hypodermyiasis

Summary

Summary: Infestation with larvae of the genus Hypoderma, the warble fly.

Top Publications

  1. Kearney M, Nilssen A, Lyslo A, Syrdalen P, Dannevig L. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva. J Clin Pathol. 1991;44:276-84 pubmed
    ..Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi...
  2. Colwell D, Jacobsen J. Persistent activity of topical ivermectin against artificial infestations with Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol. 2002;105:247-56 pubmed
    ..The length of activity of this product against early stages of the cattle grub makes it practical to apply treatment up to 3 weeks before the end of fly activity...
  3. Colwell D, Panadero Fontan R, López Sandez C, Parra Fernandez F, Paz Silva A, Sánchez Andrade R, et al. Effect of treatment on the dynamics of circulating hypodermin C in cattle naturally infested with Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol. 2003;113:263-72 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that the antigen capture ELISA will be useful as a technique for detecting successful treatment of cattle grub infestations and for the detection of new infestations in previously infested cattle. ..
  4. Ma M, Guan G, Lu B, Liu A, Liu Z, Chang Z, et al. Efficacy of different dosages of ivermectin injectable against the Hypoderma spp. in yaks. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:147-51 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that dosage of 1 microg/kg ivermectin injectable was sufficient to kill or stop development of larvae of Hypoderma spp. in naturally infected yaks if administrated in November...
  5. Boulard C, Villejoubert C, Moire N, Losson B, Lonneux J. Sero-surveillance of hypodermosis in a herd under therapeutic control. Effect of a low level of infestation. Vet Parasitol. 1996;66:109-17 pubmed
    ..The interpretation and the value of a sensitive immunodiagnosis in a large eradication programme are discussed and compared with warble counts, especially in the case of a low level of infestation. ..
  6. Colwell D, Baron R, Lysyk T. Influence of parasiticide treatment on kinetics of antigen specific antibody response in cattle infested with Hypoderma lineatum (Diptera:Oestridae). Vet Parasitol. 1997;68:175-86 pubmed
    ..Persistence of the antigen specific antibody following treatment will permit conduct of serological surveillance programmes. ..
  7. Vaillant J, Argente G, Boulard C. [Bovine hypodermyiasis: a quasi sequential procedure for observation of live-stock for surveillance of recrudescence in eradicated zones]. Vet Res. 1997;28:461-71 pubmed
    ..The test procedure concerning the prevalence level was then adapted to take into account the sensitivity of the observation method. This is tantamount to reducing the threshold p0. ..
  8. Colwell D. Hidden antigens from third instar Hypoderma lineatum: impact of immunization on larval survival in artificial infestations. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:313-9 pubmed publisher
    ..All groups of calves became positive for antibodies to first instar antigens, although in some immunized calves the antibodies were transient. ..
  9. Panciera R, Ewing S, Johnson E, Johnson B, Whitenack D. Eosinophilic mediastinitis, myositis, pleuritis, and pneumonia of cattle associated with migration of first-instar larvae of Hypoderma lineatum. J Vet Diagn Invest. 1993;5:226-31 pubmed
    ..The larvae, which were small (approximately 1 x 4.5 mm), transparent, and unobtrusive, were recovered from lesions in 12 of 20 cattle in which careful parasitologic examination was made. ..

More Information

Publications88

  1. Lonneux J, Losson B. The efficacy of moxidectin 0.5% pour-on against Hypoderma bovis in naturally infested cattle: parasitological and serological data. Vet Parasitol. 1994;52:313-20 pubmed
    ..05). In conclusion, moxidectin 0.5% pour-on formulation at a dose of 0.5 mg kg-1 bodyweight can effectively treat cattle naturally infested with Hypoderma bovis first instar larvae. ..
