglobulin detection, which may be very valuable for diagnostic purposes. ..
  30. Delbrouck C, Choufani G, Nagy N, Hassid S. Systemic leishmaniasis involving the nose. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Belg. 2003;57:83-5 pubmed
    ..The clinical and pathological aspects of this pathology, its diagnosis and treatment are reviewed. ..
  31. Muñoz G, Davies C. Leishmania panamensis transmission in the domestic environment: the results of a prospective epidemiological survey in Santander, Colombia. Biomedica. 2006;26 Suppl 1:131-44 pubmed
    ..This paper presents the results of the disease patterns in a representative population of the Opón focus, in Santander, Colombia...
  32. Kariminia A, Bourreau E, Pascalis H, Couppie P, Sainte Marie D, Tacchini Cottier F, et al. Transforming growth factor beta 1 production by CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy subjects stimulated with Leishmania guyanensis. Infect Immun. 2005;73:5908-14 pubmed
    ..guyanensis. Altogether our data demonstrated that TGF-beta1 is involved in the suppressive activity of L. guyanensis-stimulated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells from healthy controls. ..
  33. Amato V, Tuon F, Siqueira A, Nicodemo A, Neto V. Treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis in Latin America: systematic review. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:266-74 pubmed
    ..Cost, adverse effects, local experience, and availability of drugs to treat ML are strong points to be considered before determining the best management of this disease, especially in developing countries. ..
  34. Gomes Silva A, de Cássia Bittar R, Dos Santos Nogueira R, Amato V, da Silva Mattos M, Oliveira Neto M, et al. Can interferon-gamma and interleukin-10 balance be associated with severity of human Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis infection?. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;149:440-4 pubmed
    ..Conversely, lower IFN-gamma/IL-10 balance observed in CCL, SH and ASY individuals can represent a better-modulated immune response associated with a favourable prognosis...
  35. Araujo J, Toledo V, Guimarães T, Bernardo Filho M, Simal C, Mota L, et al. Technetium-99m labeling anti-amastigote polyclonal antibodies of Leishmania amazonensis. Nucl Med Biol. 2002;29:405-11 pubmed
    ..The labeling of IgG with 99mTc did not modify the immunoreactivity of the antibody, since it was able to identify in vitro and in vivo the specific antigen of Leishmania amazonensis. ..
  36. Badaro R, Lobo I, Nakatani M, Muiños A, Netto E, Coler R, et al. Successful use of a defined antigen/GM-CSF adjuvant vaccine to treat mucosal Leishmaniasis refractory to antimony: A case report. Braz J Infect Dis. 2001;5:223-32 pubmed
    ..We conclude that carefully selected microbial antigens and cytokine adjuvant can be successful as immunotherapy for patients with antimonial-refractory mucosal leishmaniasis. ..
  37. Chrusciak Talhari A, Ribeiro Rodrigues R, Talhari C, Silva R, Ferreira L, Botileiro S, et al. Tegumentary leishmaniasis as the cause of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and Leishmania guyanensis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:559-64 pubmed publisher
    ..On that occasion, frequency of T regulatory cells was 1.82% of all CD4+ cells. Our data suggest a pivotal role for CD4+ T cells in the onset of IRIS and lesion ulceration and their association with a low frequency of T regulatory cells...
  38. Madeira M, Schubach A, Schubach T, Serra C, Pereira S, Figueiredo F, et al. Is Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis preferentially restricted to the cutaneous lesions of naturally infected dogs?. Parasitol Res. 2005;97:73-6 pubmed
  39. Zurita A, Rodriguez J, Piñero J, Pacheco R, Carmelo E, del Castllo A, et al. Cloning and characterization of the Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis Hsp70 gene. Diagnostic use of the C-terminal fragment rLb70(513-663). J Parasitol. 2003;89:372-8 pubmed
    ..cruzi caused by common antigenic determinants hinder the specific diagnosis of cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and MCL). Therefore, the usefulness of the 70-kDa heat shock protein (Hsp70) from L...
  40. Karimbil S, Kumari S, Celine M, Joy A. A chronic mutilating rhinopathy with a delayed diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Int J Dermatol. 2010;49:426-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis is a granulomatous disease clinically characterized by ulcerated skin and mucosal lesions...
  41. Da Silva L. Vianna and the discovery of Leishmania braziliensis: the role of Brazilian parasitologists in the identification of Bauru's ulcer as American leishmaniasis. Parassitologia. 2005;47:335-41 pubmed
    ..and the comprehensive study of a yet incompletely understood disease, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, was a significant accomplishment of the then emerging Brazilian medical and public health science in ..
