lice infestations

Summary

Summary: Parasitic attack or subsistence on the skin by members of the order Phthiraptera, especially on humans by Pediculus humanus of the family Pediculidae. The hair of the head, eyelashes, and pubis is a frequent site of infestation. (From Dorland, 28th ed; Stedman, 26th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Burgess I, Lee P, Matlock G. Randomised, controlled, assessor blind trial comparing 4% dimeticone lotion with 0.5% malathion liquid for head louse infestation. PLoS ONE. 2007;2:e1127 pubmed
    ..We concluded that, although malathion liquid is still effective for some people, dimeticone lotion offers a significantly more effective alternative treatment for most people. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN47755726. ..
  2. Ibarra J, Fry F, Clarice W, Olsen A, Vander Stichele R, Lapeere H, et al. Overcoming health inequalities by using the Bug Busting 'whole-school approach' to eradicate head lice. J Clin Nurs. 2007;16:1955-65 pubmed
    ..The aim of this paper was to illustrate the socially inclusive nature of the Bug Busting 'whole-school approach' to head louse eradication...
  3. Badiaga S, Ménard A, Tissot Dupont H, Ravaux I, Chouquet D, Graveriau C, et al. Prevalence of skin infections in sheltered homeless. Eur J Dermatol. 2005;15:382-6 pubmed
  4. Jahnke C, Bauer E, Hengge U, Feldmeier H. Accuracy of diagnosis of pediculosis capitis: visual inspection vs wet combing. Arch Dermatol. 2009;145:309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..1% vs 68.4%; P < .001). Wet combing is a very accurate method to diagnose active head lice infestation. Visual inspection is the method of choice, if one aims to determine the frequency of carriers of eggs or nits. ..
  5. Eisenhower C, Farrington E. Advancements in the treatment of head lice in pediatrics. J Pediatr Health Care. 2012;26:451-61; quiz 462-4 pubmed publisher
    Head lice infestations occur commonly each year in children of all socioeconomic statuses. However, head lice have become more of a nuisance as resistance to first-line agents, such as permethrin 1% and pyrethrins, has increased...
  6. Speare R, Canyon D, Melrose W. Quantification of blood intake of the head louse: Pediculus humanus capitis. Int J Dermatol. 2006;45:543-6 pubmed
    ..However, if head lice feed more often than three times a day, a heavy infestation would have a greater potential to lead to iron deficiency. The frequency of feeding of head lice on the head of the human host needs to be determined...
  7. Bouvresse S, Berdjane Z, Durand R, Bouscaillou J, Izri A, Chosidow O. Permethrin and malathion resistance in head lice: results of ex vivo and molecular assays. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012;67:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The high occurrence of kdr mutant allele suggests that insecticide resistance was already strongly established in the studied population. This finding must be interpreted with caution as it may not be predictive of treatment failure. ..
  8. Angelakis E, Diatta G, Abdissa A, Trape J, Mediannikov O, Richet H, et al. Altitude-dependent Bartonella quintana genotype C in head lice, Ethiopia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:2357-9 pubmed publisher
    ..B. quintana was found in 19 (7%) genotype C head lice and in 76 (18%) genotype A body lice. B. quintana in head lice was positively linked to altitude (p = 0.014)...
  9. Lebwohl M, Clark L, Levitt J. Therapy for head lice based on life cycle, resistance, and safety considerations. Pediatrics. 2007;119:965-74 pubmed
    ..Treatment with malathion has favorable efficacy and safety profiles and enables the immediate, safe return to school. Nit combing can be performed adjunctively. No-nit policies should be rendered obsolete. ..

More Information

Publications79

  1. Ciftci I, Karaca S, Dogru O, Cetinkaya Z, Kulac M. Prevalence of pediculosis and scabies in preschool nursery children of Afyon, Turkey. Korean J Parasitol. 2006;44:95-8 pubmed
    ..This indicates the necessity of an improvement in the economic and sociocultural status of the community and the promotion of hygiene concepts and practices in order to improve health of preschool age children. ..
  2. Canyon D, Speare R. A comparison of botanical and synthetic substances commonly used to prevent head lice (Pediculus humanus var. capitis) infestation. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:422-6 pubmed
    ..Neither DEET nor any of the botanicals tested showed sufficient preventative efficacy to be endorsed. ..