  2. Reina D, Hurtado F, Martinez Moreno F, Hernández Rodríguez S, Navarrete I. Method for collecting Hypoderma spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) larvae from cattle. J Med Entomol. 1998;35:327-9 pubmed
    ..This procedure allows the collection of each emerged larva without contact with other larvae and avoids friction of the cloth cages or dressing with the larvae, thus reducing larval death and increasing viability of the parasite. ..
  3. Martínez Gómez F, Hernández Rodríguez S, Ruiz Sanchez P, Molina Rodero R, Martinez Moreno A. Hypodermosis in the red deer Cervus elaphus in Córdoba, Spain. Med Vet Entomol. 1990;4:311-4 pubmed
    ..The chronology of the life cycle during the hunting period (October to the end of February) was investigated. ..
  4. Chabaudie N, Boulard C. In vitro and ex vivo responses of bovine lymphocytes to hypodermin C, an enzyme secreted by Hypoderma lineatum (insect oestridae). Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1993;36:153-62 pubmed
    ..Thirdly, injections of HC to infested cattle did not negatively influence the specific humoral and cellular responses. ..
  5. Chamberlain W, Scholl P. New procedures to enhance survival of third-instar Hypoderma lineatum (Villers) (Diptera: Oestridae) in artificial media. J Med Entomol. 1991;28:266-9 pubmed
    ..Survival to pupariation of more mature grubs was similar in the jar and culture plate techniques. The former was more convenient, but the young grubs did not survive well in the jars. ..
  6. Haine D, Boelaert F, Pfeiffer D, Saegerman C, Lonneux J, Losson B, et al. Herd-level seroprevalence and risk-mapping of bovine hypodermosis in Belgian cattle herds. Prev Vet Med. 2004;65:93-104 pubmed
  7. Temeyer K, Pruett J, Kuhn I, Files J. Recombinant vaccine development: a novel approach to ectoparasite control. A review of development of a recombinant vaccine for hypodermosis based on hypodermin A. SAAS Bull Biochem Biotechnol. 1993;6:31-5 pubmed
    ..Research progress towards development and utilization of a recombinant subunit vaccine for hypodermosis is described. ..
  8. Reina D, Martinez Moreno F, Gutierrez Palomino P, Scholl P, Hernández Rodríguez S, Navarrete I. Experimental bovine hypodermosis in Spain. J Med Entomol. 2000;37:210-5 pubmed
    ..Hypoderma bovis (de Geer) showed a delay of 2 m.o. relative to H. lineatum (de Villiers). This study reports a completed biological life cycle of Hypoderma spp. under controlled conditions in both natural and experimental environments. ..
  9. Colwell D. Scanning electron microscopy of the posterior spiracles of cattle grubs Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. Med Vet Entomol. 1989;3:391-8 pubmed
    ..Anterior felt chambers open into the dorsal longitudinal tracheal trunk. Felt chambers in third instar larvae are also filled with a complex mesh. ..
  10. Lloyd J, Kumar R, Waggoner J, Phillips F. Doramectin systemic activity against cattle grubs, Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis (Diptera: Oestridae), and cattle lice, bovicola bovis (Mallophaga: Trichodectidae), Linognathus vituli and Solenopotes capillatus (Anoplura: Linognathidae), and Haemat. Vet Parasitol. 1996;63:307-17 pubmed
    ..By 28 days following treatment, the number of B. bovis was reduced between 58 and 98%. Treatments applied later in the season, i.e. in March, were more efficacious against B. bovis than those applied in January or February...
  11. Otranto D, Zalla P, Testini G, Zanaj S. Cattle grub infestation by Hypoderma sp. in Albania and risks for European countries. Vet Parasitol. 2005;128:157-62 pubmed
    ..The hope is not only to reduce the parasitic intensity with obvious benefits for livestock production, but also to avoid the risk of spreading this parasitic disease to neighboring countries. ..
