giardiasis

Summary

Summary: An infection of the SMALL INTESTINE caused by the flagellated protozoan GIARDIA. It is spread via contaminated food and water and by direct person-to-person contact.

Top Publications

  1. Britton E, Hales S, Venugopal K, Baker M. The impact of climate variability and change on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis rates in New Zealand. J Water Health. 2010;8:561-71 pubmed publisher
    To investigate the spatial relationship between climate variability and cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis notifications in New Zealand between 1997 and 2006...
  2. Veronesi F, Passamonti F, Caccio S, Diaferia M, Piergili Fioretti D. Epidemiological survey on equine cryptosporidium and giardia infections in Italy and molecular characterization of isolates. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:510-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential role of infected horses in zoonotic transmission of Cryptosporidium was supported by the findings of this study. ..
  3. Solaymani Mohammadi S, Genkinger J, Loffredo C, Singer S. A meta-analysis of the effectiveness of albendazole compared with metronidazole as treatments for infections with Giardia duodenalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e682 pubmed publisher
    Metronidazole is the most commonly used drug for the treatment of giardiasis in humans...
  4. Pinheiro I, de Castro M, Mitterofhe A, Pires F, Abramo C, Ribeiro L, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in three municipalities of Southeastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil: risk factors for giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1123-30 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are parasitic diseases that are among the major health concerns observed in economically disadvantaged populations of developing countries, and have clear social and environmental bases...
  5. Cooper M, Sterling C, Gilman R, Cama V, Ortega Y, Adam R. Molecular analysis of household transmission of Giardia lamblia in a region of high endemicity in Peru. J Infect Dis. 2010;202:1713-21 pubmed publisher
    ..Genotypes A1, A2, and B (Nash groups 1, 2, and 3, respectively) are found in humans, whereas genotypes C and D are typically found in dogs. However, genotypes A and B have occasionally been identified in dogs...
  6. Coles C, Levy A, Dagan R, Deckelbaum R, Fraser D. Risk factors for the initial symptomatic giardia infection in a cohort of young Arab-Bedouin children. Ann Trop Paediatr. 2009;29:291-300 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardiasis is a common protozoan infection with clinical manifestations in children ranging from asymptomatic carriage to persistent diarrhoea with malabsorption. It can lead to growth and developmental retardation...
  7. Solaymani Mohammadi S, Singer S. Host immunity and pathogen strain contribute to intestinal disaccharidase impairment following gut infection. J Immunol. 2011;187:3769-75 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a mouse model of giardiasis, we examined the role of host immunity and pathogen virulence in mediating disaccharidase deficiency ..
  8. Skarin H, Ringqvist E, Hellman U, Svard S. Elongation factor 1-alpha is released into the culture medium during growth of Giardia intestinalis trophozoites. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:804-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinant EF-1? is recognized by serum from giardiasis patients. Our results suggest that released EF-1? protein can be important during Giardia infections.
  9. Suzuki J, Murata R, Kobayashi S, Sadamasu K, Kai A, Takeuchi T. Risk of human infection with Giardia duodenalis from cats in Japan and genotyping of the isolates to assess the route of infection in cats. Parasitology. 2011;138:493-500 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a risk of transmission from cats to humans is suggested because of the detection of zoonotic Giardia genotypes in cat cafés. ..

More Information

Publications82

  1. Kingsbury D, Marks S, Cave N, Grahn R. Identification of Tritrichomonas foetus and Giardia spp. infection in pedigree show cats in New Zealand. N Z Vet J. 2010;58:6-10 pubmed publisher
    ..To establish the presence of Tritrichomonas foetus, to investigate the prevalence of co-infection with Giardia spp., and determine risk factors for T. foetus infection in pedigree show cats in New Zealand...
  2. Solaymani Mohammadi S, Singer S. Giardia duodenalis: the double-edged sword of immune responses in giardiasis. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:292-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardiasis is one of the most common intestinal protozoan infections worldwide. The etiological agent, Giardia duodenalis (syn...