  3. Arriaza B, Orellana N, Barbosa H, Menna Barreto R, Araujo A, Standen V. Severe head lice infestation in an Andean mummy of Arica, Chile. J Parasitol. 2012;98:433-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Head lice are transmitted by direct head-to-head contact; thus, this ancient farmer and herder was potentially infesting other people. The present study contributes to the body of research focusing on lice in ancient populations. ..
  4. Abdel Ghaffar F, Semmler M. Efficacy of neem seed extract shampoo on head lice of naturally infected humans in Egypt. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:329-32 pubmed
    ..No side effects, such as skin irritation, burning sensations, or red spots on the scalp, forehead or neck, respectively, were observed. ..
  5. Oh J, Lee I, Lee W, Seo M, Park S, Lee S, et al. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among Korean children. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1415-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The infestation rate of the children in an orphanage was 66.7%. The prevalence of HLI has decreased especially in the rural areas. However, HLI is a still health problem of kindergarteners and primary schoolchildren in Korea. ..
  6. Gupta N, Kumar S, Saxena A. Prevalence and population structure of lice (Phthiraptera) on the Indian Red Avadavat. Zoolog Sci. 2007;24:381-3 pubmed
    ..amandava. Adults dominated over nymphs in the overall adult-to-nymph ratio. Sex ratios of both species were skewed (female biased). ..
  7. Ibarra J, Fry F, Wickenden C, Jenner M, Franks A. The impact of well-developed preventative strategies on the eradication of head lice. Perspect Public Health. 2009;129:165-73 pubmed
    ..Provision of dependable detection combs with the correct instructions to families at risk, empowers them to gain sustainable, cost-effective control of head lice...
  8. Doulgeraki A, Valari M. Parental attitudes towards head lice infestation in Greece. Int J Dermatol. 2011;50:689-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Pediculosis capitis constitutes a growing problem worldwide and is usually considered as an inconvenience. Parents often handle this infestation on their own initiative...
  9. Oliveira F, Speare R, Heukelbach J. High in vitro efficacy of Nyda L, a pediculicide containing dimeticone. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2007;21:1325-9 pubmed
    ..The therapy of pediculosis remains a common problem in clinical practice. As resistance to commonly used chemical pediculicides is constantly increasing, there is a need for new effective compounds...
  10. Kaul N, Palma K, Silagy S, Goodman J, Toole J. North American efficacy and safety of a novel pediculicide rinse, isopropyl myristate 50% (Resultz). J Cutan Med Surg. 2007;11:161-7 pubmed
    Head lice infestations are a major nuisance in school-aged children and are a worldwide public health problem...
  11. Carpinella M, Miranda M, Almirón W, Ferrayoli C, Almeida F, Palacios S. In vitro pediculicidal and ovicidal activity of an extract and oil from fruits of Melia azedarach L. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:250-6 pubmed
    ..Head louse infestation is difficult to control because of increasing lice resistance to synthetic pediculicidal drugs...
  12. Barker S, Altman P. A randomised, assessor blind, parallel group comparative efficacy trial of three products for the treatment of head lice in children--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, pyrethrins and piperonyl butoxide, and a "suffocation" product. BMC Dermatol. 2010;10:6 pubmed publisher
  13. Burgess I. Do nit removal formulations and other treatments loosen head louse eggs and nits from hair?. Med Vet Entomol. 2010;24:55-61 pubmed publisher
  14. Soultana V, Euthumia P, Antonios M, Angeliki R. Prevalence of pediculosis capitis among schoolchildren in Greece and risk factors: a questionnaire survey. Pediatr Dermatol. 2009;26:701-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The number of family members was correlated positively with the risk of being infected with pediculosis at least once. The children's gender, their age, and family size were correlated with the risk of infection...
  15. Durand R, Bouvresse S, Berdjane Z, Izri A, Chosidow O, Clark J. Insecticide resistance in head lice: clinical, parasitological and genetic aspects. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:338-44 pubmed publisher
    ..The organophosphorus insecticide malathion remains effective, except in the UK, mostly in formulations that include terpineol...
  16. Toloza A, Vassena C, Gallardo A, Gonzalez Audino P, Picollo M. Epidemiology of Pediculosis capitis in elementary schools of Buenos Aires, Argentina. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:1295-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The differences of pediculosis among the studied schools could be explained by the different control strategies applied by parents or advisors to eradicate head lice...
  17. Fornaciari G, Giuffra V, Marinozzi S, Picchi M, Masetti M. 'Royal' pediculosis in Renaissance Italy: lice in the mummy of the King of Naples Ferdinand II of Aragon (1467-1496). Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:671-2 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that these parasites have been found in the hair of a king, demonstrating that even members of the wealthy classes in the Renaissance were subject to louse infestation...
