diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis

Summary

Summary: A form of LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS caused by Leishmania aethiopica in Ethiopia and Kenya, L. pifanoi in Venezuela, L. braziliensis in South America, and L. mexicana in Central America. This disease is characterized by massive dissemination of skin lesions without visceral involvement.

Top Publications

  1. Pereira L, Dorta M, Pereira A, Bastos R, Oliveira M, Pinto S, et al. Increase of NK cells and proinflammatory monocytes are associated with the clinical improvement of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis after immunochemotherapy with BCG/Leishmania antigens. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:378-83 pubmed
    b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by disseminated lesions and the absence of a specific cellular immune response...
  2. Mehta V, Balachandran C, Rao R, Dil S, Indusri L. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in HIV. Dermatol Online J. 2009;15:9 pubmed
    ..Diffuse cutaneous forms of leishmaniasis are rare. We report a rare case from South India of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis masquerading as lepromatous leprosy in the context of HIV infection.
  3. Chaudhary R, Bilimoria F, Katare S. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis: co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2008;74:641-3 pubmed
    ..We report the case due to its atypical, widespread muco-cutaneous presentation masquerading as lepromatous leprosy...
  4. Sinha S, Fernández G, Kapila R, Lambert W, Schwartz R. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:1263-70 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare anergic variant of leishmanial infection with the characteristic presentation of ..
  5. Turetz M, Machado P, Ko A, Alves F, Bittencourt A, Almeida R, et al. Disseminated leishmaniasis: a new and emerging form of leishmaniasis observed in northeastern Brazil. J Infect Dis. 2002;186:1829-34 pubmed
    ..05) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (P<.05) production, compared with patients with LCL. DL is an emerging clinical distinct form of leishmaniasis associated with agricultural activities and host immunological response...
  6. Convit J, Ulrich M, Polegre M, Avila A, Rodriguez N, Mazzedo M, et al. Therapy of Venezuelan patients with severe mucocutaneous or early lesions of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis with a vaccine containing pasteurized Leishmania promastigotes and bacillus Calmette-Guerin: preliminary report. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:57-62 pubmed
    ..Immunotherapy with this modified vaccine offers an effective, safe option for the treatment of patients who do not respond to immunotherapy with vaccine containing autoclaved parasites or to chemotherapy...
  7. Skeiky Y, Benson D, Costa J, Badaro R, Reed S. Association of Leishmania heat shock protein 83 antigen and immunoglobulin G4 antibody titers in Brazilian patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect Immun. 1997;65:5368-70 pubmed
    b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterized by the presence of numerous nonulcerated nodules and plaques containing large numbers of Leishmania amazonensis parasites and few lymphoid elements...
  8. Zerpa O, Ulrich M, Blanco B, Polegre M, Avila A, Matos N, et al. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis responds to miltefosine but then relapses. Br J Dermatol. 2007;156:1328-35 pubmed
    b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL), although rare, is profoundly incapacitating...
  9. Azeredo Coutinho R, Conceição Silva F, Schubach A, Cupolillo E, Quintella L, Madeira M, et al. First report of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis and Leishmania amazonensis infection in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:735-7 pubmed
    b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is characterised by multiple and progressive cutaneous lesions, resistance to chemotherapy and Leishmania-specific T-cell anergy...

More Information

Publications67

  1. Galindo Sevilla N, Soto N, Mancilla J, Cerbulo A, Zambrano E, Chavira R, et al. Low serum levels of dehydroepiandrosterone and cortisol in human diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis by Leishmania mexicana. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:566-72 pubmed
    ..b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DL), a long-lasting intracellular parasitic infectious disease, can spread unknown levels of DHEA ..
  2. Perez C, Solías Y, Rodríguez G. [Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in a patient with AIDS]. Biomedica. 2006;26:485-97 pubmed
    ..A patient with a leishmaniasis-Aids co-infection was presented and discussed....