  3. Johnston A, Gillespie T, Rwego I, McLachlan T, Kent A, Goldberg T. Molecular epidemiology of cross-species Giardia duodenalis transmission in western Uganda. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e683 pubmed publisher
  4. Teles N, Fechine F, Viana F, Viana I, Nascimento D, Leite A, et al. Evaluation of the therapeutic efficacy of Mentha crispa in the treatment of giardiasis. Contemp Clin Trials. 2011;32:809-13 pubmed publisher
    ..The current treatment of giardiasis includes the use of several drugs, among them, herbal medicines formulated with Mentha crispa...
  5. Wegayehu T, Adamu H, Petros B. Prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle in North Shewa Zone, Ethiopia. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:419 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of Giardia duodenalis and Cryptosporidium species infections among children and cattle, and to assess the potential risk of zoonotic transmission...
  6. Tungtrongchitr A, Sookrung N, Indrawattana N, Kwangsi S, Ongrotchanakun J, Chaicumpa W. Giardia intestinalis in Thailand: identification of genotypes. J Health Popul Nutr. 2010;28:42-52 pubmed
    ..All subjects with AI and 50% of the subjects with BIII sub-assemblage cysts were symptomatic; 80% of symptomatic Bangkok residents were adults/elderly while 85% of the rural cases were children. ..
  7. Naess H, Nyland M, Hausken T, Follestad I, Nyland H. Chronic fatigue syndrome after Giardia enteritis: clinical characteristics, disability and long-term sickness absence. BMC Gastroenterol. 2012;12:13 pubmed publisher
    ..fatigue, lowered functional capacity and sickness leave or delayed education after a large community outbreak of giardiasis enteritis in the city of Bergen, Norway were evaluated with the established Centers for Disease Control and ..
  8. Duffy T, Montenegro Bethancourt G, Solomons N, Belosevic M, Clandinin M. Prevalence of giardiasis in children attending semi-urban daycare centres in Guatemala and comparison of 3 giardia detection tests. J Health Popul Nutr. 2013;31:290-3 pubmed
    ..Intensity, but not prevalence, of infection showed a trend toward decreased weight-for-age (1-tailed p = 0.08). We believe that ELISA analysis of stool samples may be further adapted for measuring the intensity of infection in humans. ..
  9. Daly E, Roy S, Blaney D, Manning J, Hill V, Xiao L, et al. Outbreak of giardiasis associated with a community drinking-water source. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:491-500 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardiasis is a common waterborne gastrointestinal illness. In 2007, a community giardiasis outbreak occurred in New Hampshire, USA...
  10. Beck R, Sprong H, Lucinger S, Pozio E, Caccio S. A large survey of Croatian wild mammals for Giardia duodenalis reveals a low prevalence and limited zoonotic potential. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1049-55 pubmed publisher
    ..The data point to a minor role of wild mammals as reservoirs of zoonotic assemblages of G. duodenalis, albeit cycling between sylvatic and domestic animals is possible...
  11. Bodhidatta L, McDaniel P, Sornsakrin S, Srijan A, Serichantalergs O, Mason C. Case-control study of diarrheal disease etiology in a remote rural area in Western Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:1106-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Most pre-school children were infested with enteric pathogens; laboratory-based studies are important to understand the epidemiology of enteric pathogens in remote areas among marginal populations. ..
  12. Lasek Nesselquist E, Welch D, Sogin M. The identification of a new Giardia duodenalis assemblage in marine vertebrates and a preliminary analysis of G. duodenalis population biology in marine systems. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1063-74 pubmed publisher
    ..duodenalis as these assemblages are from each other. The discovery of a previously uncharacterised lineage of G. duodenalis suggests that this parasite has more genetic diversity and perhaps a larger host range than previously believed...
  13. Robertson L, Gjerde B, Furuseth Hansen E. The zoonotic potential of Giardia and Cryptosporidium in Norwegian sheep: a longitudinal investigation of 6 flocks of lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:140-5 pubmed publisher
    ..xiaoi (non-zoonotic). These results suggest that sheep in Norway are unlikely to be an important reservoir of zoonotic Giardia in Norway, but might have some public health significance with respect to Cryptosporidium...
  14. Lal A, Baker M, Hales S, French N. Potential effects of global environmental changes on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis transmission. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:83-90 pubmed publisher
    ..describes the influence of climatic variability, land-use changes, and social factors on cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in humans...