  42. Amato V, Andrade H, Amato Neto V, Duarte M. Short report: persistence of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in situ after lesion healing in mucosal leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:527-8 pubmed
  43. Soto J, Toledo J, Valda L, Balderrama M, Rea I, Parra R, et al. Treatment of Bolivian mucosal leishmaniasis with miltefosine. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:350-6 pubmed
    ..Our results suggest that miltefosine should be the treatment of choice for mucosal disease in North and South America. ..
  44. Mulvaney P, Aram G, Maggiore P, Kutzner H, Carlson J. Delay in diagnosis: trauma- and coinfection-related cutaneous leishmaniasis because of Leishmania guyanensis infection. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:53-60 pubmed publisher
    ..In some, leishmaniasis may be an occult infection whose presence is heralded by trauma. Coinfection, by altering the immune response, may have facilitated the clinical acquisition of CL...
  45. Bermudez H, Rojas E, Garcia L, Desjeux P, Dujardin J, Boelaert M, et al. Generic sodium stibogluconate is as safe and effective as branded meglumine antimoniate, for the treatment of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Isiboro Secure Park, Bolivia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:591-600 pubmed
    ..Being several times cheaper than Glucantime, it could contribute to improving the access of CL and ML patients to treatment, not only in Bolivia but also in other countries of Latin America...
  46. Cobo F, Aliaga L, Talavera P, Concha A. The histological spectrum of non-granulomatous localized mucosal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania infantum. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:689-94 pubmed
    ..The hope was that the information collected will help European clinicians diagnose such cases, even when amastigotes cannot be readily demonstrated...
  47. Da Cruz A, Bertho A, Oliveira Neto M, Coutinho S. Flow cytometric analysis of cellular infiltrate from American tegumentary leishmaniasis lesions. Br J Dermatol. 2005;153:537-43 pubmed
    ..CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes play different roles in the outcome of leishmaniasis. However, T-cell distribution in lesions shows significant variability in in situ immunocytochemical studies...
  48. Iglesias A, Pardo J, Benito F, Cordero M. [Nasal septal perforation in a Bolivian patient]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007;25:343-4 pubmed
  49. Motta A, Lopes M, Ito F, Carlos Bregni R, de Almeida O, Roselino A. Oral leishmaniasis: a clinicopathological study of 11 cases. Oral Dis. 2007;13:335-40 pubmed
    ..This report describes the clinicopathological data of 11 cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis with oral manifestations...
  50. Ahluwalia S, Lawn S, Kanagalingam J, Grant H, Lockwood D. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: an imported infection among travellers to central and South America. BMJ. 2004;329:842-4 pubmed
  51. Silva Vergara M, Silva L, Maneira F, da Silva A, Prata A. Azithromycin in the treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2004;46:175-7 pubmed
    ..The mechanism of this drug on Leishmania sp. is unknown at present...
  52. Delgado G, Parra López C, Vargas L, Hoya R, Estupiñán M, Guzman F, et al. Characterizing cellular immune response to kinetoplastid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) during Leishmania (Viannia) panamensis infection using dendritic cells (DCs) as antigen presenting cells (APCs). Parasite Immunol. 2003;25:199-209 pubmed
    ..The experimental approach used here may prove useful for characterizing T-cell epitopes in a protein useful in designing peptide-based vaccine candidates for Leishmania and other intracellular pathogens...
  53. Perruolo G, Noris Rodríguez N, Feliciangeli M. Isolation of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from Lutzomyia spinicrassa (species group Verrucarum) Morales Osorno Mesa, Osorno and Hoyos 1969, in the Venezuelan Andean region. Parasite. 2006;13:17-22 pubmed
    ..This parasite had been previously isolated from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the same area. These results show Lu. spinicrassa as a new proven vector of Leishmania braziliensis in the Andean region of Venezuela...
  54. Khayat C, Perreau P, Souchal Delacour I, Bossard B, Peynegre R, Demaldent J. [Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Report of 2 cases]. Ann Otolaryngol Chir Cervicofac. 1990;107:494-9 pubmed
    ..The study of the cases published in other African or European countries shows that all species of Leishmania can produce a midfacial granuloma...
  55. Boaventura V, Santos C, Cardoso C, de Andrade J, dos Santos W, Clarencio J, et al. Human mucosal leishmaniasis: neutrophils infiltrate areas of tissue damage that express high levels of Th17-related cytokines. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:2830-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these observations demonstrate the existence of Th17 cells in ML lesions associated with neutrophils in areas of tissue injury and suggest that IL-17 is involved in ML pathogenesis...