  3. Niamba P, Goumbri Lompo O, Traore A, Barro Traoré F, Soudré R. Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in an HIV-positive patient in western Africa. Australas J Dermatol. 2007;48:32-4 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis was established by direct examination and skin biopsy...
  4. Nogueira P, Assis R, Torrecilhas A, Saraiva E, Pessoa N, Campos M, et al. Lipophosphoglycans from Leishmania amazonensis Strains Display Immunomodulatory Properties via TLR4 and Do Not Affect Sand Fly Infection. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2016;10:e0004848 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, the immunomodulatory activity of LPGs from Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, was evaluated in two strains from Brazil...
  5. Shaw J, Pratlong F, Floeter Winter L, Ishikawa E, El Baidouri F, Ravel C, et al. Characterization of Leishmania (Leishmania) waltoni n.sp. (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae), the Parasite Responsible for Diffuse Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dominican Republic. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015;93:552-8 pubmed publisher
    ..isolated, between 1979 and 1988 by the late Bryce Walton, from Dominican Republic (DR) patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, were characterized using a panel of 12 isoenzymes, 23 monoclonal antibodies, small subunit ribosomal ..
  6. Handler M, Patel P, Kapila R, Al Qubati Y, Schwartz R. Cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis: Differential diagnosis, diagnosis, histopathology, and management. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2015;73:911-26; 927-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, HIV and otherwise immunocompromised patients with leishmaniasis have a propensity for diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. For most New World Leishmania species, parenteral antimonial drugs remain the first line of therapy, ..
  7. Vieira V, Azevedo A, Alves J, Guimarães A, Aguiar G. Ecological Aspects of Phlebotomine Sand Flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in Areas of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, in the Municipality of Paraty, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. I-Index of Abundance by Location and Type of Capture. J Med Entomol. 2015;52:886-95 pubmed publisher
    The description of the first and autochthonous case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the municipality of Paraty, State of Rio de Janeiro, brought the interest of this study. Sand flies were captured over a 3-yr period...
  8. Cantanhêde L, da Silva Júnior C, Ito M, Felipin K, Nicolete R, Salcedo J, et al. Further Evidence of an Association between the Presence of Leishmania RNA Virus 1 and the Mucosal Manifestations in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis Patients. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2015;9:e0004079 pubmed publisher
    ..CL) to more severe outcomes, such as disseminated leishmaniasis (DL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML) and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL)...
  9. Alcolea P, Alonso A, García Tabares F, Mena M, Ciordia S, Larraga V. Proteome profiling of the growth phases of Leishmania pifanoi promastigotes in axenic culture reveals differential abundance of immunostimulatory proteins. Acta Trop. 2016;158:240-247 pubmed publisher
    ..pifanoi and other species of the "Leishmania mexicana complex" mainly correspond to anergic diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (ADCL), which is the origin of considerable morbidity...
  10. Fonteles R, Pereira Filho A, Moraes J, Kuppinger O, Rebêlo J. Experimental Infection of Lutzomyia (Nyssomyia) whitmani (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) With Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (L.) amazonensis, Etiological Agents of American Tugumentary Leishmaniasis. J Med Entomol. 2016;53:206-9 pubmed publisher
    ..L. amazonensis also causes diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) vectored principally by Lutzomyia flaviscutellata and secondarily by Lutzomyia whitmani (..
  11. Isaac Márquez A, Talamas Rohana P, Galindo Sevilla N, Gaitan Puch S, Díaz Díaz N, Hernández Ballina G, et al. Decanethiol functionalized silver nanoparticles are new powerful leishmanicidals in vitro. World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2018;34:38 pubmed publisher
    ..mexicana isolated from a patient suffering from diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL)...
  12. Figliuolo V, Chaves S, Savio L, Thorstenberg M, Machado Salles É, Takiya C, et al. The role of the P2X7 receptor in murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: aspects of inflammation and parasite control. Purinergic Signal. 2017;13:143-152 pubmed publisher
    Leishmania amazonensis is the etiological agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The immunopathology of leishmaniasis caused by L. amazonensis infection is dependent on the pathogenic role of effector CD4+ T cells...