  15. Rimhanen Finne R, Hänninen M, Vuento R, Laine J, Jokiranta T, Snellman M, et al. Contaminated water caused the first outbreak of giardiasis in Finland, 2007: a descriptive study. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:613-9 pubmed publisher
    ..existence and the importance of Giardia infections related to this outbreak, we described characteristics of the giardiasis cases and calculated the incidence of giardiasis as well as the frequency of positive Giardia tests both before ..
  16. Boeke C, Mora Plazas M, Forero Y, Villamor E. Intestinal protozoan infections in relation to nutritional status and gastrointestinal morbidity in Colombian school children. J Trop Pediatr. 2010;56:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, G. duodenalis and E. coli infections were associated with indicators of poor nutritional status in this population, while B. hominis was related to apparently decreased morbidity...
  17. Abe N, Tanoue T, Noguchi E, Ohta G, Sakai H. Molecular characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates from domestic ferrets. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:733-6 pubmed publisher
    ..two additional Giardia isolates, recovered independently from two ferrets suffering from intestinal or hepatic giardiasis, were analyzed genetically...
  18. Martínez Díaz R, Sansano Maestre J, Martínez Herrero M, Ponce Gordo F, Gomez Munoz M. Occurrence and genetic characterization of Giardia duodenalis from captive nonhuman primates by multi-locus sequence analysis. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:539-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Amplification products were sequenced and the sequence and phylogenetic analyses showed that genotype IV like was the most frequent in the samples belonging to this assemblage...
  19. Boontanom P, Mungthin M, Tan ariya P, Naaglor T, Leelayoova S. Epidemiology of giardiasis and genotypic characterization of Giardia duodenalis in preschool children of a rural community, central Thailand. Trop Biomed. 2011;28:32-9 pubmed
    ..1 times (95% CI; 1.3- 20.3) greater risk of acquiring giardiasis. This study possibly represents the information supporting the potential zoonotic transmission of G...
  20. Hanevik K, Kristoffersen E, Sørnes S, Mørch K, Næss H, Rivenes A, et al. Immunophenotyping in post-giardiasis functional gastrointestinal disease and chronic fatigue syndrome. BMC Infect Dis. 2012;12:258 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to evaluate a wide selection of markers of immune dysfunction in these two co-occurring post-infectious syndromes...
  21. Kowalewski M, Salzer J, Deutsch J, Raño M, Kuhlenschmidt M, Gillespie T. Black and gold howler monkeys (Alouatta caraya) as sentinels of ecosystem health: patterns of zoonotic protozoa infection relative to degree of human-primate contact. Am J Primatol. 2011;73:75-83 pubmed publisher
  22. Almeida A, Pozio E, Caccio S. Genotyping of Giardia duodenalis cysts by new real-time PCR assays for detection of mixed infections in human samples. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2010;76:1895-901 pubmed publisher
    ..The assays described in this study can be used to detect Giardia cysts infectious to humans in samples from animals and in water and food...
  23. Prucca C, Rivero F, Lujan H. Regulation of antigenic variation in Giardia lamblia. Annu Rev Microbiol. 2011;65:611-30 pubmed publisher
  24. Perry D, Morrison H, Adam R. Optical map of the genotype A1 WB C6 Giardia lamblia genome isolate. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2011;180:112-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This has allowed us to correct several assembly errors and to better define the extent of the subtelomeric regions that are not included in the genome assembly...
  25. Bonhomme J, Le Goff L, Lemée V, Gargala G, Ballet J, Favennec L. Limitations of tpi and bg genes sub-genotyping for characterization of human Giardia duodenalis isolates. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:327-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Present data underline the need for improvements in the standardization of G. duodenalis multilocus genotyping approach for further molecular epidemiologic studies of giardiasis.
  26. Muhsen K, Levine M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the association between Giardia lamblia and endemic pediatric diarrhea in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55 Suppl 4:S271-93 pubmed publisher
    ..001), positively linking Giardia with that syndrome. The well-powered Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) is prospectively addressing the association between G. lamblia infection and diarrhea in children in developing countries...
  27. Ryan U, Caccio S. Zoonotic potential of Giardia. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:943-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a better understanding of the genetics of this parasite is required to allow the design of more sensitive and variable subtyping tools, that in turn may help unravel the complex epidemiology of this infection. ..
  28. Siwila J, Phiri I, Enemark H, Nchito M, Olsen A. Intestinal helminths and protozoa in children in pre-schools in Kafue district, Zambia. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:122-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should explore local factors associated with transmission of these infections, and consequently provide the necessary health education to parents and teachers...