  12. Oksanen A, Nieminen M, Soveri T, Kumpula K. Oral and parenteral administration of ivermectin to reindeer. Vet Parasitol. 1992;41:241-7 pubmed
    ..c. injection against parasitic nematodes. Both formulations, but particularly the injectable ivermectin treatment, increased the weight gain of pregnant females compared to that of those not treated...
  13. Holste J, Colwell D, Kumar R, Lloyd J, Pinkall N, Sierra M, et al. Efficacy of eprinomectin against Hypoderma spp in cattle. Am J Vet Res. 1998;59:56-8 pubmed
    ..Attributes of eprinomectin besides antiparasite efficacy allow treatment of all classes of cattle with no need for meat or milk withdrawal. ..
  14. Baron R, Colwell D. Enhanced resistance to cattle grub infestation (Hypoderma lineatum de Vill.) in calves immunized with purified hypodermin A, B and C plus monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Vet Parasitol. 1991;38:185-97 pubmed
    ..Immunized (antigen plus MPL) calves produced 5.0 +/- 6.9 grubs per animal which successfully pupated while those receiving MPL alone produced 16.4 +/- 6.1 and infested controls produced 32.2 +/- 10.9 grubs per animal. ..
  15. Prieto M, Espi A, García Paloma J, Parra F. Effect of ivermectin treatment on anti-hypodermin C titers of Asturiana cattle naturally infected with Hypoderma lineatum. Vet Parasitol. 1990;35:211-8 pubmed
    ..The ivermectin treatment proved to be very effective and treated animals had relatively low anticollagenase titers. ..
  16. Panadero R, Lopez C, Carballo D, Casais R, Paz A, Morrondo P, et al. Assessment of a recombinant antigen versus natural hypodermin C for the serodiagnosis of hypodermosis in cattle. Parasitol Res. 2000;86:67-8 pubmed
    ..6%. Recombinant hypodermin C appears to be a useful alternative to the natural parasite antigen for the serodiagnosis of Hypoderma sp in cattle. ..
  17. Boulard C, Villejoubert C. Use of pooled serum or milk samples for the epidemiological surveillance of bovine hypodermosis. Vet Parasitol. 1991;39:171-83 pubmed
  18. Rehbein S, Holste J, Smith L, Lloyd J. The efficacy of eprinomectin extended-release injection against Hypoderma spp. (Diptera: Oestridae) in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2013;192:353-8 pubmed publisher
    ..All animals accepted the treatment well. No adverse reaction to treatments was observed in any animal in any study. ..
  19. Charbon J, Tièche M, Villejoubert C, Boulard C, Pfister K. [Epidemiology of bovine hypodermyiasis in canton Vaud: comparison of two methods of mapping the infestation with a view to strategic treatment]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 1995;137:363-8 pubmed
    The geographic distribution of bovine hypodermyiasis in the canton Vaud/Switzerland has been investigated in two ways: By direct examination of the animals by the livestock officers at the 1993 annual census and by ELISA on bulk milk ..
  20. Sayın İpek D. Molecular Characterization and Chronobiology of Hypodermosis in Cattle Slaughtered in the Diyarbakir Province of Turkey. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2016;40:86-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In the examined cattle, second-instar larvae were observed starting from the second week of January and subcutaneous nodules were found until the last week of April. H. bovis was the dominant species detected in the Diyarbakir Province. ..
  21. Slinger R, Scholten T. Facial furuncle on 3-year-old boy camping in Ontario. CMAJ. 2003;168:1159 pubmed
  22. Panadero R, Lopez C, Mezo M, Morrondo P, Díez Baños P. Effect of early treatment with ivermectin and doramectin on the dynamics of antibody response in cattle naturally infested by Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis. Vet Parasitol. 1997;73:325-34 pubmed
    ..Early treatments against Hypoderma sp. have an influence on the results of ELISA, so they must be considered to determine the most suitable time for blood sampling...