  13. Costa A, Saldanha A, Leite B, Ramos B, Junior I, Noronha A, et al. Imaging exams of bone lesions in patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL). Acta Trop. 2005;96:9-15 pubmed
    We studied bone lesion alterations in three patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) by imaging exams (radiography and scintigraphy) and histopathology...
  14. Soliman M. The persistence, dissemination, and visceralization tendency of Leishmania major in Syrian hamsters. Acta Trop. 2006;97:146-50 pubmed
    ..major amastigotes in the tissues differed from those of other species causing visceral diseases. These findings demonstrate a possible visceralization tendency for L. major previously recorded for L. tropica and L. mexicana...
  15. Sadeghian G, Iraji F, Nilfroushzadeh M. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis on lymphedema following radiotherapy. Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:610-1 pubmed
  16. Alcais A, Abel L, David C, Torrez M, Flandre P, Dedet J. Evidence for a major gene controlling susceptibility to tegumentary leishmaniasis in a recently exposed Bolivian population. Am J Hum Genet. 1997;61:968-79 pubmed
    ..There was also a significant genetic heterogeneity of the sample according to the native/migrant origin of the families, and no major-gene effect was found in the native subsample...
  17. Schonian G, Akuffo H, Lewin S, Maasho K, Nylen S, Pratlong F, et al. Genetic variability within the species Leishmania aethiopica does not correlate with clinical variations of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2000;106:239-48 pubmed
    ..Unrooted distance trees separated the ten strains into two different genetic groups. This subdivision was correlated to the geographical origin of the isolates rather than to the clinical manifestation of the disease...
  18. Wanasen N, Xin L, Soong L. Pathogenic role of B cells and antibodies in murine Leishmania amazonensis infection. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:417-29 pubmed
    ..in Central and South America, can manifest itself in several forms, including those of cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. The outcome of L. amazonensis infection depends largely on host immune responses to the parasites...
  19. Giudice A, Camada I, Leopoldo P, Pereira J, Riley L, Wilson M, et al. Resistance of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis to nitric oxide correlates with disease severity in Tegumentary Leishmaniasis. BMC Infect Dis. 2007;7:7 pubmed
    ..Nitric oxide (NO*) plays a pivotal role as a leishmanicidal agent in mouse macrophages. NO* resistant Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been associated with a severe outcome of these diseases...
  20. González L, Velez I. [Miltefosine for disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis]. Biomedica. 2006;26 Suppl 1:13-6 pubmed
    ..It differs from diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis because the alteration in cellular immunity is lower and the lesions may have epidermal desquamation...
  21. Ji J, Sun J, Soong L. Impaired expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines at early stages of infection with Leishmania amazonensis. Infect Immun. 2003;71:4278-88 pubmed
    ..amazonensis parasites and provide a compelling rationale to explore immune augmentation as an intervention in American cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  22. Rincon M, Silva S, Dueñas R, Lopez Jaramillo P. [A report of two cases of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in Santander, Colombia]. Rev Salud Publica (Bogota). 2009;11:145-50 pubmed
    ..This article reports two cases of patients from endemic areas of Santander suffering from diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis produced by the L. panamensis strain...
  23. Salomon O, Sosa Estani S, Monzani A, Studer C. [Epidemic outbreak of tegumentary leishmaniasis in Puerto Esperanza, Misiones, 1998]. Medicina (B Aires). 2001;61:385-90 pubmed
    ..The results are discussed in the frame of surveillance and possible control strategies...
  24. Diaz N, Zerpa O, Ponce L, Convit J, Rondon A, Tapia F. Intermediate or chronic cutaneous leishmaniasis: leukocyte immunophenotypes and cytokine characterisation of the lesion. Exp Dermatol. 2002;11:34-41 pubmed
    ..individuals with localised cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) and non-responder individuals with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL)...
  25. Qadoumi M, Becker I, Donhauser N, Rollinghoff M, Bogdan C. Expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in skin lesions of patients with american cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect Immun. 2002;70:4638-42 pubmed
    ..This is the first study to suggest an antileishmanial function of iNOS in human Leishmania infections in vivo...
