ectoparasitic infestations

Summary

Summary: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.

Top Publications

  1. Välimäki P, Kaitala A, Madslien K, Härkönen L, Várkonyi G, Heikkila J, et al. Geographical variation in host use of a blood-feeding ectoparasitic fly: implications for population invasiveness. Oecologia. 2011;166:985-95 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that a wide host range alone does not account for the high expansion rate or wide geographic distribution of the deer ked, although loose ecological requirements would increase habitat availability...
  2. Dryden M. Flea and tick control in the 21st century: challenges and opportunities. Vet Dermatol. 2009;20:435-40 pubmed publisher
    ..These factors probably cause most real and perceived product failures...
  3. Vor T, Kiffner C, Hagedorn P, Niedrig M, Rühe F. Tick burden on European roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Exp Appl Acarol. 2010;51:405-17 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, tick burden was highly variable. Seasonality and large scale spatial characteristics appeared to be the most important factors affecting tick burden on roe deer...
  4. Paakkonen T, Mustonen A, Roininen H, Niemela P, Ruusila V, Nieminen P. Parasitism of the deer ked, Lipoptena cervi, on the moose, Alces alces, in eastern Finland. Med Vet Entomol. 2010;24:411-7 pubmed publisher
    ..As the total numbers and densities of deer keds were higher than reported previously on moose or for any other louse fly species, the effects of parasitism on the health of the host species should be determined...
  5. Hamre L, Nilsen F. Individual fish tank arrays in studies of Lepeophtheirus salmonis and lice loss variability. Dis Aquat Organ. 2011;97:47-56 pubmed publisher
    ..The loss of females appeared to be a process somewhat selective against large individuals. Inherent qualities of the host appeared to be of little significance in explaining the variability in loss of preadult/adult lice...
  6. Carpio Y, Basabe L, Acosta J, Rodriguez A, Mendoza A, Lisperger A, et al. Novel gene isolated from Caligus rogercresseyi: a promising target for vaccine development against sea lice. Vaccine. 2011;29:2810-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of these experiments suggest that the my32 protein may be a promising target for vaccine development to control sea lice infestations in fish...
  7. Madslien K, Ytrehus B, Vikøren T, Malmsten J, Isaksen K, Hygen H, et al. Hair-loss epizootic in moose (Alces alces) associated with massive deer ked (Lipoptena cervi) infestation. J Wildl Dis. 2011;47:893-906 pubmed
  8. Tadiso T, Krasnov A, Skugor S, Afanasyev S, Hordvik I, Nilsen F. Gene expression analyses of immune responses in Atlantic salmon during early stages of infection by salmon louse (Lepeophtheirus salmonis) revealed bi-phasic responses coinciding with the copepod-chalimus transition. BMC Genomics. 2011;12:141 pubmed publisher
  9. Dantas Torres F, Melo M, Figueredo L, Brandão Filho S. Ectoparasite infestation on rural dogs in the municipality of São Vicente Férrer, Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2009;18:75-7 pubmed
    ..05). No statistical difference was found by sex and age group of the dogs studied and prevalence of infestation. Overall, 48.8% (20/41) of the dogs were infested by more than one ectoparasite species...

More Information

Publications83

  1. Skilbrei O, Finstad B, Urdal K, Bakke G, Kroglund F, Strand R. Impact of early salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infestation and differences in survival and marine growth of sea-ranched Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., smolts 1997-2009. J Fish Dis. 2013;36:249-60 pubmed publisher
    ..05) and equivalent to an odds ratio of the probability of being recaptured of 1.17 in favour of the treated smolts. Control fish also tended to be smaller as grilse (P = 0.057), possibly due to a sublethal effect of salmon lice...
  2. Välimäki P, Madslien K, Malmsten J, Härkönen L, Härkönen S, Kaitala A, et al. Fennoscandian distribution of an important parasite of cervids, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi), revisited. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:117-25 pubmed publisher
    ..International multidisciplinary collaboration is needed to achieve a synthesis on the factors affecting expansion rates and to understand the effects of L. cervi on wildlife, human health, and the rural societies of Fennoscandia...