  29. Ash A, Lymbery A, Lemon J, Vitali S, Thompson R. Molecular epidemiology of Giardia duodenalis in an endangered carnivore--the African painted dog. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:206-12 pubmed publisher
    ..This study is the first to observe G. duodenalis in the African painted dog and to identify a possible emerging disease in this wild carnivore...
  30. Al Mohammed H. Genotypes of Giardia intestinalis clinical isolates of gastrointestinal symptomatic and asymptomatic Saudi children. Parasitol Res. 2011;108:1375-81 pubmed publisher
    b>Giardiasis is the most worldwide parasitic disease with the major clinical impact on infant and children. Two genotypes were reported commonly among humans (assemblage A and B)...
  31. Lalle M. Giardiasis in the post genomic era: treatment, drug resistance and novel therapeutic perspectives. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010;10:283-94 pubmed
    ..G. duodenalis is the causative agent of giardiasis, the most common non-bacterial and non-viral diarrheal diseases affecting humans worldwide...
  32. Escobedo A, Almirall P, Robertson L, Franco R, Hanevik K, Mørch K, et al. Giardiasis: the ever-present threat of a neglected disease. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010;10:329-48 pubmed
    Although giardiasis has been a threat to mankind for thousands of years, this protozoan infection was, until recently, relatively neglected...
  33. Al Saeed A, Issa S. Detection of Giardia lamblia antigen in stool specimens using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. East Mediterr Health J. 2010;16:362-4 pubmed
    ..4% and the specificity was 100%. We recommend using ELISA in epidemiological surveys in Iraq and to confirm the diagnosis in patients with typical clinical symptoms of giardiasis but negative results by direct microscopy.
  34. Abou Shady O, El Raziky M, Zaki M, Mohamed R. Impact of Giardia lamblia on growth, serum levels of zinc, copper, and iron in Egyptian children. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;140:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..the serological levels of zinc, copper and iron in Giardia lamblia-infected children and to study the effect of giardiasis on their weight compared to controls...
  35. Júlio C, Vilares A, Oleastro M, Ferreira I, Gomes S, Monteiro L, et al. Prevalence and risk factors for Giardia duodenalis infection among children: a case study in Portugal. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:22 pubmed publisher
    ..This study intended to estimate G. duodenalis infection prevalence and identify possible associated risk factors in a healthy paediatric population living in the District of the Portuguese capital, Lisbon...
  36. Lal A, Hales S, French N, Baker M. Seasonality in human zoonotic enteric diseases: a systematic review. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e31883 pubmed publisher
    ..diseases: campylobacteriosis, salmonellosis, vero-cytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC), cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis in the context of two primary drivers of seasonality: (i) environmental effects on pathogen occurrence and ..
  37. Ankarklev J, Svard S, Lebbad M. Allelic sequence heterozygosity in single Giardia parasites. BMC Microbiol. 2012;12:65 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, two important questions have arisen; i) does ASH occur at the single cell level, and/or ii) do multiple sub-genotype infections commonly occur in patients infected with assemblage B, G. intestinalis isolates?..
  38. Molina N, Minvielle M, Grenóvero S, Salomon C, Basualdo J. High prevalences of infection with Giardia intestinalis genotype B among children in urban and rural areas of Argentina. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011;105:299-309 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first published report on the Giardia genotypes circulating in the provinces of Mendoza and Chaco. The results indicate the importance of asymptomatic children in the transmission of Giardia among the young...
  39. Quihui L, Morales G, Méndez R, Leyva J, Esparza J, Valencia M. Could giardiasis be a risk factor for low zinc status in schoolchildren from northwestern Mexico? A cross-sectional study with longitudinal follow-up. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:85 pubmed publisher
    Both giardiasis and zinc deficiency are serious health problems worldwide. In Mexico, the prevalence of G. intestinalis was estimated at 32% in 1994. It remains a health problem in northwestern Mexico...
  40. Shukla G, Kaur H, Sharma L. Comparative therapeutic effect of probiotic Lactobacillus casei alone and in conjunction with antiprotozoal drugs in murine giardiasis. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2143-9 pubmed publisher
    Various antiprotozoal drugs have been used to counteract the spread of giardiasis. However, due to increase in resistance to these compounds, there is an urgent need to find a natural biocompatible product to fight the pathogen in more ..
