leishmaniasis

Summary

Summary: A disease caused by any of a number of species of protozoa in the genus LEISHMANIA. There are four major clinical types of this infection: cutaneous (Old and New World) (LEISHMANIASIS, CUTANEOUS), diffuse cutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, DIFFUSE CUTANEOUS), mucocutaneous (LEISHMANIASIS, MUCOCUTANEOUS), and visceral (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL).

Top Publications

  1. Alvar J, Vélez I, Bern C, Herrero M, Desjeux P, Cano J, et al. Leishmaniasis worldwide and global estimates of its incidence. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35671 pubmed publisher
    ..Organization-led effort to update the empirical evidence base for the leishmaniases, national experts provided leishmaniasis case data for the last 5 years and information regarding treatment and control in their respective countries ..
  2. De Muylder G, Ang K, Chen S, Arkin M, Engel J, McKerrow J. A screen against Leishmania intracellular amastigotes: comparison to a promastigote screen and identification of a host cell-specific hit. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1253 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Leishmaniasis is a major neglected disease with limited therapeutic options...
  3. Shweash M, Adrienne McGachy H, Schroeder J, Neamatallah T, Bryant C, Millington O, et al. Leishmania mexicana promastigotes inhibit macrophage IL-12 production via TLR-4 dependent COX-2, iNOS and arginase-1 expression. Mol Immunol. 2011;48:1800-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Gramiccia M. Recent advances in leishmaniosis in pet animals: epidemiology, diagnostics and anti-vectorial prophylaxis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:23-30 pubmed publisher
    ..A number of insecticide-based preparations have been specifically registered for dog protection against sand fly bites, with elevated efficacy for both individual and mass protection. ..
  5. Hartley M, Kohl K, Ronet C, Fasel N. The therapeutic potential of immune cross-talk in leishmaniasis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:119-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is, by far, the most prevalent form of the disease, with symptoms ranging from a single self-healing ..
  6. Barrett M, Croft S. Management of trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. Br Med Bull. 2012;104:175-96 pubmed publisher
    The current treatments for human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), Chagas disease and leishmaniasis (collectively referred to as the kinetoplastid diseases) are far from ideal but, for some, there has been significant recent progress...
  7. de Souza C, Silva E, Ano Bom A, Bastos R, Nascimento H, Da Silva Junior J. Evaluation of an ELISA for canine leishmaniasis immunodiagnostic using recombinant proteins. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:1-7 pubmed publisher
    ..proteins, rLci2B and rLci1A, and their use in the development of an immunoassay for the diagnostic of canine leishmaniasis. After protein expression and cell disruption, rLci2B was purified by immobilized metal affinity ..
  8. Sukra K, Kanjanopas K, Amsakul S, Rittaton V, Mungthin M, Leelayoova S. A survey of sandflies in the affected areas of leishmaniasis, southern Thailand. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:297-302 pubmed publisher
    Leishmania siamensis was firstly described as a causative agent of autochthonous visceral leishmaniasis in southern provinces of Thailand since 2008...
  9. Wiwanitkit V. Bone marrow leishmaniasis: a review of situation in Thailand. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:757-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis is an important tropical vector-borne disease. This infection can be seen in tropical area and it is considered to be one of the most important vector-borne infections at present...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Millan J, Zanet S, Gomis M, Trisciuoglio A, Negre N, Ferroglio E. An investigation into alternative reservoirs of canine leishmaniasis on the endemic island of Mallorca (Spain). Transbound Emerg Dis. 2011;58:352-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No external lesions compatible with leishmaniasis were observed in any species other than the dogs...
  2. Bern C, Maguire J, Alvar J. Complexities of assessing the disease burden attributable to leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e313 pubmed publisher
    Among parasitic diseases, morbidity and mortality caused by leishmaniasis are surpassed only by malaria and lymphatic filariasis...
  3. Solano Gallego L, Miró G, Koutinas A, Cardoso L, Pennisi M, Ferrer L, et al. LeishVet guidelines for the practical management of canine leishmaniosis. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:86 pubmed publisher
  4. Ribeiro Gomes F, Sacks D. The influence of early neutrophil-Leishmania interactions on the host immune response to infection. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:59 pubmed publisher
    ..We suggest that the influence of the neutrophil response on infection outcome critically depends on the timing of their recruitment and the tissue environment in which it occurs. ..