  3. Tavassoli M, Ahmadi A, Imani A, Ahmadiara E, Javadi S, Hadian M. Survey of flea infestation in dogs in different geographical regions of Iran. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:145-9 pubmed publisher
    ..5%), exhibited the highest prevalence among all flea species found on dogs. Thus, climatic conditions and seasonal patterns impact on flea infestation and must be considered in developing control programs...
  4. Fourie J, Fourie L, Horak I, Snyman M. The efficacy of a topically applied combination of cyphenothrin and pyriproxyfen against the southern African yellow dog tick, Haemaphysalis elliptica, and the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, on dogs. J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2010;81:33-6 pubmed
    ..1% against H. elliptica and 97.5% against C. felis 2 days after treatment. The residual period of protection during which efficacy was > or = 90% was 5 weeks for both H. elliptica and C. felis...
  5. Dezfuli B, Giari L, Lui A, Lorenzoni M, Noga E. Mast cell responses to Ergasilus (Copepoda), a gill ectoparasite of sea bream. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2011;30:1087-94 pubmed publisher
    ..05). Our report documents the response of gill to ectoparasite infection and provides further evidence that mast cells and their AMPs may play a role in responding to branchial ectoparasite infections...
  6. Hamer S, Hickling G, Sidge J, Walker E, Tsao J. Synchronous phenology of juvenile Ixodes scapularis, vertebrate host relationships, and associated patterns of Borrelia burgdorferi ribotypes in the midwestern United States. Ticks Tick Borne Dis. 2012;3:65-74 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi...
  7. Härkönen L, Kaitala A, Kaunisto S, Repo T. High cold tolerance through four seasons and all free-living stages in an ectoparasite. Parasitology. 2012;139:926-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We showed that high cold tolerance is possible without acclimation regardless of life stage, which presumably correlates with other survival characteristics, such as the starvation resistance of free-living ectoparasites...
  8. Farkas R, Gyurkovszky M, Solymosi N, Beugnet F. Prevalence of flea infestation in dogs and cats in Hungary combined with a survey of owner awareness. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:187-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Very few owners reported having attempted to kill fleas in their animals' environment; instead, they believed that fleas were acquired from other cats or dogs...
  9. Winter B, Oliveira F, Wilcke T, Heukelbach J, Feldmeier H. Tungiasis-related knowledge and treatment practices in two endemic communities in northeast Brazil. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2009;3:458-66 pubmed
    ..To fill this gap, we performed a study in two resource-poor communities in northeast Brazil where this parasitic skin disease is highly prevalent...
  10. Parizi L, Reck J, Oldiges D, Guizzo M, Seixas A, Logullo C, et al. Multi-antigenic vaccine against the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus: a field evaluation. Vaccine. 2012;30:6912-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared to the single-antigen vaccines composed by VTDCE, BYC or GST-Hl, this three-antigen vaccine afforded higher protection levels against R. microplus infestations...
  11. Klimpel S, Heukelbach J, Pothmann D, Rückert S. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:713-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible...
  12. Gates M, Nolan T. Factors influencing heartworm, flea, and tick preventative use in patients presenting to a veterinary teaching hospital. Prev Vet Med. 2010;93:193-200 pubmed publisher
    ..05) associated with preventative use in the multivariate analysis. Findings from this study emphasize target areas for increasing owner compliance...
  13. Witt L, Linardi P, Meckes O, Schwalfenberg S, Ribeiro R, Feldmeier H, et al. Blood-feeding of Tunga penetrans males. Med Vet Entomol. 2004;18:439-41 pubmed
    ..This confirms that T. penetrans males are hamatophagous ectoparasites of mammals. ..