  41. Mellingen K, Midtun A, Hanevik K, Eide G, Søbstad Ø, Langeland N. Post epidemic giardiasis and gastrointestinal symptoms among preschool children in Bergen, Norway. A cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:163 pubmed publisher
    A surprisingly low number of children became ill with giardiasis during the large waterborne outbreak of Giardia lamblia in Bergen, Norway during autumn 2004...
  42. Ballweber L, Xiao L, Bowman D, Kahn G, Cama V. Giardiasis in dogs and cats: update on epidemiology and public health significance. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:180-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Because these genotypes are found primarily in humans, and no comprehensive studies to address zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis are yet available, the potential role of dogs and cats cannot be conclusively excluded...
  43. Espelage W, an der Heiden M, Stark K, Alpers K. Characteristics and risk factors for symptomatic Giardia lamblia infections in Germany. BMC Public Health. 2010;10:41 pubmed publisher
    In developed countries, giardiasis is considered a travel related disease. However, routine surveillance data from Germany indicate that >50% of infections were acquired indigenously...
  44. Feng Y, Xiao L. Zoonotic potential and molecular epidemiology of Giardia species and giardiasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2011;24:110-40 pubmed publisher
    ..have been used recently in assessing the taxonomy, zoonotic potential, and transmission of Giardia species and giardiasis in humans and animals...
  45. Veenemans J, Mank T, Ottenhof M, Baidjoe A, Mbugi E, Demir A, et al. Protection against diarrhea associated with Giardia intestinalis Is lost with multi-nutrient supplementation: a study in Tanzanian children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1158 pubmed publisher
    ..Impaired linear growth and cognition have been associated with giardiasis, presumably mediated by malabsorption of nutrients...
  46. Rishniw M, Liotta J, Bellosa M, Bowman D, Simpson K. Comparison of 4 Giardia diagnostic tests in diagnosis of naturally acquired canine chronic subclinical giardiasis. J Vet Intern Med. 2010;24:293-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The performance of Giardia diagnostic tests that detect either cysts or fecal antigens has not been thoroughly examined...
  47. Breathnach A, McHugh T, Butcher P. Prevalence and clinical correlations of genetic subtypes of Giardia lamblia in an urban setting. Epidemiol Infect. 2010;138:1459-67 pubmed publisher
    The clinical significance of different genetic subtypes or assemblages of Giardia lamblia is uncertain. Cases of giardiasis in south-west London between 1999 and 2005 were studied, comparing molecular-typing results with clinical and ..
  48. Ankarklev J, Hestvik E, Lebbad M, Lindh J, Kaddu Mulindwa D, Andersson J, et al. Common coinfections of Giardia intestinalis and Helicobacter pylori in non-symptomatic Ugandan children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1780 pubmed publisher
    ..pylori with induction of cancer. Despite this, not much data are available from sub-Saharan Africa with regards to the prevalence of different G. intestinalis assemblages and their potential association with H. pylori infections...
  49. Hunskar G, Langeland N, Wensaas K, Hanevik K, Eide G, Mørch K, et al. The impact of atopic disease on the risk of post-infectious fatigue and irritable bowel syndrome 3 years after Giardia infection. A historic cohort study. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2012;47:956-61 pubmed publisher
    To investigate whether atopic disease influences the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and chronic fatigue (CF) after giardiasis.
  50. Quihui Cota L, Méndez Estrada R, Astiazaran Garcia H, Morales Figueroa G, Moreno Reyes M, Cuadras Romo D, et al. Changes in serum zinc levels associated with giardiasis and dietary zinc intake in mice. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2012;145:396-402 pubmed publisher
    The association of giardiasis with the malabsorption of zinc remains controversial. This study investigated changes in serum zinc levels in Giardia-infected mice subjected to different dietary zinc regimens...
  51. Berrilli F, Prisco C, Friedrich K, Di Cerbo P, Di Cave D, De Liberato C. Giardia duodenalis assemblages and Entamoeba species infecting non-human primates in an Italian zoological garden: zoonotic potential and management traits. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:199 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study we carried out the molecular identification of G. duodenalis and Entamoeba spp. from nine species of primates housed in the zoological garden of Rome, to better ascertain their occurrence and zoonotic potential...