  5. Santaella J, Ocampo C, Saravia N, Mendez F, Gongora R, Gomez M, et al. Leishmania (Viannia) infection in the domestic dog in Chaparral, Colombia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:674-80 pubmed publisher
    Peridomestic transmission of American cutaneous leishmaniasis is increasingly reported and dogs may be a reservoir of Leishmania (Viannia) in this setting...
  6. Oliveira F, Traoré B, Gomes R, Faye O, Gilmore D, Keita S, et al. Delayed-type hypersensitivity to sand fly saliva in humans from a leishmaniasis-endemic area of Mali is Th1-mediated and persists to midlife. J Invest Dermatol. 2013;133:452-9 pubmed publisher
    ..saliva in rodents induces a T(H)1 delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response conferring protection against leishmaniasis. The relevance of DTH to sand fly bites in humans living in a leishmaniasis-endemic area remains unknown...
  7. Sousa S, Cardoso L, Reed S, Reis A, Martins Filho O, Silvestre R, et al. Development of a fluorescent based immunosensor for the serodiagnosis of canine leishmaniasis combining immunomagnetic separation and flow cytometry. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2371 pubmed publisher
    ..As a challenging model, we used canine leishmaniasis due to the unsatisfactory sensitivity associated with the detection of infection in asymptomatic animals where ..
  8. Singh N, Kumar M, Singh R. Leishmaniasis: current status of available drugs and new potential drug targets. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:485-97 pubmed publisher
    ..Resistance to pentavalent antimonials, which have been the recommended drugs to treat cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis, is now widespread in Indian subcontinents...
  9. Balasegaram M, Ritmeijer K, Lima M, Burza S, Ortiz Genovese G, Milani B, et al. Liposomal amphotericin B as a treatment for human leishmaniasis. Expert Opin Emerg Drugs. 2012;17:493-510 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Between 700,000 and 1...
  10. Lima B, Dantas Torres F, de Carvalho M, Marinho Júnior J, de Almeida E, Brito M, et al. Small mammals as hosts of Leishmania spp. in a highly endemic area for zoonotic leishmaniasis in North-Eastern Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013;107:592-7 pubmed publisher
    Leishmania parasites cause leishmaniasis in humans and animals worldwide. These parasites are transmitted by phlebotomine sand flies, which become infected upon feeding on an infected mammalian host...
  11. Antoniou M, Gramiccia M, Molina R, Dvorak V, Volf P. The role of indigenous phlebotomine sandflies and mammals in the spreading of leishmaniasis agents in the Mediterranean region. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20540 pubmed
    ..therapies in humans) and the consequences of war, all contribute to the transformation of the epidemiology of leishmaniasis. Such changes should be considered when studying the spread of the disease throughout Europe for targeted ..
  12. Dantas Torres F, Solano Gallego L, Baneth G, Ribeiro V, de Paiva Cavalcanti M, Otranto D. Canine leishmaniosis in the Old and New Worlds: unveiled similarities and differences. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:531-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, it calls the attention of veterinary and public health authorities to standardize and improve practices for diagnosing, treating, and preventing the disease...
  13. Loria Cervera E, Andrade Narvaez F. Animal models for the study of leishmaniasis immunology. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2014;56:1-11 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis remains a major public health problem worldwide and is classified as Category I by the TDR/WHO, mainly due to the absence of control...
  14. Ahmed S, Sghaier R, Guesmi F, Kaabi B, Mejri M, Attia H, et al. Evaluation of antileishmanial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of essential oils extracted from plants issued from the leishmaniasis-endemic region of Sned (Tunisia). Nat Prod Res. 2011;25:1195-201 pubmed publisher
  15. Pereira B, Silva F, Rebello K, Marín Villa M, Traub Cseko Y, Andrade T, et al. In silico predicted epitopes from the COOH-terminal extension of cysteine proteinase B inducing distinct immune responses during Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis experimental murine infection. BMC Immunol. 2011;12:44 pubmed publisher
  16. Arce A, Estirado A, Ordobas M, Sevilla S, Garcia N, Moratilla L, et al. Re-emergence of leishmaniasis in Spain: community outbreak in Madrid, Spain, 2009 to 2012. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20546 pubmed
    Since July 2009, there has been a community outbreak of leishmaniasis in the south-west area of the Madrid autonomous community, Spain, affecting residents from four towns that are geographically close together and share extensive park ..