  14. Hellmann K, Knoppe T, Krieger K, Stanneck D. European multicenter field trial on the efficacy and safety of a topical formulation of imidacloprid and permethrin (Advantix) in dogs naturally infested with ticks and/or fleas. Parasitol Res. 2003;90 Suppl 3:S125-6 pubmed
  15. Heukelbach J, Wilcke T, Eisele M, Feldmeier H. Ectopic localization of tungiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2002;67:214-6 pubmed
    ..6%. Since untreated sand flea lesions are prone to become superinfected, clinicians should be aware of not missing any ectopic localization of tungiasis. ..
  16. Heukelbach J, van Haeff E, Rump B, Wilcke T, Moura R, Feldmeier H. Parasitic skin diseases: health care-seeking in a slum in north-east Brazil. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:368-73 pubmed
  17. Krkosek M, Ford J, Morton A, Lele S, Myers R, Lewis M. Declining wild salmon populations in relation to parasites from farm salmon. Science. 2007;318:1772-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that salmon farms can cause parasite outbreaks that erode the capacity of a coastal ecosystem to support wild salmon populations. ..
  18. Arijo A, Omani K, Rajput Z. Ctenocephalides felis in dogs and cats in Tandojam region. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:2579-82 pubmed
    ..The rate of infestation was higher in female puppies (40%) than in male puppies (26.66%). It was also higher in female kitten (37.84%) than in male kitten (12.43%). ..
  19. Rust M. Advances in the control of Ctenocephalides felis (cat flea) on cats and dogs. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:232-6 pubmed
    ..Surveys have yet to reveal the development of insecticide resistance to these chemical compounds. Extending the longevity of these effective host-targeted therapies should be a major goal of the veterinary community. ..
  20. Heukelbach J, Mencke N, Feldmeier H. Editorial: Cutaneous larva migrans and tungiasis: the challenge to control zoonotic ectoparasitoses associated with poverty. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7:907-10 pubmed
  21. Small R. A review of Melophagus ovinus (L.), the sheep ked. Vet Parasitol. 2005;130:141-55 pubmed
    ..ovinus may be timely. This paper reviews the biology, annual population cycles, natural causes of mortality, veterinary and economic significance and control of, and host resistance to, M. ovinus. ..
  22. Varagnol M, Parola P, Jouan R, Beaucournu J, Rolain J, Raoult D. First detection of Rickettsia felis and Bartonella clarridgeiae in fleas from Laos. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2009;15 Suppl 2:334-5 pubmed publisher
  23. Kehr J, Heukelbach J, Mehlhorn H, Feldmeier H. Morbidity assessment in sand flea disease (tungiasis). Parasitol Res. 2007;100:413-21 pubmed
    ..The degree of acute morbidity is directly related to the number of embedded sand fleas. When transmission is interrupted, the chronic morbidity reflects the infestation rates individuals have experienced in the past. ..
  24. Ugbomoiko U, Ofoezie I, Heukelbach J. Tungiasis: high prevalence, parasite load, and morbidity in a rural community in Lagos State, Nigeria. Int J Dermatol. 2007;46:475-81 pubmed
    ..The prevalence and parasite burden showed a characteristic distribution. In western Nigeria, tungiasis needs to be regarded as an important public health problem. ..
  25. Rodrigues D, Daemon E, Rodrigues A. [Characterization of ectoparasites on dogs in the nucleus of urban expansion of Juiz de Fora, Minas Gerais, Brazil]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2008;17:185-8 pubmed
    ..aureolatum (1%). The ixodid nymphs were separated into a Amblyomminae nymphs (58.41%), with 10.11 +/- 10.09 nymphs/dog, and Rhipicephalinae nymphs 1(24.75%), with 2.64 +/- 3.25 nymphs/dog. Ixodid larvae were found on 3.96 % of the dogs. ..
  26. Penston M, Davies I. An assessment of salmon farms and wild salmonids as sources of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) copepodids in the water column in Loch Torridon, Scotland. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:75-88 pubmed publisher
    ..This study highlights the importance of control of L. salmonis on salmon farms for the co-existence of both wild salmonid populations and the aquaculture industry. ..