  23. Balkaya I, Simsek S, Saki C. A serological and molecular survey of cattle hypodermosis in east-Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..lineatum resulting from PCR-RFLP. According to the alignment of the mitochondrial CO1 sequences of the Hypoderma species and the PCR-RFLP results, all examined larva samples were classified as H. bovis...
  24. Panadero R, Lopez C, Vazquez L, Diaz P, Perez A, Cabanelas E, et al. Effect of reinfestations on systemic immune responses in cattle naturally infested by Hypoderma sp. (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol. 2013;193:238-44 pubmed publisher
  25. Scholl P, Guillot F, Wang G. Moxidectin: systemic activity against common cattle grubs (Hypoderma lineatum) (Diptera: Oestridae) and trichostrongyle nematodes in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 1992;41:203-9 pubmed
  26. Martinez Moreno J, Reina D, Navarrete I, Jimenez V, Martinez Moreno A, Hernandez S. Epidemiological survey of hypodermosis in western Spain. Vet Rec. 1996;139:340-3 pubmed
  27. Chabaudie N, Boulard C. Effect of hypodermin A, an enzyme secreted by Hypoderma lineatum (Insect Oestridae), on the bovine immune system. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 1992;31:167-77 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that HA significantly modified the lymphoproliferative response for naive cattle and, to a lesser extent, immune cattle during the time of administration only...
  28. Colwell D. Ultrastructure of the integument of first-instar Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis (Diptera: Oestridae). J Med Entomol. 1991;28:86-94 pubmed
    ..Ruthenium red staining on the cuticular surface of larvae cultured in vitro was indicative of the presence of negatively charged molecules, which may influence the host recognition and response capabilities...
  29. Pruett J, Temeyer K. Colostral transfer of antibodies specific for Hypoderma lineatum proteins. Vet Res Commun. 1989;13:213-23 pubmed
    ..The kinetic decline of colostrum-acquired antibodies, the effect upon development of an autologous humoral response to H. lineatum and the host or parasite protective role of these antibodies are discussed...
  30. Pruett J, Temeyer K, Burkett B. Antigenicity and immunogenicity of Hypoderma lineatum soluble proteins in the bovine host. Vet Parasitol. 1988;29:53-63 pubmed
    ..These results may allow for the selection of proteins to be used in vaccine trials and studies of protective immunological mechanisms associated with acquired resistance to H. lineatum infestation in the bovine host...
  31. Chabaudie N, Villejoubert C, Boulard C. The response of cattle vaccinated with hypodermin A to a natural infestation of Hypoderma bovis and Hypoderma lineatum. Int J Parasitol. 1991;21:859-62 pubmed
    ..These results indicate that HA, in this vaccination protocol, induces a very incomplete protection in calves exposed to a natural infestation...
  32. Cicek H, Cicek H, Eser M, Tandogan M, Sarimehmetoglu H. Prevalence and economic significance of bovine hypodermosis in Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2011;43:17-20 pubmed publisher
    ..First-stage Hypoderma spp. larvae weren't found in cattle organs in slaughterhouse. The annual economic loss on skins is estimated to be about 18,288 TL (currency exchange rate is 1 USD:1.499 TL)...
  33. Otranto D, Paradies P, Testini G, Lia R, Giangaspero A, Traversa D, et al. First description of the endogenous life cycle of Hypoderma sinense affecting yaks and cattle in China. Med Vet Entomol. 2006;20:325-8 pubmed
    ..sinense will help to determine the timing of specific treatment programmes to guarantee the improvement of animal welfare and health, thus resulting in an increase in livestock production in China...
  34. Boulard C. Durably controlling bovine hypodermosis. Vet Res. 2002;33:455-64 pubmed
    ..The sanitary and financial returns of such programs are a benefit to all the partners of livestock production, to the quality of the environment and to the consumers...