  18. Allen J, Reed D, Perotti M, Braig H. Evolutionary relationships of "Candidatus Riesia spp.," endosymbiotic enterobacteriaceae living within hematophagous primate lice. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007;73:1659-64 pubmed
    ..Given the evidence for cospeciation with primate lice and the evidence for fast evolutionary rates, this lineage of endosymbiotic bacteria can be evaluated as a fast-evolving marker of both louse and primate evolutionary histories...
  19. Toloza A, Lucia A, Zerba E, Masuh H, Picollo M. Interspecific hybridization of Eucalyptus as a potential tool to improve the bioactivity of essential oils against permethrin-resistant head lice from Argentina. Bioresour Technol. 2008;99:7341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Repellency varied from 47.80+/-16% to 80.69+/-6% for the five Eucalyptus essential oils tested. Interspecific hybridization improves the pediculicidal activity of Eucalyptus essential oils...
  20. Bonilla D, Kabeya H, Henn J, Kramer V, Kosoy M. Bartonella quintana in body lice and head lice from homeless persons, San Francisco, California, USA. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:912-5 pubmed publisher
    ..quintana strain Fuller. Further work is needed to examine how homeless persons acquire lice and determine the risk for illness to persons infested with B. quintana-infected lice...
  21. Kristensen M, Knorr M, Rasmussen A, Jespersen J. Survey of permethrin and malathion resistance in human head lice populations from Denmark. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:533-8 pubmed
    ..The frequency of the double mutation T929I-L932 F in the voltage-sensitive sodium channel gene associated with permethrin resistance was 0.95 in Danish head lice populations...
  22. Light J, Allen J, Long L, Carter T, Barrow L, Suren G, et al. Geographic distributions and origins of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) based on mitochondrial data. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1275-81 pubmed publisher
    ..It is likely that lice belonging to this mitochondrial clade recently migrated to other geographic localities, e.g., Europe and Australia, and, if not already present, may disperse further to occupy all geographic regions...
  23. Raoult D, Reed D, Dittmar K, Kirchman J, Rolain J, Guillen S, et al. Molecular identification of lice from pre-Columbian mummies. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:535-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The other 2 (types B and C) include only head lice and are geographically restricted. It was hypothesized that head louse phylotypes were exchanged only recently, after European exploration and colonization (after Columbus)...
  24. Balcioglu C, Burgess I, Limoncu M, Sahin M, Ozbel Y, Bilac C, et al. Plastic detection comb better than visual screening for diagnosis of head louse infestation. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:1425-31 pubmed publisher
    ..We found that the detection comb is significantly (P<0.001) more effective than visual screening for diagnosis; that nits are not a good indicator of active infestation; and that treatment with 1% permethrin was 89.6% effective...
  25. Ríos S, Fernández J, Rivas F, Sáenz M, Moncada L. [Pediculosis prevalence and associated risk factors in a nursery school, Bogotá, Colombia]. Biomedica. 2008;28:245-51 pubmed
    ..Pediculosis is one of the most important chronic infestations in schoolchildren worldwide. Infestations show a high prevalence among the poorest children in developing countries, and it is associated with substandard hygienic practices...
  26. Leone P. Scabies and pediculosis pubis: an update of treatment regimens and general review. Clin Infect Dis. 2007;44 Suppl 3:S153-9 pubmed
    ..Ectoparasites continue to be a common cause of skin disease throughout the world. The present article dissects the epidemiological profile and treatment of both Sarcoptes scabiei variant hominis and pediculosis pubis...
  27. Stone P, Wilkinson Herbots H, Isham V. A stochastic model for head lice infections. J Math Biol. 2008;56:743-63 pubmed
    ..We arrive at estimates of the ratios of the "within school" and "external source" transmission rates to the recovery rate and use these to obtain estimates for various quantities of interest...
  28. Kurt O, Balcioglu I, Burgess I, Limoncu M, Girginkardeşler N, Tabak T, et al. Treatment of head lice with dimeticone 4% lotion: comparison of two formulations in a randomised controlled trial in rural Turkey. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:441 pubmed publisher
  29. Heukelbach J, Ugbomoiko U. Knowledge, attitudes and practices regarding head lice infestations in rural Nigeria. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5:652-7 pubmed
    Head lice infestations are common in sub-Saharan Africa, but knowledge, attitudes and practices have never been studied in this region.