  27. Ramsey J, Cruz Celis A, Salgado L, Espinosa L, Ordoñez R, Lopez R, et al. Efficacy of pyrethroid insecticides against domestic and peridomestic populations of Triatoma pallidipennis and Triatoma barberi (Reduviidae:Triatominae) vectors of Chagas' disease in Mexico. J Med Entomol. 2003;40:912-20 pubmed
    ..cruzi infection after intervention, the data indicate that a sylvan reservoir source, probably peridomicile small rodent nests, represent the major risk factor for persistent and new infestations. ..
  28. Fast M, Muise D, Easy R, Ross N, Johnson S. The effects of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections on the stress response and immunological status of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:228-41 pubmed
    ..The expression of nearly all immune-related genes studied here increased following initial infection with L. salmonis, however, immunological stimulation did not reduce parasite numbers or protect against re-infection...
  29. Romero A, Potter M, Potter D, Haynes K. Insecticide resistance in the bed bug: a factor in the pest's sudden resurgence?. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:175-8 pubmed
    ..Without the development of new tactics for bed bug management, further escalation of this public health problem should be expected...
  30. Gonzalez M, Poulin R. Spatial and temporal predictability of the parasite community structure of a benthic marine fish along its distributional range. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1369-77 pubmed
    ..capensis may be associated with the fish's benthic habitat and territorial behavior, suggesting that host biology may be a key determinant of the structure of parasite communities. ..
  31. Heukelbach J, de Oliveira F, Feldmeier H. [Ecoparasitoses and public health in Brazil: challenges for control]. Cad Saude Publica. 2003;19:1535-40 pubmed
    ..This article discusses potential measures to control parasitic skin diseases in affected communities, based on mass treatment, health education, and (when applicable) eradication of animal reservoirs. ..
  32. Feldmeier H, Kehr J, Heukelbach J. A plant-based repellent protects against Tunga penetrans infestation and sand flea disease. Acta Trop. 2006;99:126-36 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, in a setting in which tungiasis is an important health threat, the daily application of a plant-based repellent prevented the infestation with T. penetrans and sand flea disease. ..
  33. Heukelbach J, Franck S, Feldmeier H. Therapy of tungiasis: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial with oral ivermectin. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:873-6 pubmed
    ..The results show that oral ivermectin is without any clinically significant efficacy against embedded sand fleas at the dose given. ..
  34. Feldmeier H, Kehr J, Poggensee G, Heukelbach J. High exposure to Tunga penetrans (Linnaeus, 1758) correlates with intensity of infestation. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:65-9 pubmed
    ..Persistently high infestation rates during the transmission season favour the use of prevention measures against invading sand fleas (such as a repellent) rather than a drug to kill already embedded parasites...
  35. Joseph J, Bazile J, Mutter J, Shin S, Ruddle A, Ivers L, et al. Tungiasis in rural Haiti: a community-based response. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:970-4 pubmed
    ..All superinfections were resolved. We concluded that community-based care can treat tungiasis effectively...
  36. Wagner G, Fast M, Johnson S. Physiology and immunology of Lepeophtheirus salmonis infections of salmonids. Trends Parasitol. 2008;24:176-83 pubmed publisher
    ..In this article, we review the nature of the interactions between L. salmonis and it hosts to identify crucial areas that warrant further research to aid understanding of the impact of infection with L. salmonis...
  37. Ariza L, Seidenschwang M, Buckendahl J, Gomide M, Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J. [Tungiasis: a neglected disease causing severe morbidity in a shantytown in Fortaleza, State of Ceará]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2007;40:63-7 pubmed
    ..Tungiasis needs to be recognized as a public health problem in this study area and other similar endemic areas...
  38. Simkova A, Kadlec D, Gelnar M, Morand S. Abundance-prevalence relationship of gill congeneric ectoparasites: testing the core satellite hypothesis and ecological specialisation. Parasitol Res. 2002;88:682-6 pubmed
    ..However, generalists were found to be more widely distributed among hosts and had higher abundances than specialists, which supports the ecological specialisation hypothesis...