  35. Sinclair I, Tarry D, Wassall D. Serological survey of the incidence of Hypoderma bovis in cattle in 1988. Vet Rec. 1989;124:243-4 pubmed
  36. Rooney K, Illyes E, Sunderland S, Sarasola P, Hendrickx M, Keller D, et al. Efficacy of a pour-on formulation of doramectin against lice, mites, and grubs of cattle. Am J Vet Res. 1999;60:402-4 pubmed
    ..To determine effectiveness of a pour-on formulation of doramectin against Damalinia bovis, Haematopinus eurysternus, Linognathus vituli, Solenopotes capillatus, Chorioptes bovis, Sarcoptes scabiei, Hypoderma bovis, and Hypoderma lineatum...
  37. Karatepe M, Karatepe B. Hypodermosis in cattle slaughtered in Nigde province, Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2008;40:383-6 pubmed publisher
    ..77) as H. lineatum. Number of Hypoderma larvae counted on single infested cattle varied between 1-45 and the mean number of Hypoderma larvae per cattle was 7.88 (536/68). Hypodermosis was recorded for the first time in cattle from Nigde...
  38. Colwell D, Otranto D. Cross-transmission studies with Hypoderma lineatum de Vill. (Diptera: Oestridae): attempted infestation of goats (Capra hircus). Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:302-6 pubmed
    ..The host specificity of H. lineatum is discussed in light of the general concepts of host-parasite relationships of oestrids...
  39. Boldbaatar D, Xuan X, Kimbita E, Huang X, Igarashi I, Byambaa B, et al. Detection of antibodies to Hypoderma lineatum in cattle by Western blotting with recombinant hypodermin C antigen. Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:147-54 pubmed
    ..These data demonstrated that Western blotting, with rHC expressed in E. coli, might be a useful method for the diagnosis of cattle hypodermosis...
  40. Swallow C. Warble fly survey results, 2002/03. Vet Rec. 2003;153:31 pubmed
  41. Navajas A, Cardenal I, Piñán M, Ortiz A, Astigarraga I, Fdez Teijeiro A. Hypereosinophilia due to myiasis. Acta Haematol. 1998;99:27-30 pubmed
    ..Following removal of the larvae, the clinical and hematological manifestations returned to normal...
  42. Tarry D, Sinclair I, Wassall D. Progress in the British hypodermosis eradication programme: the role of serological surveillance. Vet Rec. 1992;131:310-2 pubmed
    ..In spring 1991, 227,000 blood samples were tested by using the ELISA technique and no warbled animals were found. In addition no clinical cases were reported during 1991...
  43. Oğuz B. [Cytochrome oxidase I gene sequences that cause hypodermosis cattle species by PCR-RFLP technique investigation]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2013;37:190-4 pubmed publisher
    ..The importance for the health of cattle Hypodermosis (Nokra) species that cause disease by Polymerase Chain Reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method was investigated...
  44. Hendrickx M, Anderson L, Boulard C, Smith D, Weatherley A. Efficacy of doramectin against warble fly larvae (Hypoderma bovis). Vet Parasitol. 1993;49:75-84 pubmed
    ..No adverse reaction to doramectin treatment was observed in any animal at any time. It was concluded that doramectin is both safe and 100% efficacious in the treatment of first, second and third instar H. bovis infections of cattle...
  45. Cencek T, Ziomko I, Karamon J. [Development of the ELISA kit for the detection of Hypoderma bovis antibodies in cattle. III. Stability and usefulness of ELISA components preserved under different conditions]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:511-20 pubmed
    ..bovis antibodies was lyophilization. The kits prepared in this way did not lose their characteristics for 9 months and their specificity and sensitivity were close 100%...
  46. Cencek T, Ziomko I. [Development of the ELISA kit for the detection of Hypoderma bovis antibodies in cattle. II. Setting the best terms for collecting blood samples for the laboratory diagnosis of hypodermyiasis in different regions of Poland]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:505-10 pubmed
    ..The highest serum densities were observed in herds in March, April and May. The results of these investigations demonstrated that the best term for collecting blood samples to examine cattle for hypodermosis is the winter-spring season...