  52. Bénéré E, Geurden T, Robertson L, Van Assche T, Cos P, Maes L. Infectivity of Giardia duodenalis Assemblages A and E for the gerbil and axenisation of duodenal trophozoites. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:634-7 pubmed publisher
    ..2mg/ml) supported cloning of Assemblage A, while l-glutathione (7.8 mg/ml) was required for Assemblage E. This is a first description of in vitro axenisation of Assemblage E trophozoites from cattle...
  53. Mørch K, Hanevik K, Rivenes A, Bødtker J, Næss H, Stubhaug B, et al. Chronic fatigue syndrome 5 years after giardiasis: differential diagnoses, characteristics and natural course. BMC Gastroenterol. 2013;13:28 pubmed publisher
    A high prevalence of chronic fatigue has previously been reported following giardiasis after a large waterborne outbreak in Bergen, Norway in 2004...
  54. Ankarklev J, Jerlström Hultqvist J, Ringqvist E, Troell K, Svard S. Behind the smile: cell biology and disease mechanisms of Giardia species. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2010;8:413-22 pubmed publisher
    ..intestinalis is used as a model eukaryotic system for studying many basic cellular processes. In this Review we discuss recent discoveries in the molecular cell biology and pathogenesis of G. intestinalis...
  55. Hunter P, de Sylor M, Risebro H, Nichols G, Kay D, Hartemann P. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of cryptosporidiosis and giardiasis from very small private water supplies. Risk Anal. 2011;31:228-36 pubmed publisher
    ..However, this increased immunity is presumed to derive from increased disease risk in young children, the group most at risk from severe disease...
  56. Liu A, Zhang X, Zhang L, Wang R, Li X, Shu J, et al. Occurrence of bovine giardiasis and endemic genetic characterization of Giardia duodenalis isolates in Heilongjiang Province, in the Northeast of China. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:655-61 pubmed publisher
    To determine the prevalence of bovine giardiasis in Heilongjiang Province in China and to molecularly characterize Giardia duodenalis, feces were collected from 814 dairy and beef cattle ranging in age from 6 days to 9 years...
  57. Berrilli F, D Alfonso R, Giangaspero A, Marangi M, Brandonisio O, Kaboré Y, et al. Giardia duodenalis genotypes and Cryptosporidium species in humans and domestic animals in Côte d'Ivoire: occurrence and evidence for environmental contamination. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2012;106:191-5 pubmed publisher
    ..parvum. The results provide further evidence about the role of free-ranging domestic animals living closely with humans in the environmental dissemination and potential transmission of these anthropozoonotic pathogens to humans...
  58. Canete R, Rodriguez P, Mesa L, Brito K, Prior A, Guilhem D, et al. Albendazole versus metronidazole in the treatment of adult giardiasis: a randomized, double-blind, clinical trial. Curr Med Res Opin. 2012;28:149-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Albendazole (ABZ) is a benzimidazole carbamate compound currently in use for human medical practice against enterobiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH); However, its spectrum of activity is broad and goes beyond these infections...
  59. Al Mekhlafi H, Surin J, Sallam A, Abdullah A, Mahdy M. Giardiasis and poor vitamin A status among aboriginal school children in rural Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:523-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The results showed that 66 (27.4%) children had low serum retinol levels (< 0.70 micromol/L). Giardiasis and severe ascariasis were significantly associated with low serum retinol levels (P = 0.004 and P = 0...
  60. Hanevik K, Kristoffersen E, Svärd S, Bruserud O, Ringqvist E, Sørnes S, et al. Human cellular immune response against Giardia lamblia 5 years after acute giardiasis. J Infect Dis. 2011;204:1779-86 pubmed publisher
    ..An outbreak of assemblage B giardiasis in a nonendemic area made it possible to evaluate the long-term cellular mediated immunity and its specificity ..
  61. Morken M, Valeur J, Norin E, Midtvedt T, Nysaeter G, Berstad A. Antibiotic or bacterial therapy in post-giardiasis irritable bowel syndrome. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2009;44:1296-303 pubmed publisher
    OBJECTIVE. Intestinal infection with Giardia lamblia may lead to therapy-resistant, long-lasting post-giardiasis irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)...