  30. Bouvresse S, Socolovshi C, Berdjane Z, Durand R, Izri A, Raoult D, et al. No evidence of Bartonella quintana but detection of Acinetobacter baumannii in head lice from elementary schoolchildren in Paris. Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis. 2011;34:475-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Among a collection of 288 DNA samples, B. quintana was not detected, but A. baumannii was detected in 95 DNA samples (33%). Further study is needed to determine the significance of the finding of A. baumannii in head lice...
  31. Burgess I, Lee P, Kay K, Jones R, Brunton E. 1,2-Octanediol, a novel surfactant, for treating head louse infestation: identification of activity, formulation, and randomised, controlled trials. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35419 pubmed publisher
    ..Interest in developing physically active pediculicides has identified new active substances. The objective was to evaluate a new treatment for clinical efficacy...
  32. Leung A, Fong J, Pinto Rojas A. Pediculosis capitis. J Pediatr Health Care. 2005;19:369-73 pubmed
    ..The child should be discouraged from close, direct head contact with others or from sharing items that have come in contact with the hair...
  33. Takano Lee M, Edman J, Mullens B, Clark J. Transmission potential of the human head louse, Pediculus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae). Int J Dermatol. 2005;44:811-6 pubmed
    ..Our goals were to determine: (1) which stages were most likely to disperse and why, (2) the likelihood of fomites transmission, and (3) if host blood gender affects louse development...
  34. Badiaga S, Foucault C, Rogier C, Doudier B, Rovery C, Dupont H, et al. The effect of a single dose of oral ivermectin on pruritus in the homeless. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2008;62:404-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Homeless people commonly present with ectoparasite-based pruritus. We evaluated the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin to reduce the pruritus prevalence in a homeless population...
  35. Durden L, Zohdy S, Laakkonen J. Lice and ticks of the eastern rufous mouse lemur, Microcebus rufus, with descriptions of the male and third instar nymph of Lemurpediculus verruculosus (Phthiraptera: Anoplura). J Parasitol. 2010;96:874-8 pubmed publisher
    ..and 1 Ixodes sp. The last 2 ticks listed did not morphologically match any of the Madagascar Haemaphysalis or Ixodes ticks for which nymphal stages have been described...
  36. Bosely H, El Alfy N. Head lice infestations (Anoplura: Pediculidae) in Saudi and non-Saudi school-aged children. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011;41:131-40 pubmed
  37. Nutanson I, Steen C, Schwartz R, Janniger C. Pediculus humanus capitis: an update. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2008;17:147-54, 156-7, 159 pubmed
    ..The three fundamental effective treatment options for head lice are topical pediculicides, wet combing, and oral therapy. Spraying or fogging a home with insecticides or pediculicides is not recommended...
  38. Toloza A, Zygadlo J, Cueto G, Biurrun F, Zerba E, Picollo M. Fumigant and repellent properties of essential oils and component compounds against permethrin-resistant Pediculus humanus capitis (Anoplura: Pediculidae) from Argentina. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:889-95 pubmed
    ..5 and 57.8%, respectively. Thus, some Argentinean plants contain essential oils and components that function as fumigants or as repellents and thereby show potential for development of new control products for head lice...
  39. Goates B, Atkin J, Wilding K, Birch K, Cottam M, Bush S, et al. An effective nonchemical treatment for head lice: a lot of hot air. Pediatrics. 2006;118:1962-70 pubmed
    ..In this study we examined the effectiveness of several methods that use hot air to kill head lice and their eggs...
  40. Menegaux F, Baruchel A, Bertrand Y, Lescoeur B, Leverger G, Nelken B, et al. Household exposure to pesticides and risk of childhood acute leukaemia. Occup Environ Med. 2006;63:131-4 pubmed
    ..To investigate the relation between childhood acute leukaemia and household exposure to pesticides...
  41. Connolly M, Stafford K, Coles G, Kennedy C, Downs A. Control of head lice with a coconut-derived emulsion shampoo. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2009;23:67-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate a novel coconut-derived emulsion (CDE) shampoo against head lice infestation in children...
  42. Westcott J, Stryhn H, Burka J, Hammell K. Optimization and field use of a bioassay to monitor sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis sensitivity to emamectin benzoate. Dis Aquat Organ. 2008;79:119-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This will need to be considered if changes in EMB efficacy occur in the future...