  17. Singh R, Srivastava A, Singh N. Toll-like receptor signaling: a perspective to develop vaccine against leishmaniasis. Microbiol Res. 2012;167:445-51 pubmed publisher
    ..In leishmaniasis, the outcome of the infection basically relies on the skewed balance between Th1/Th2 immune responses...
  18. Mascari T, Hanafi H, Jackson R, Ouahabi S, Ameur B, Faraj C, et al. Ecological and control techniques for sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) associated with rodent reservoirs of leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2434 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis remains a global health problem because of the substantial holes that remain in our understanding of sand fly ecology and the failure of traditional vector control methods...
  19. Carrillo E, Moreno J, Cruz I. What is responsible for a large and unusual outbreak of leishmaniasis in Madrid?. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:579-80 pubmed publisher
    Several towns in the southwest of Madrid, Spain, have been suffering from an outbreak of leishmaniasis since 2009 and, by December 2012, human infections had increased significantly...
  20. Boité M, Mauricio I, Miles M, Cupolillo E. New insights on taxonomy, phylogeny and population genetics of Leishmania (Viannia) parasites based on multilocus sequence analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1888 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, it contributes to the phylogeny of L. (Viannia) and might be helpful for epidemiological and population genetics analysis based on haplotype/diplotype determinations and inferences...
  21. Jayakumar A, Castilho T, Park E, Goldsmith Pestana K, Blackwell J, MCMAHON PRATT D. TLR1/2 activation during heterologous prime-boost vaccination (DNA-MVA) enhances CD8+ T Cell responses providing protection against Leishmania (Viannia). PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1204 pubmed publisher
    ..Further, vaccination studies utilizing small animal models indicate that modalities and antigens that prevent infection by other Leishmania species are generally not protective...
  22. Doroud D, Rafati S. Leishmaniasis: focus on the design of nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2012;11:69-86 pubmed publisher
    ..how nanoparticulate vaccine delivery systems can be used to induce appropriate immune responses against leishmaniasis by controlling physicochemical properties of the vaccine...
  23. Hide M, Marion E, Pomares C, Fisa R, Marty P, Banuls A. Parasitic genotypes appear to differ in leishmaniasis patients compared with asymptomatic related carriers. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:389-97 pubmed publisher
    ..These strains were isolated from HIV positive or negative patients with visceral leishmaniasis, cutaneous leishmaniasis, from canine leishmaniasis or from phlebotomine sandflies...
  24. Roger A, Nacher M, Hanf M, Drogoul A, Adenis A, Basurko C, et al. Climate and leishmaniasis in French Guiana. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:564-9 pubmed publisher
    To study the link between climatic variables and the incidence of leishmaniasis a study was conducted in Cayenne, French Guiana. Patients infected between January 1994 and December 2010...
  25. Tiuman T, Santos A, Ueda Nakamura T, Filho B, Nakamura C. Recent advances in leishmaniasis treatment. Int J Infect Dis. 2011;15:e525-32 pubmed publisher
    About 1.5 million new cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and 500,000 new cases of visceral leishmaniasis occur each year around the world...
  26. Verneuil M. [Ocular leishmaniasis in a cat: case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2013;36:e67-72 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis is a disease common to humans as well as wild and domestic animals. When it affects pets, it primarily involves dogs, which constitute a parasitic reservoir...
  27. Gkolfinopoulou K, Bitsolas N, Patrinos S, Veneti L, Marka A, Dougas G, et al. Epidemiology of human leishmaniasis in Greece, 1981-2011. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20532 pubmed
    b>Leishmaniasis is endemic and mandatorily notifiable in Greece. Epidemiological surveillance data for leishmaniasis in Greece between 1981 and 2011 are presented...