  62. Beck R, Sprong H, Bata I, Lucinger S, Pozio E, Caccio S. Prevalence and molecular typing of Giardia spp. in captive mammals at the zoo of Zagreb, Croatia. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:40-6 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first survey in a zoological garden to include a molecular characterization of the parasite, and provides novel sequence data of G. duodenalis from many previously uncharacterized hosts...
  63. Lebbad M, Petersson I, Karlsson L, Botero Kleiven S, Andersson J, Svenungsson B, et al. Multilocus genotyping of human Giardia isolates suggests limited zoonotic transmission and association between assemblage B and flatulence in children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1262 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Giardiasis has been classified as a possible zoonotic disease but the role of animals in human disease transmission still ..
  64. Siripattanapipong S, Leelayoova S, Mungthin M, Thompson R, Boontanom P, Saksirisamphant W, et al. Determination of discriminatory power of genetic markers used for genotyping Giardia duodenalis. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:764-71 pubmed
    ..duodenalis than using any single locus...
  65. Yakoob J, Abbas Z, Beg M, Naz S, Khan R, Islam M, et al. Prevalences of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum infection in adults presenting with chronic diarrhoea. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010;104:505-10 pubmed publisher
    ..6%) of the 167 found smear-negative (k=0.954; P<0.001). Although C. parvum was associated with chronic diarrhoea in the present study, the carriage of G. lamblia often appeared asymptomatic...
  66. Wielinga C, Ryan U, Andrew Thompson R, Monis P. Multi-locus analysis of Giardia duodenalis intra-Assemblage B substitution patterns in cloned culture isolates suggests sub-Assemblage B analyses will require multi-locus genotyping with conserved and variable genes. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:495-503 pubmed publisher
  67. Robertson L, Hanevik K, Escobedo A, Mørch K, Langeland N. Giardiasis--why do the symptoms sometimes never stop?. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:75-82 pubmed publisher
    Although giardiasis is considered by most medical practitioners to be an easily treated infection, prolonged symptoms due to, or following, Giardia duodenalis infection can have a significant impact on quality of life...
  68. Sprong H, Caccio S, van der Giessen J. Identification of zoonotic genotypes of Giardia duodenalis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e558 pubmed publisher
    Giardia duodenalis, originally regarded as a commensal organism, is the etiologic agent of giardiasis, a gastrointestinal disease of humans and animals. Giardiasis causes major public and veterinary health concerns worldwide...
  69. Ignatius R, Gahutu J, Klotz C, Steininger C, Shyirambere C, Lyng M, et al. High prevalence of Giardia duodenalis Assemblage B infection and association with underweight in Rwandan children. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1677 pubmed publisher
    ..We aimed at addressing these questions and at examining epidemiological characteristics of G. duodenalis in southern highland Rwanda...
  70. Wensaas K, Langeland N, Hanevik K, Mørch K, Eide G, Rortveit G. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 3 years after acute giardiasis: historic cohort study. Gut. 2012;61:214-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Giardia lamblia is a common cause of gastroenteritis worldwide, but there is limited knowledge about the long-term complications...
  71. Soares R, de Souza S, Silveira L, Funada M, Richtzenhain L, Gennari S. Genotyping of potentially zoonotic Giardia duodenalis from exotic and wild animals kept in captivity in Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:344-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The molecular identification of Assemblages A and B of G. duodenalis isolates from exotic and wild animals demonstrates that such hosts may be a potential reservoir for zoonotic transmission of G. duodenalis...
  72. Mørch K, Hanevik K, Rortveit G, Wensaas K, Eide G, Hausken T, et al. Severity of Giardia infection associated with post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after. BMC Infect Dis. 2009;9:206 pubmed publisher
    A high rate of post-infectious fatigue and abdominal symptoms two years after a waterborne outbreak of giardiasis in Bergen, Norway in 2004 has previously been reported...
  73. Calderaro A, Gorrini C, Montecchini S, Peruzzi S, Piccolo G, Rossi S, et al. Evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the laboratory diagnosis of giardiasis. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010;66:261-7 pubmed publisher
    ..on 771 fecal samples belonging to 386 patients to assess its usefulness for an accurate laboratory diagnosis of giardiasis. The real-time PCR assay detected Giardia intestinalis DNA in 195 samples (106 patients), including 26 samples (..