  56. Rabelink N, de Steenwinkel J, van Biezen P, van Daele P, Gyssens I. [A patient with long-term, unrecognized leishmaniasis]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2006;150:2715-9 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis was mucocutaneous leishmaniasis and PCR indicated Leishmania braziliensis complex...
  57. El Fekih N, Sliti N, Kharfi M, Trabelsi S, Khaled S, Fazaa B, et al. [Mucosal leishmaniasis by contiguity with a skin lesion: another case report from Tunisia]. Med Trop (Mars). 2008;68:634-6 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this report is to describe another case of mucosal leishmaniasis due to contiguity with a skin lesion in a 54-years-old woman. The patient responded well to treatment with meglumine antimoniate...
  58. Baddini Caramelli C, Matayoshi S, Moura E, Araf D, Santo R, Voegels R, et al. Chronic dacryocystitis in American mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2001;17:48-52 pubmed
    This study describes lacrimal tract involvement and surgical outcome in patients with mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.
  59. Romero G, Lessa H, Orge M, Macedo V, Marsden P. [Treatment of mucosal leishmaniasis with aminosidine sulfate: results of two year follow-up]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 1998;31:511-6 pubmed
    ..Sorological follow-up showed poor correlation with the results of clinical examination...
  60. Lessa M, Lessa H, Castro T, Oliveira A, Scherifer A, Machado P, et al. Mucosal leishmaniasis: epidemiological and clinical aspects. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;73:843-7 pubmed
    ..Leishmaniasis in the New World is one the major endemic diseases in Brazil and Latin America...
  61. Machado P, Lessa H, Lessa M, Guimaraes L, Bang H, Ho J, et al. Oral pentoxifylline combined with pentavalent antimony: a randomized trial for mucosal leishmaniasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44:788-93 pubmed
    ..We previously showed that an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (pentoxifylline) combined with Sb(v) cured 90% patients refractory to monotherapy with Sb(v)...
  62. Rotureau B, Ravel C, Nacher M, Couppie P, Curtet I, Dedet J, et al. Molecular epidemiology of Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis in French Guiana. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:468-73 pubmed
    ..V.) guyanensis isolates from diverse ecological areas and with different clinical implications...
  63. Fischer M, GomesPaes M, Reinel D, Talhari S. [Diffuse infiltration of the external ear in a 59-year-old Brazilian patient. "New world" cutaneous leishmaniasis (leishmaniasis tegumentar Americana)]. Hautarzt. 2002;53:342-6 pubmed
  64. Virgilio G, Hale B. A case of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;132:800-1 pubmed
  65. Puig L, Pradinaud R. Leishmania and HIV co-infection: dermatological manifestations. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97 Suppl 1:107-14 pubmed
    ..Recent experience and past observations on the dermatology of leishmaniasis in those with Leishmania/HIV co-infection are reviewed here...
  66. Baptista C, Schubach A, Madeira M, Leal C, Pires M, Oliveira F, et al. Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis genotypes identified in lesions of patients with atypical or typical manifestations of tegumentary leishmaniasis: evaluation by two molecular markers. Exp Parasitol. 2009;121:317-22 pubmed publisher
    ..V.) braziliensis circulating in the State of Rio de Janeiro and demonstrate the useful application of these molecular markers in genetics variability studies...
  67. Segura E, Juan N, Piquin A, Cuba Cuba C, Abramo Orrego L, McMahon Pratt D, et al. Molecular and biologic characterization of Leishmania parasites implicated in an epidemic outbreak in northwestern Argentina. Parasitol Res. 2000;86:504-8 pubmed
    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and its variants were implicated in the epidemic outbreak of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis that occurred in Salta, northwestern Argentina, in 1985...
  68. Matta N, Nogueira R, Franco A, de Souza E Souza I, Mattos M, Oliveira Neto M, et al. Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis induces low immunologic responsiveness in leishmaniasis patients from an endemic area of the Brazilian Amazon Highland. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:339-44 pubmed
    ..braziliensis. This finding could explain some aspects of clinical presentation of CL-Lguy, such as high tissue parasite burden and frequent resistance to therapy...
  69. Pinero J, Martinez E, Pacheco R, Aragón Z, de Armas F, del Castillo A, et al. PCR-ELISA for diagnosis of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. Acta Trop. 1999;73:21-9 pubmed
    ..the PCR-ELISA technique is sufficiently sensitive and specific for use as a diagnostic test in cases of mucocutaneous leishmaniasis. DNA was extracted from cultures of Leishmania braziliensis, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania tropica, ..
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