  28. Al Qahtani M, Malik N, Jamil S, Mekki T. Diagnostic dilemma of primary mucosal leishmaniasis. Saudi Med J. 2012;33:1234-8 pubmed
    b>Leishmaniasis is caused by Leishmania protozoa. It is widely present in more than 88 countries worldwide, resulting in up to 80,000 deaths annually. Leishmaniasis occurs as visceral, cutaneous, or mucocutaneous variants...
  29. Duthie M, Raman V, Piazza F, Reed S. The development and clinical evaluation of second-generation leishmaniasis vaccines. Vaccine. 2012;30:134-41 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, the current global situation with regard to leishmaniasis, the immunology of Leishmania infection and various efforts to identify second generation vaccine candidates ..
  30. Prates D, Araújo Santos T, Luz N, Andrade B, França Costa J, Afonso L, et al. Lutzomyia longipalpis saliva drives apoptosis and enhances parasite burden in neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2011;90:575-82 pubmed publisher
    ..the host's first line of defense against infections and have been implicated in the immunopathogenesis of Leishmaniasis. Leishmania parasites are inoculated alongside vectors' saliva, which is a rich source of pharmacologically ..
  31. Alvar J, Croft S, Kaye P, Khamesipour A, Sundar S, Reed S. Case study for a vaccine against leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 2013;31 Suppl 2:B244-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis in many ways offers a unique vaccine case study...
  32. Castilho Martins E, Laranjeira da Silva M, Dos Santos M, Muxel S, Floeter Winter L. Axenic Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes sense both the external and internal arginine pool distinctly regulating the two transporter-coding genes. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e27818 pubmed publisher
    ..0 min. In conclusion, parasites can regulate amino acid uptake by increasing the amount of transporter-coding mRNA, possibly by regulating the mRNA half-life in an environment where the amino acid is not present or is in low amounts...
  33. Vlková M, Rohousova I, Drahota J, Stanneck D, Kruedewagen E, Mencke N, et al. Canine antibody response to Phlebotomus perniciosus bites negatively correlates with the risk of Leishmania infantum transmission. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1344 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we examined the canine antibody response against the saliva of Phlebotomus perniciosus, the main vector of Leishmania infantum in the Mediterranean Basin, and characterized salivary antigens of this sand fly species...
  34. Lopes R, Eleutério C, Gonçalves L, Cruz M, Almeida A. Lipid nanoparticles containing oryzalin for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Eur J Pharm Sci. 2012;45:442-50 pubmed publisher
    Oryzalin is a dinitroaniline drug that has attracted recent interest for the treatment of leishmaniasis. Its use as an antiparasitic therapeutic agent is limited by the low water solubility associated with an in vivo rapid clearance, ..
  35. Ramos J, Gonzalez Alcaide G, Bolaños Pizarro M. Bibliometric analysis of leishmaniasis research in Medline (1945-2010). Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:55 pubmed publisher
    Publications are often used as a measure of success of research work. Leishmaniasis is considered endemic in 98 countries, most of which are developing...
  36. Bart A, van Thiel P, de Vries H, Hodiamont C, van Gool T. Imported leishmaniasis in the Netherlands from 2005 to 2012: epidemiology, diagnostic techniques and sequence-based species typing from 195 patients. Euro Surveill. 2013;18:20544 pubmed
    b>Leishmaniasis is an imported disease in the Netherlands...
  37. den Boer M, Argaw D, Jannin J, Alvar J. Leishmaniasis impact and treatment access. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2011;17:1471-7 pubmed publisher
    According to disease burden estimates, leishmaniasis ranks third in disease burden in disability-adjusted life years caused by neglected tropical diseases and is the second cause of parasite-related deaths after malaria; but for a ..
  38. Kobets T, Grekov I, Lipoldova M. Leishmaniasis: prevention, parasite detection and treatment. Curr Med Chem. 2012;19:1443-74 pubmed
    b>Leishmaniasis remains a public health problem worldwide, affecting approximately 12 million people in 88 countries; 50 000 die of it each year. The disease is caused by Leishmania, obligate intracellular vector-borne parasites...