  47. Kara M, Arslan M, Gicik Y. The prevalence of bovine hypodermosis in Kars province, Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2005;37:617-22 pubmed
    ..Within a herd, the intensity of infestion decreased with the age of cattle. Infestation rates of warble fly larvae were lower in native cattle, in females, and in piebald animals...
  48. Sato N. A practical case. CMAJ. 2003;169:282 pubmed
  49. Uttamchandani R, Trigo L, Poppiti R, Rozen S, Ratzan K. Eosinophilic pleural effusion in cutaneous myiasis. South Med J. 1989;82:1288-91 pubmed
    ..Infestation by this or other dipterous fly larvae should be among the parasitic diseases considered in the differential diagnosis of any patient with similar symptoms...
  50. Erol B, Unlu G, Balci K, Tanrikulu R. Oral myiasis caused by hypoderma bovis larvae in a child: a case report. J Oral Sci. 2000;42:247-9 pubmed
    ..Two different pathologic soft tissue sockets were observed in the vestibular sulcus at the level of the both deciduous laterals along the deep upper lip tissues...
  51. Starr J, Pruett J, Yunginger J, Gleich G. Myiasis due to Hypoderma lineatum infection mimicking the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Mayo Clin Proc. 2000;75:755-9 pubmed
    ..The patient's symptoms mimicked the hypereosinophilic syndrome but resolved when the myiasis became apparent. Specific serologic analyses can identify infected patients, and ivermectin may be useful as treatment...
  52. Martinez Moreno F, Navarrete I, Reina D, Hernández Rodríguez S. Deer hypodermosis. Parassitologia. 1997;39:419-22 pubmed
    b>Hypodermyiasis is a common myiasis which affects a wide variety of deer species in many parts of the world...
  53. Khan M, Irshad H, Jahangir M, Razzaq A. Studies on the biology, chemotherapy and distribution of warble fly in Pakistan. Rev Sci Tech. 2012;31:959-69 pubmed
    ..A control group was given normal saline. All the medicines were found to be effective in controlling infestation...
  54. Otranto D, Boulard C, Giangaspero A, Caringella M, Rimmele D, Puccini V. Serodiagnosis of goat warble fly infestation by Przhevalskiana silenus with a commercial ELISA kit. Vet Rec. 1999;144:726-9 pubmed
  55. Kalelioglu M, Aktürk G, Akturk F, Komsuoglu S, Kuzeyli K, Tiğin Y, et al. Intracerebral myiasis from Hypoderma bovis larva in a child. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1989;71:929-31 pubmed
    ..This is the first case that has been diagnosed as cerebral myiasis with exact identification of the Hypoderma bovis larva both from the CT scans and at surgery in a patient during life...
  56. Kutzer E. [Treatment of oestriasis and hypodermosis in red deer (Cervus elaphus hippelaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus c. capreolus) with ivermectin (Ivomec)]. Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2000;113:149-51 pubmed
    ..Finally, it was found that the controlling measures should not be interrupted for more than one year, if no treatment was done in the neighbouring hunting grounds...
  57. Rambozzi L, Rimella R, Curcio A, Sala L, Rossi L. Field efficacy of minidosed eprinomectin against Hypoderma spp. in dairy cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:89-91 pubmed
    ..Administration of eprinomectin minidoses in dairy cattle is interesting because of the low costs involved and no need for milk withdrawal...
  58. Monfray K, Boulard C. Preliminary evaluation of four immunological tests for the early diagnosis of Hypoderma tarandi causing hypodermosis in reindeer. Med Vet Entomol. 1990;4:297-302 pubmed
    ..No correlation was observed between the antibody titre and the number of warbles recovered at necropsy from the 294 Norwegian reindeer...