  43. Saxena A, Kumar S, Gupta N, Mitra J, Ali S, Srivastava R. Distribution pattern of phthirapterans infesting certain common Indian birds. J Parasitol. 2007;93:957-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, adult-nymph ratios varied in different species from 1:0.53 to 1:1.25. Sex ratios of different phthirapteran species ranged from 1:1.10 to 1:1.65 and were female biased...
  44. Mumcuoglu K, Barker S, Burgess I, Combescot Lang C, Dalgleish R, Larsen K, et al. International guidelines for effective control of head louse infestations. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:409-14 pubmed
    ..The no-nit policy, based on the persistence of empty egg cases, is not justified and does more harm than good; therefore, we recommend that it be immediately halted...
  45. Sasaki T, Poudel S, Isawa H, Hayashi T, Seki N, Tomita T, et al. First molecular evidence of Bartonella quintana in Pediculus humanus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), collected from Nepalese children. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:110-2 pubmed
    ..quintana DNA sequences were detected in both head and body lice from two children as well as in body lice derived from two other children. These results demonstrate that head lice may also play a role in the transmission of trench fever...
  46. Abdel Ghaffar F, Al Quraishy S, Al Rasheid K, Mehlhorn H. Efficacy of a single treatment of head lice with a neem seed extract: an in vivo and in vitro study on nits and motile stages. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:277-80 pubmed publisher
    ..This and the fact that the hair of treated children (even in the short-time treated group of only 10 min) did not reveal freshly hatched larval stages of lice indicate that there is an ovicidal activity of the product, too...
  47. Rukke B, Birkemoe T, Soleng A, Lindstedt H, Ottesen P. Head lice prevalence among households in Norway: importance of spatial variables and individual and household characteristics. Parasitology. 2011;138:1296-304 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that information of hosts' spatial distribution as well as household and individual characteristics is needed to better understand head lice population dynamics...
  48. Motovali Emami M, Aflatoonian M, Fekri A, Yazdi M. Epidemiological aspects of Pediculosis capitis and treatment evaluation in primary-school children in Iran. Pak J Biol Sci. 2008;11:260-4 pubmed
    ..Also there is an urgent need to identify safe, novel insecticides for proved efficacy...
  49. Perotti M, Allen J, Reed D, Braig H. Host-symbiont interactions of the primary endosymbiont of human head and body lice. FASEB J. 2007;21:1058-66 pubmed
    ..Despite the close relatedness of body and head lice, differences are present in the mycetomic provisioning and the immunological response...
  50. Thomas D, McCarroll L, Roberts R, Karunaratne P, Roberts C, Casey D, et al. Surveillance of insecticide resistance in head lice using biochemical and molecular methods. Arch Dis Child. 2006;91:777-8 pubmed
  51. Canyon D, Speare R. Do head lice spread in swimming pools?. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:1211-3 pubmed
    ..No loss of lice or head to head transfer was observed. These results indicated that although head lice survive immersion, head lice transmission is unlikely to occur via the water of swimming pools...
  52. Burgess I. Current treatments for pediculosis capitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2009;22:131-6 pubmed
    ..Problems with treatment, resulting from the selection of populations of lice resistant to insecticides by overuse of some types of product, have triggered an interest in the development of novel therapeutic agents...
  53. Foucault C, Ranque S, Badiaga S, Rovery C, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Oral ivermectin in the treatment of body lice. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:474-6 pubmed
    ..9% to 18.5%. Although this effect was not sustained at day 45, it establishes that ivermectin plays a novel role in the control of body-louse infestation in humans...
  54. Willems S, Lapeere H, Haedens N, Pasteels I, Naeyaert J, De Maeseneer J. The importance of socio-economic status and individual characteristics on the prevalence of head lice in schoolchildren. Eur J Dermatol. 2005;15:387-92 pubmed
    ..The management of head lice should take a community-based approach equally involving families, schools, health care professionals and the government...
  55. Al Shawa R. Head louse infestations in Gaza governorates. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:505-7 pubmed
    ..Approximately 67.1% of infested girls had one to 10 lice and 49.8% had one to 10 nits on their hair. Significant difference in louse and nit only infestations was found between girls with short and long hair...
  56. Mumcuoglu K. Effective treatment of head louse with pediculicides. J Drugs Dermatol. 2006;5:451-2 pubmed
  57. Barker S, Altman P. An ex vivo, assessor blind, randomised, parallel group, comparative efficacy trial of the ovicidal activity of three pediculicides after a single application--melaleuca oil and lavender oil, eucalyptus oil and lemon tea tree oil, and a "suffocat. BMC Dermatol. 2011;11:14 pubmed publisher
    ..Eggs were collected, pre-treatment and post-treatment, from subjects with different types of hair, different coloured hair and hair of different length...