  39. Cruz I, Millet A, Carrillo E, Chenik M, Salotra P, Verma S, et al. An approach for interlaboratory comparison of conventional and real-time PCR assays for diagnosis of human leishmaniasis. Exp Parasitol. 2013;134:281-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Leishmania genus are transmitted to humans by the bite of infected sandflies, and are the causative agents of leishmaniasis which ranges from cutaneous to visceral clinical forms...
  40. Kappagoda S, Singh U, Blackburn B. Antiparasitic therapy. Mayo Clin Proc. 2011;86:561-83 pubmed publisher
    ..soil-transmitted helminths and intestinal protozoa, expansion of the indications for antiparasitic drug treatment in patients with Chagas disease, and the use of combination therapy for leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis.
  41. Pierantozzi M, Roura X, Paltrinieri S, Poggi M, Zatelli A. Variation of proteinuria in dogs with leishmaniasis treated with meglumine antimoniate and allopurinol: a retrospective study. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2013;49:231-6 pubmed publisher
    A retrospective study was performed using 53 client owned dogs with leishmaniasis to determine whether the degree of proteinuria, evaluated by the urine protein/creatinine ratio (UP/C), changes following treatment with meglumine ..
  42. McGwire B, Satoskar A. Leishmaniasis: clinical syndromes and treatment. QJM. 2014;107:7-14 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis is a global term for cutaneous and visceral anthroponotic and zoonotic diseases caused by the vector-borne parasites of the genus Leishmania...
  43. Souza A, Soto M, Costa J, Boaventura V, de Oliveira C, Cristal J, et al. Towards a more precise serological diagnosis of human tegumentary leishmaniasis using Leishmania recombinant proteins. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e66110 pubmed publisher
    ..Exposure to Leishmania induces a humoral immune response that can be used as a marker of parasite exposure...
  44. Kaye P, Scott P. Leishmaniasis: complexity at the host-pathogen interface. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2011;9:604-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the extent of this diversity will be increasingly important in ensuring the development of broadly applicable vaccines, drugs and immunotherapeutic interventions...
  45. Cortes S, Vaz Y, Neves R, Maia C, Cardoso L, Campino L. Risk factors for canine leishmaniasis in an endemic Mediterranean region. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:189-96 pubmed publisher
    Human visceral leishmaniasis is an emergent/re-emergent parasitic zoonotic disease in Europe caused by Leishmania infantum, with domestic dog as its main reservoir host...
  46. Fernández M, Lestani E, Cavia R, Salomón O. Phlebotominae fauna in a recent deforested area with American tegumentary leishmaniasis transmission (Puerto Iguazú, Misiones, Argentina): seasonal distribution in domestic and peridomestic environments. Acta Trop. 2012;122:16-23 pubmed publisher
    ..In Argentina, Nyssomyia neivai and Nyssomyia whitmani are involved as the main vectors of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL)...
  47. Queiroz A, Sousa R, Heine C, Cardoso M, Guimaraes L, Machado P, et al. Association between an emerging disseminated form of leishmaniasis and Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis strain polymorphisms. J Clin Microbiol. 2012;50:4028-34 pubmed publisher
    Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis causes three main types of American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL), localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), mucosal leishmaniasis (ML), and disseminated leishmaniasis (DL)...
  48. Nuwayri Salti N, Knio K, Jammoul A, Fakhoury R, Sarhane K, Nakkash Chmaisse H. Atypical systemic leishmaniasis to be considered in the differential of patients presenting with depressed immunity. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1782 pubmed publisher
    Systemic leishmaniasis has been known to present with prolonged fever, hepatosplenomegaly and wasting. Beside this classical form, a sub-clinical form has been identified...
  49. Cortez M, Huynh C, Fernandes M, Kennedy K, Aderem A, Andrews N. Leishmania promotes its own virulence by inducing expression of the host immune inhibitory ligand CD200. Cell Host Microbe. 2011;9:463-71 pubmed publisher
    ..major infection to one resembling L. amazonensis, with large, nonhealing lesions. CD200-dependent iNOS inhibition allows parasite growth in macrophages, identifying a mechanism for the increased virulence of L. amazonensis...