  59. Panadero R, Lopez C, Paz A, Diez Baños N, Morrondo P, Díez Baños P. Dynamics of the antibody response in cattle infested by Hypoderma (Diptera: Oestridae) after a treatment with injectable and pour-on ivermectin. J Med Entomol. 2001;38:603-5 pubmed
    ..The persistence of antibody levels after larval destruction makes the indirect ELISA unsuitable for the prediction of the efficacy of treatment...
  60. Sinclair I, Tarry D, Wassall D, Hayward A. The serological incidence of Hypoderma bovis in cattle in England and Wales in spring 1989. Vet Rec. 1990;126:327-9 pubmed
    ..6 animals/100,000 tested) were identified on 21 of the farms (0.34 per cent). In comparison, the survey in 1988 examined 74,502 cattle on 3087 farms and found 29 positive animals (38.9/100,000 tested) on 18 farms (0.58 per cent)...
  61. Lamka J, Suchy J, Staud F. [Effectiveness of oral administration of ivermectin on warble fly larvae (Hypoderma diana B.) in roe deer]. Vet Med (Praha). 1996;41:251-4 pubmed
    ..These results explicitly document the high efficacy of mass peroral ivermectin administration in the control of warble fly larvae. Ivermectin is the first drug suitable for the treatment of roe deer hypodermosis...
  62. Sol J, Sampimon O, Martinez Moreno J. [Hypoderma diana in roe deer in the Netherlands]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2001;126:500-1 pubmed
    ..An infestation with Hypoderma diana in roe deer in the Netherlands is described. The condition of the infested deer was poor. Hypoderma diana is no threat for cattle...
  63. Otranto D, Giangaspero A, Caringella M, Puccini V. Hypoderma lineatum antigen and anti-Przhevalskiana silenus antibodies: cross-reactivity and antibody kinetics in naturally infested goats. Parassitologia. 1998;40:325-31 pubmed
    ..In our condition, this period can be considered as a favorable sampling period for immunodiagnosis and immunoepidemiological studies of goat warble fly infestation...
  64. Kan B, Asbakk K, Fossen K, Nilssen A, Panadero R, Otranto D. Reindeer warble fly-associated human myiasis, Scandinavia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:830-2 pubmed publisher
  65. Fisher W, Pruett J, Howard V, Scholl P. Antigen-specific lymphocyte proliferative responses in vaccinated and Hypoderma lineatum-infested calves. Vet Parasitol. 1991;40:135-45 pubmed
    ..In addition, those responses were further heightened by a 250 micrograms booster injection of pure HyA...
  66. Perez J, Granados J, Ruiz Martinez I. Studies on the hypodermosis affecting red deer in central and southern Spain. J Wildl Dis. 1995;31:486-90 pubmed
    ..No significant differences in prevalence by host sex were found, although significant differences were observed in prevalences among different host age classes. The main location of feeding larvae in deer was in the back tissues...
  67. Otranto D, Testini G, Sottili R, Capelli G, Puccini V. Screening of commercial milk samples using ELISA for immuno-epidemiological evidence of infection by the cattle grub (Diptera: Oestridae). Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:241-8 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that testing commercial milk for antibodies is an efficient way of detecting the presence of hypodermosis in cattle, especially in those countries for which no data on this disease are available...
  68. Nicolas Gaulard I, Moire N, Boulard C. Effect of the parasite enzyme, hypodermin A, on bovine lymphocyte proliferation and interleukin-2 production via the prostaglandin pathway. Immunology. 1995;85:160-5 pubmed
    ..The concentration of PGE2 in medium of PBMC or PMA-stimulated monocyte cultures was increased by incubation with HA. Thus, the HA appeared to act by reducing IL-2 production via a prostaglandin-dependent pathway...
  69. Ziomko I, Cencek T. [Development of the ELISA kit for the detection of Hypoderma bovis antibodies in cattle. I. Development of components]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:497-503 pubmed
    ..As can be seen from these investigations the developed ELISA kit for the detection of H. bovis antibodies in cows is highly specific and sensitive...