  39. Fast M, Burka J, Johnson S, Ross N. Enzymes released from Lepeophtheirus salmonis in response to mucus from different salmonids. J Parasitol. 2003;89:7-13 pubmed
    ..The resistance of coho salmon to L. salmonis infection may be due to agents in their mucus that block the secretion of these LMW proteases or factors may exist in the mucus of susceptible species that stimulate their release...
  40. Abdel Naser M, Lotfy R, Al Sherbiny M, Sayed Ali N. Patients with papular urticaria have IgG antibodies to bedbug (Cimex lectularius) antigens. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:550-6 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that IgG is present against C. lectularius, C. pipiens, and P. irritans in papular urticaria and may contribute to its pathogenesis...
  41. Schuele G, Barnett S, Bapst B, Cavaliero T, Luempert L, Strehlau G, et al. The effect of water and shampooing on the efficacy of a pyriprole 12.5% topical solution against brown dog tick (Rhipicephalus sanguineus) and cat flea (Ctenocephalides felis) infestations on dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:300-11 pubmed
    ..8%, and shampooing 24 h after treatment did not reduce the efficacy. The product was well tolerated by the dogs...
  42. Sréter T, Széll Z, Varga I. Ectoparasite infestations of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. Vet Parasitol. 2003;115:349-54 pubmed
  43. Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J, Eisele M, Ribeiro R, Harms G, Mehlhorn H, et al. Investigations on the biology, epidemiology, pathology and control of Tunga penetrans in Brazil: III. Cytokine levels in peripheral blood of infected humans. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:298-303 pubmed
    ..The preponderance of the Th1 immune response was indicated by a significantly increased TNF-alpha/IL-4 ratio in patients with tungiasis, as compared with the control groups...
  44. Dominguez G. North Spain (Burgos) wild mammals ectoparasites. Parasite. 2004;11:267-72 pubmed
    ..sciurorum (Schrank, 1803) and Paraceras melis melis (Walker, 1856) on several mammals. Two species were new records for Spain: Chaetopsylla matina (Jordan, 1925) and Archaeopsylla erinacei erinacei (Bouché, 1835)...
  45. Muehlen M, Feldmeier H, Wilcke T, Winter B, Heukelbach J. Identifying risk factors for tungiasis and heavy infestation in a resource-poor community in northeast Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:371-80 pubmed
    ..Based on the population attributable fractions calculated for the major risk factors identified, we conclude that several low-cost interventions would have a considerable impact on the occurrence of tungiasis and heavy infestation...
  46. Shaw S, Kenny M, Tasker S, Birtles R. Pathogen carriage by the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché) in the United Kingdom. Vet Microbiol. 2004;102:183-8 pubmed
    ..felis carrying bacterial pathogens of significance to human and animal health. These findings raise the possibility that Ct. felis found on dogs and cats are a potential source of infection with such pathogens for humans...
  47. Bricknell I, Dalesman S, O Shea B, Pert C, Luntz A. Effect of environmental salinity on sea lice Lepeophtheirus salmonis settlement success. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;71:201-12 pubmed
    ..These results show that both survival and host infectivity of L. salmonis are severely compromised by short-term exposure to reduced salinity levels...
  48. Pampiglione S, Fioravanti M, Gustinelli A, Onore G, Mantovani B, Luchetti A, et al. Sand flea (Tunga spp.) infections in humans and domestic animals: state of the art. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:172-86 pubmed publisher
  49. Xhaxhiu D, Kusi I, Rapti D, Visser M, Knaus M, Lindner T, et al. Ectoparasites of dogs and cats in Albania. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:1577-87 pubmed publisher
    ..The examination of the cats revealed infestation with only one species of ectoparasite, C. felis (prevalence, 100%; geometric mean, 2.5; range, 1-9)...
  50. Torr S, Maudlin I, Vale G. Less is more: restricted application of insecticide to cattle to improve the cost and efficacy of tsetse control. Med Vet Entomol. 2007;21:53-64 pubmed
    ..This would cut the cost of insecticide by 40%, improve efficacy by 27% and reduce the threats to non-target organisms and the enzootic stability of tick-borne diseases...