  50. Machado P, Hilário F, Carvalho L, Silveira M, Alves R, Freitas R, et al. Effect of 3-alkylpyridine marine alkaloid analogues in Leishmania species related to American cutaneous leishmaniasis. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2012;80:745-51 pubmed publisher
    ..78; 0.27; 1.03, and 1.33 ?m, respectively), which is unlikely to be owing to the activation of nitric oxide production by macrophages...
  51. Quilez J, Martínez V, Woolliams J, Sanchez A, Pong Wong R, Kennedy L, et al. Genetic control of canine leishmaniasis: genome-wide association study and genomic selection analysis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35349 pubmed publisher
    The current disease model for leishmaniasis suggests that only a proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease, while others are asymptomatically infected due to immune control of infection...
  52. Länger B, Pou Barreto C, Gonzalez Alcon C, Valladares B, Wimmer B, Torres N. Modeling of leishmaniasis infection dynamics: novel application to the design of effective therapies. BMC Syst Biol. 2012;6:1 pubmed publisher
    The WHO considers leishmaniasis as one of the six most important tropical diseases worldwide. It is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania that are passed on to humans and animals by the phlebotomine sandfly...
  53. Bogdan C. Natural killer cells in experimental and human leishmaniasis. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012;2:69 pubmed publisher
    ..Although NK cells appear to be non-essential for the ultimate control of cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and can exhibit immunosuppressive functions, they form an important source of interferon (IFN)-?, which ..
  54. Jimenez M, Gonzalez E, Iriso A, Marco E, Alegret A, Fúster F, et al. Detection of Leishmania infantum and identification of blood meals in Phlebotomus perniciosus from a focus of human leishmaniasis in Madrid, Spain. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2453-9 pubmed publisher
    Since 2010, the number of cases of both human visceral leishmaniasis and cutaneous leishmaniasis in southwestern Madrid region (Spain) and more specifically in the town of Fuenlabrada has increased...
  55. Sacconnay L, Smirlis D, Queiroz E, Wolfender J, Soares M, Carrupt P, et al. Structural insights of SIR2rp3 proteins as promising biotargets to fight against Chagas disease and leishmaniasis. Mol Biosyst. 2013;9:2223-30 pubmed publisher
    Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. are protozoan pathogens responsible for Chagas disease and leishmaniasis, respectively...
  56. Amann K, Bogdan C, Harrer T, Rech J. Renal leishmaniasis as unusual cause of nephrotic syndrome in an HIV patient. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012;23:586-90 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we report an unusual case of HIV-1 infection with a severe renal manifestation of systemic leishmaniasis that developed years after repeated visits to Mediterranean countries...
  57. Topuzogullari M, Cakir Koç R, Dincer Isoglu S, Bagirova M, Akdeste Z, Elçıçek S, et al. Conjugation, characterization and toxicity of lipophosphoglycan-polyacrylic acid conjugate for vaccination against leishmaniasis. J Biomed Sci. 2013;20:35 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, we aimed to develop a potential vaccine candidate against leishmaniasis by covalently conjugating PAA with an immunologically vital molecule of lipophosphoglycan (LPG) found in ..
  58. Sen R, Chatterjee M. Plant derived therapeutics for the treatment of Leishmaniasis. Phytomedicine. 2011;18:1056-69 pubmed publisher
    ..Leishmania, a unicellular protozoan parasite is the causative organism of Leishmaniasis and is transmitted by female phlebotamine sandflies affecting millions of people worldwide...
  59. Martinez V, Quilez J, Sanchez A, Roura X, Francino O, Altet L. Canine leishmaniasis: the key points for qPCR result interpretation. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:57 pubmed publisher
    ..The aims of this study were: i) demonstrate the advantages of Leishmania qPCR to diagnose and control CanL and highlight its prognostic value and ii) propose guidelines for tissue selection and infection monitoring...