  58. Hornok S, Hofmann Lehmann R, de Mera I, Meli M, Elek V, Hajtós I, et al. Survey on blood-sucking lice (Phthiraptera: Anoplura) of ruminants and pigs with molecular detection of Anaplasma and Rickettsia spp. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:355-8 pubmed publisher
    ..in L. vituli, L. stenopsis and H. suis. The present results suggest that phthirapterosis of domestic animals deserves more attention, and lice should be evaluated among the broad range of potential vectors of arthropod-borne pathogens...
  59. Heukelbach J, Sonnberg S, Becher H, Melo I, Speare R, Oliveira F. Ovicidal efficacy of high concentration dimeticone: a new era of head lice treatment. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011;64:e61-2 pubmed publisher
  60. Balcioglu I, Kurt O, Limoncu M, Dinc G, Gümüş M, Kilimcioglu A, et al. Rural life, lower socioeconomic status and parasitic infections. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:129-33 pubmed
    ..These results indicate not only the high prevalence of parasitic infections, but also the urgent need for the improvement of basic health services and infrastructure in the rural areas, crowded with poorer immigrant population...
  61. Badiaga S, Raoult D, Brouqui P. Preventing and controlling emerging and reemerging transmissible diseases in the homeless. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:1353-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Systematic vaccination against hepatitis B virus, hepatitis A virus, influenza, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and diphtheria is strongly recommended. National public health programs specific to homeless populations are required...
  62. Heukelbach J, Pilger D, Oliveira F, Khakban A, Ariza L, Feldmeier H. A highly efficacious pediculicide based on dimeticone: randomized observer blinded comparative trial. BMC Infect Dis. 2008;8:115 pubmed publisher
    ..In this trial we assessed the efficacy of a product containing a high (92%) concentration of the silicone oil dimeticone (identical in composition to NYDA(R)), as compared to a 1% permethrin lotion...
  63. Harbison C, Jacobsen M, Clayton D. A hitchhiker's guide to parasite transmission: The phoretic behaviour of feather lice. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:569-75 pubmed publisher
    ..The superior phoretic ability of wing lice may be related to morphological adaptations for life on wing feathers, compared to body feathers...
  64. Brouqui P, Raoult D. Arthropod-borne diseases in homeless. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006;1078:223-35 pubmed
    ..This article will deal with epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of these ectoparasite and the infectious diseases they transmit to the homeless people...
  65. Burkhart C, Burkhart C. Fomite transmission in head lice. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;56:1044-7 pubmed
  66. Marcoux D, Palma K, Kaul N, Hodgdon H, Van Geest A, Previte D, et al. Pyrethroid pediculicide resistance of head lice in Canada evaluated by serial invasive signal amplification reaction. J Cutan Med Surg. 2010;14:115-8 pubmed
    ..Although treatment failures are frequently observed in Canada, the resistance frequency to pyrethroid pediculicide of human head lice (Pediculus humanus capitis) has not been determined...
  67. Li W, Ortiz G, Fournier P, Gimenez G, Reed D, Pittendrigh B, et al. Genotyping of human lice suggests multiple emergencies of body lice from local head louse populations. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e641 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies suggest that body lice arose several times from head louse populations...
  68. Jadhav V, Kore A, Kadam V. In-vitro pediculicidal activity of Hedychium spicatum essential oil. Fitoterapia. 2007;78:470-3 pubmed
    ..The essential oil extracted from rhizomes of Hedychium spicatum was evaluated for in-vitro pediculicidal activity. At 5%, 2% and 1% concentration the essential oil showed more significant activity than 1% permethrin based product...
  69. Boutellis A, Veracx A, Angelakis E, Diatta G, Mediannikov O, Trape J, et al. Bartonella quintana in head lice from Sénégal. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:564-7 pubmed publisher
    ..DNA from B. quintana was identified in 19 lice (6.93%) collected from 7 patients (7%) in Dakar. B. quintana-positive lice collected from three subjects were identified as clades C and A...
  70. Raoult D, Dutour O, Houhamdi L, Jankauskas R, Fournier P, Ardagna Y, et al. Evidence for louse-transmitted diseases in soldiers of Napoleon's Grand Army in Vilnius. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:112-20 pubmed
    ..Because soldiers were commonly infested with body lice, it has been speculated that louse-borne infectious diseases, such as epidemic typhus (caused by Rickettsia prowazekii), were common...