  26. Pinto da Silva L, Fampa P, Soares D, Oliveira S, Souto Padron T, Saraiva E. The 3A1-La monoclonal antibody reveals key features of Leishmania (L) amazonensis metacyclic promastigotes and inhibits procyclics attachment to the sand fly midgut. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:757-64 pubmed
    ..characterise metacyclic promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis, the causative agent of cutaneous and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in the New World...
  27. Costa A, Abreu A, Gomes C, Saldanha A, Barral A, Costa J, et al. Experimental model of chronic osteomyelitis caused by Leishmania (L) amazonensis. Acta Trop. 2006;98:125-9 pubmed
    ..Amastigotes of L. (L) amazonensis isolated from patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) were inoculated into the hind paws of eight BALB/c mice, macroscopic and histopathological ..
  28. de Almeida Amaral E, Belmont Firpo R, Vannier Santos M, Meyer Fernandes J. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ecto-phosphatase activity. Exp Parasitol. 2006;114:334-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these results suggest that L. amazonensis express a phosphohydrolase ectoenzyme with phosphotyrosine phosphatase activity...
  29. Schraner C, Hasse B, Hasse U, Baumann D, Faeh A, Burg G, et al. Successful treatment with miltefosine of disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in a severely immunocompromised patient infected with HIV-1. Clin Infect Dis. 2005;40:e120-4 pubmed
    ..The skin lesions failed to respond to full treatment courses of amphotericin B, sodium stibogluconate, and liposomal amphotericin B but were successfully treated with miltefosine, an alkylphosphocholine analogue...
  30. Gaze S, Dutra W, Lessa M, Lessa H, Guimarães L, Jesus A, et al. Mucosal leishmaniasis patients display an activated inflammatory T-cell phenotype associated with a nonbalanced monocyte population. Scand J Immunol. 2006;63:70-8 pubmed
  31. Yusuf S, Uloko A, Adamu H, Iliyasu G, Mohammed A. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis in HIV positive patient--a case report. Niger J Med. 2010;19:112-4 pubmed
    ..Here we report a 38-year-old HIV-positive lady who presented with a 6-month history of a progressive papule and nodular eruptions of leishmaniasis on face, trunk and extremities that was recalcitrant to treatment...
  32. Novais F, Santiago R, Bafica A, Khouri R, Afonso L, Borges V, et al. Neutrophils and macrophages cooperate in host resistance against Leishmania braziliensis infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:8088-98 pubmed publisher
    ..These results indicate that neutrophils play an important and previously unappreciated role in L. braziliensis infection, favoring the induction of a protective immune response...
  33. Morrison B, Mendoza I, Delgado D, Reyes Jaimes O, Aranzazu N, Paniz Mondolfi A. Diffuse (anergic) cutaneous leishmaniasis responding to amphotericin B. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2010;35:e116-9 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) is a rare form of the disease characterized by antigen-specific immunodeficiency that often ..
  34. Serezani C, Franco A, Wajc M, Umada Yokoyama Yasunaka J, Wunderlich G, Borges M, et al. Evaluation of the murine immune response to Leishmania meta 1 antigen delivered as recombinant protein or DNA vaccine. Vaccine. 2002;20:3755-63 pubmed
    ..Instead, vaccination with either the meta 1 gene alone or in fusion with the monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-3 cDNA induced a Th2-type of response that correlated with lack of protection against infection...
  35. Leopoldo P, Machado P, Almeida R, Schriefer A, Giudice A, de Jesus A, et al. Differential effects of antigens from L. braziliensis isolates from disseminated and cutaneous leishmaniasis on in vitro cytokine production. BMC Infect Dis. 2006;6:75 pubmed
    ..Disseminated leishmaniasis is an emerging infectious disease, mostly due to L. braziliensis, which has clinical and histopathological features distinct from cutaneous leishmaniasis...