  60. Alimohammadian M, Jones S, Darabi H, Riazirad F, Ajdary S, Shabani A, et al. Assessment of interferon-? levels and leishmanin skin test results in persons recovered for leishmaniasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:70-5 pubmed publisher
    Patients who recover from leishmaniasis usually show development of strong immunity and induction of interferon-? (IFN-?) and delayed type hypersensitivity...
  61. Athanasiou L, Kontos V, Saridomichelakis M, Rallis T, Diakou A. A cross-sectional sero-epidemiological study of canine leishmaniasis in Greek mainland. Acta Trop. 2012;122:291-5 pubmed publisher
    Canine leishmaniasis is endemic in Greece as in other countries of the Mediterranean basin. In this study, the regional prevalence of canine seropositivity to Leishmania spp...
  62. Arjona Jiménez G, Villegas N, López Céspedes A, Marín C, Longoni S, Bolio González M, et al. Prevalence of antibodies against three species of Leishmania (L. mexicana, L. braziliensis, L. infantum) and possible associated factors in dogs from Mérida, Yucatán, Mexico. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:252-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in humans and in dogs, and numerous studies have demonstrated that dogs act as reservoirs for visceral leishmaniasis. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of three species of the Leishmania genus and ..
  63. Heravi Shargh V, Jaafari M, Khamesipour A, Jalali S, Firouzmand H, Abbasi A, et al. Cationic liposomes containing soluble Leishmania antigens (SLA) plus CpG ODNs induce protection against murine model of leishmaniasis. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:105-14 pubmed publisher
    Development of an effective vaccine against leishmaniasis is possible due to the fact that individuals cured from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are protected from further infection...
  64. Martins V, Chávez Fumagalli M, Costa L, Canavaci A, Martins A, Lage P, et al. Antigenicity and protective efficacy of a Leishmania amastigote-specific protein, member of the super-oxygenase family, against visceral leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2148 pubmed publisher
  65. Viana A, Mayrink W, Fraga C, Silva L, Domingos P, Bonan P, et al. Histopathological and immunohistochemical aspects of American cutaneous leishmaniasis before and after different treatments. An Bras Dermatol. 2013;88:32-40 pubmed
    The histopathology and immune responses of the healing process of leishmaniasis are still poorly studied.
  66. Dorlo T, Balasegaram M, Beijnen J, de Vries P. Miltefosine: a review of its pharmacology and therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of leishmaniasis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2012;67:2576-97 pubmed publisher
    ..For 10 years it has been licensed in India for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a fatal neglected parasitic disease...
  67. Shargh V, Jaafari M, Khamesipour A, Jaafari I, Jalali S, Abbasi A, et al. Liposomal SLA co-incorporated with PO CpG ODNs or PS CpG ODNs induce the same protection against the murine model of leishmaniasis. Vaccine. 2012;30:3957-64 pubmed publisher
    ..CpG ODNs (PO CpG) were used as adjuvants to enhance immunogenicity and rate of protection against leishmaniasis. Due to the susceptibility of PO CpG to nuclease degradation, an efficient liposomal delivery system was ..
  68. Bogdan C. Leishmaniasis in rheumatology, haematology and oncology: epidemiological, immunological and clinical aspects and caveats. Ann Rheum Dis. 2012;71 Suppl 2:i60-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Leishmaniasis is an intracellular protozoan infection that can lead to cutaneous, mucocutaneous, visceral or systemic manifestations depending on the parasite species and virulence and on the host immune response...
  69. Ballart C, Alcover M, Portus M, Gallego M. Is leishmaniasis widespread in Spain? First data on canine leishmaniasis in the province of Lleida, Catalonia, northeast Spain. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:134-6 pubmed publisher
    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a widespread disease present in 42 countries. It is considered of epidemiological importance because of its role as a reservoir of human leishmaniasis...
  70. Palmeiro M, Morgado F, Valete Rosalino C, Martins A, Moreira J, Quintella L, et al. Comparative study of the in situ immune response in oral and nasal mucosal leishmaniasis. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:23-31 pubmed publisher
    Mucosal Leishmaniasis (ML) may occur in both nasal and oral mucosa. However, despite the impressive tissue destruction, little is known about the oral involvement...