  70. Santagada G, Otranto D, Traversa D, Faliero S, Puccini V. Comparative study of anti-Hypoderma antibody kinetics in sera, single and bulk milk samples of naturally infested cattle. Parassitologia. 2001;43:109-11 pubmed
    ..Either blood or milk samples may be used for epidemiological surveys; bulk milk may be very useful for the preliminary detection of hypodermosis on farms or in areas where there is no data available on the diffusion of the disease...
  71. Khan M, Iqbal Z, Sajid M, Anwar M, Needham G, Hassan M. Bovine hypodermosis: prevalence and economic significance in southern Punjab, Pakistan. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:386-90 pubmed
    ..The economic losses based on the value of warbled and warble-free hides were estimated as Rs. 22.8 million per annum (currency exchange rate is Rs. 57.5=US 1 dollar)...
  72. Guan G, Luo J, Ma M, Yang D, Wang Y, Gao J, et al. Sero-epidemiological surveillance of hypodermosis in yaks and cattle in north China by ELISA. Vet Parasitol. 2005;129:133-7 pubmed
    ..Thus, serological surveillances associated with low infestation rates and chemical therapy would best be performed from October to December in the region...
  73. Li W, Nasu T, Ma Y, Zhu X, Wanng W, Song R, et al. Migration of warble fly larvae in the yak and optimum timing of ivermectin treatment. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:891-2 pubmed
    ..Although some warbles were observed in the September- and November-treated groups, no warbles were detected in the October-treated group. Treatment of yaks with ivermectin was most effective for warble fly in October...
  74. Boulard C, Alvinerie M, Argenté G, Languille J, Paget L, Petit E. A successful, sustainable and low cost control-programme for bovine hypodermosis in France. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:1-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Since 2002, bovine hypodermosis in France is under control with immuno-surveillance maintained at a very low cost. In 2006 hypodermosis became a notifiable disease...
  75. Martinez Moreno F, Wassall D, Becerra Martell C, Hernández Rodríguez S. Comparison of the use of secretory and somatic antigens in an ELISA for the serodiagnosis of hypodermosis. Vet Parasitol. 1994;52:321-9 pubmed
    ..The antigen compared favourably with a soluble extract of larvae when used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against a panel of control sera and 2000 bovine sera collected from farms in Andalucia, Spain...
  76. Webster K, Giles M, Dawson C. A competitive ELISA for the serodiagnosis of hypodermosis. Vet Parasitol. 1997;68:155-64 pubmed
    ..The competitive ELISA should prove a useful adjunct to the standard sandwich ELISA, particularly in the resolution of samples which display non-specific binding properties...
  77. Panadero Fontan R, López Sandez C, Parra Fernandez F, Morrondo Pelayo P, Díez Baños P, Colwell D. Detection of circulating hypodermin C: an antigen capture ELISA for diagnosis of cattle grub (Diptera: Oestridae) infestations. Vet Parasitol. 2002;108:85-94 pubmed
    ..The amount of antigen detected increased in each group of animals reaching peaks at different times in each group. Levels of antigen fell quickly following arrival of grubs at the back and completion of the molt to second instar...
  78. de la Fuente López C, Santín Durán M, Alunda J. Seasonal changes in prevalence and intensity of Hypoderma actaeon in Cervus elaphus from central Spain. Med Vet Entomol. 2001;15:204-7 pubmed
    ..Statistically significant differences were observed in prevalence and intensity among age groups. In contrast, no differences were found in prevalence and intensity between males and females...
  79. Colwell D, Baron R. Early detection of cattle grub (Hypoderma lineatum and H. bovis) (Diptera, Oestridae) using ELISA. Med Vet Entomol. 1990;4:35-42 pubmed
    ..bovis only became detectable in February with peak antibody concentrations occurring at the end of April. Prevalence of cattle grub infestations in southern Alberta was shown to be 37% during this study...