  36. Sampaio R, Salaro C, Resende P, de Paula C. [American cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with HIV/AIDS: report of four clinical cases]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2002;35:651-4 pubmed
  37. de Almeida Amaral E, Caruso Neves C, Pires V, Meyer Fernandes J. Leishmania amazonensis: characterization of an ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase activity. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:165-71 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, ouabain (1mM) did not change the growth of the parasite. Taken together, these results show that L. amazonensis expresses a P-type, ouabain-insensitive Na+-ATPase that could be involved with the growth of the parasite...
  38. Ramesh V, Kumar J, Salotra P. An unusual presentation of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis. Trop Doct. 2007;37:172-3 pubmed
    ..An atypical presentation of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis is reported to highlight the importance of suspecting dermatosis in patients from areas endemic for kala-azar...
  39. Pinheiro R, Pinto E, Benedito A, Lopes U, Rossi Bergmann B. The T-cell anergy induced by Leishmania amazonensis antigens is related with defective antigen presentation and apoptosis. An Acad Bras Cienc. 2004;76:519-27 pubmed
    Leishmania amazonensis is the main agent of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis, a disease associated with anergic immune responses. In this study we show that the crude antigen of Leishmania amazonensis (LaAg) but not L...
  40. Manfredi R, Passarini B, D Antuono A, Misciali C, Marinacci G, Calza L. Diffuse skin spread of HIV-associated visceral leishmaniasis: cumbersome diagnostic and therapeutic issues. G Ital Dermatol Venereol. 2008;143:339-46 pubmed
    ..v. pentamidine isethionate together with oral paromomycin led to a slow, but complete cure of both visceral leishmaniasis and its related skin dissemination, in absence of adverse events and long-term disease relapses...
  41. Stark D, van Hal S, Lee R, Marriott D, Harkness J. Leishmaniasis, an emerging imported infection: report of 20 cases from Australia. J Travel Med. 2008;15:351-4 pubmed publisher
    ..These data highlight the range of species causing leishmaniasis imported in Australia and demonstrate the importance of species identification in determining proper treatment...
  42. Carrada G, Caneda C, Salaiza N, Delgado J, Ruiz A, Sanchez B, et al. Monocyte cytokine and costimulatory molecule expression in patients infected with Leishmania mexicana. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:117-26 pubmed
    Leishmania mexicana causes localized and diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis. Patients with localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) develop a benign disease, whereas patients with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL) suffer from a ..
  43. Delgado Dominguez J, Gonzalez Aguilar H, Aguirre Garcia M, Gutiérrez Kobeh L, Berzunza Cruz M, Ruiz Remigio A, et al. Leishmania mexicana lipophosphoglycan differentially regulates PKCalpha-induced oxidative burst in macrophages of BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:440-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate that control of PKCalpha-induced oxidative burst by L. mexicana LPG relates with its success to infect murine macrophages...
  44. Oster Schmidt C. [Comment on: "Photodynamic treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis"]. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2007;5:629; author reply 629 pubmed
  45. Calza L, D Antuono A, Marinacci G, Manfredi R, Colangeli V, Passarini B, et al. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis after visceral disease in a patient with AIDS. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2004;50:461-5 pubmed
    ..The severe concurrent immunosuppression probably played an essential role in leading to this atypical cutaneous form, characterized by diffuse, nonulcerated, nonscabby maculopapular lesions...
  46. Silva Almeida M, Carvalho L, Abreu Silva A, d Escoffier L, Calabrese K. Leishsmania (Leishmania) amazonensis infection: Muscular involvement in BALB/c and C3H.HeN mice. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:315-8 pubmed publisher
    ..He mice; (2) Leishmania amastigotes are capable of infecting muscular fibers, as observed in BALB/c mice; (3) as inflammatory infiltrate is less intense in C3H.He mice these animals are capable of restoring muscular fibers...
  47. Xavier M, Silveira F, Demachki S, Ferreira M, do Nascimento J. American tegumentary leishmaniasis: a quantitative analysis of Langerhans cells presents important differences between L. (L.) amazonensis and Viannia subgenus. Acta Trop. 2005;95:67-73 pubmed
    ..Localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL) showed an increase in cell population when compared to diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL)...
  48. Schriefer A, Guimaraes L, Machado P, Lessa M, Lessa H, Lago E, et al. Geographic clustering of leishmaniasis in northeastern Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:871-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings indicate that leishmaniasis outcomes are distributed differently within transmission foci and show that DL is rapidly spreading in northeastern Brazil...
  49. Ogawa M, Casseb Ruete L, Michalany N, Tomimori Yamashita J. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis, an emerging form of cutaneous leishmaniasis: report of two cases. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:869-71 pubmed
  50. Sosa Estani S, Segura E, Salomon O, Gomez A, Peralta M, Coutada V, et al. Tegumentary leishmaniasis in Northern Argentina: distribution of infection and disease, in three municipalities of Salta, 1990-1992. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2000;33:573-82 pubmed
    ..Our study demonstrated that after the epidemic outbreak of 1985 the transmission in the study area returned to endemic levels in 1992, and also demonstrated the presence of the asymptomatic infection in the area...
  51. Vieira Gonçalves R, Pirmez C, Jorge M, Souza W, Oliveira M, Rutowitsch M, et al. Clinical features of cutaneous and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in Paraty, Rio de Janeiro. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:926-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Paraty is the second most important endemic area in RJ; however, reports on leishmaniasis in this region refer to the occurrence of the disease without describing its characteristics...
  52. Pereira E, Thomaz Soccol V, Lima H, Thomaz Soccol A, de Castro E, Mulinari Brenner F, et al. Molecular diagnosis of leishmaniosis in the Paraná state of southern Brazil. Exp Dermatol. 2008;17:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..This molecular biology technique is also a faster and more specific diagnostic method compared with present parasitological procedures...
  53. Meziou T, Chaabène H, Masmoudi A, Boudaya S, Cheikhrouhou H, Bouassida S, et al. [Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis secondary to lymphoedema: two cases]. Ann Dermatol Venereol. 2008;135:123-6 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe a particular clinical form of dissemination in two patients with erysipelas secondary to lymphoedema...
  54. Almeida Amaral E, Caruso Neves C, Lara L, Pinheiro C, Meyer Fernandes J. Leishmania amazonensis: PKC-like protein kinase modulates the (Na++K+)ATPase activity. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:419-26 pubmed
    ..Modulation of the (Na(+)+K(+))ATPase by protein kinase in a trypanosomatid opens up new possibilities to understand the regulation of ion homeostasis in this parasite...
  55. Martinez E, Mollinedo S, Torrez M, Munoz M, Banuls A, Le Pont F. Co-infection by Leishmania amazonensis and L. infantum/L. chagasi in a case of diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in Bolivia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:529-32 pubmed
    ..infantum/L. chagasi isolated in 1993 from a patient with diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis (DCL), living in the sub-Andean region of Bolivia...
  56. Perruolo G, Noris Rodríguez N, Feliciangeli M. Isolation of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis from Lutzomyia spinicrassa (species group Verrucarum) Morales Osorno Mesa, Osorno and Hoyos 1969, in the Venezuelan Andean region. Parasite. 2006;13:17-22 pubmed
    ..This parasite had been previously isolated from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the same area. These results show Lu. spinicrassa as a new proven vector of Leishmania braziliensis in the Andean region of Venezuela...
  57. Sohl S, Kauer F, Paasch U, Simon J. Photodynamic treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2007;5:128-30 pubmed
    ..We report a patient with facial cutaneous Leishmania tropica infection which proved to be resistant to various therapeutic regimes. Excellent results were achieved with photodynamic therapy...
  58. Sharquie K, Najim R. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:951-4 pubmed
    ..A 4-months course of zinc sulphate 10 mg/kg in 3 divided doses daily resulted in complete clearance of the lesions. Zinc sulphate might represent a new treatment for this condition that has no adequate treatment until now...