  51. González A, Castro D, Gonzalez S. Ectoparasitic species from Canis familiaris (Linné) in Buenos Aires province, Argentina. Vet Parasitol. 2004;120:123-9 pubmed
    ..Even though there were records of ectoparasites throughout all the year, a higher intensity was observed during the spring months, most likely as a result of the increase in temperature after the winter months...
  52. Jones S, Fast M, Johnson S. Influence of reduced feed ration on Lepeophtheirus salmonis infestation and inflammatory gene expression in juvenile pink salmon. J Aquat Anim Health. 2008;20:103-9 pubmed publisher
    ..salmonis...
  53. Anderson A, Leffler K. Bedbug infestations in the news: a picture of an emerging public health problem in the United States. J Environ Health. 2008;70:24-7, 52-3 pubmed
    ..Rural and urban examples are included in a four-year time frame starting with news in the Northeast and ending with an attempt to eradicate the pest from the state of Hawaii...
  54. Gilles J, Just F, Silaghi C, Pradel I, Lengauer H, Hellmann K, et al. Rickettsia felis in fleas, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:684-6 pubmed publisher
  55. Schwalfenberg S, Witt L, Kehr J, Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J. Prevention of tungiasis using a biological repellent: a small case series. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:89-94 pubmed
  56. Nakagawa J, Hashimoto K, Cordon Rosales C, Abraham Juárez J, Trampe R, Marroquín Marroquín L. The impact of vector control on Triatoma dimidiata in the Guatemalan department of Jutiapa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:288-97 pubmed
    ..An effective vector-surveillance system (preferably one in which community participation is encouraged) is also essential...
  57. Eisele M, Heukelbach J, Van Marck E, Mehlhorn H, Meckes O, Franck S, et al. Investigations on the biology, epidemiology, pathology and control of Tunga penetrans in Brazil: I. Natural history of tungiasis in man. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:87-99 pubmed
    ..It allows a more precise diagnosis, enables the assessment of chemotherapeutic approaches and helps to evaluate control measures at the community level...
  58. Horak I, Beaucournu J, Braack L. Parasites of domestic and wild animals in South Africa. XLIV. Fleas (Insecta: Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) collected from 15 carnivore species. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2004;71:9-14 pubmed
    ..Amongst these only Ctenocephalides felis felis and Ctenocephalides felis strongylus are considered specific parasites of carnivores. The remaining ten species normally infest the prey animals of the various carnivores...
  59. de Carvalho R, de Almeida A, Barbosa Silva S, Amorim M, Ribeiro P, Serra Freire N. The patterns of tungiasis in Araruama township, state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2003;98:31-6 pubmed
  60. Schloderer D, Owen H, Clark P, Stenos J, Fenwick S. Rickettsia felis in fleas, Western Australia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006;12:841-3 pubmed
    ..The organism was identified from 4 species of fleas obtained from dogs and cats in Western Australia, by using polymerase chain reaction amplification and DNA sequencing of the citrate synthase and outer membrane protein A genes...
  61. Costello M. Ecology of sea lice parasitic on farmed and wild fish. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:475-83 pubmed
    ..salmonis and Caligus spp. This knowledge could be used to take measures to reduce the risks of lice affecting farmed and wild fish...
  62. Glover K, Grimholt U, Bakke H, Nilsen F, Storset A, Skaala Ø. Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) variation and susceptibility to the sea louse Lepeophtheirus salmonis in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;76:57-65 pubmed
    ..Consequently, the results of this study indicate a link between MHC Class II and susceptibility to lice...
  63. Gracia M, Calvete C, Estrada R, Castillo J, Peribanez M, Lucientes J. Fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:312-9 pubmed
    ..However, a large amount of variation in flea abundance remained unexplained, suggesting the effect of other non-controlled factors...
  64. Ugbomoiko U, Ariza L, Heukelbach J. Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners. BMC Vet Res. 2008;4:49 pubmed publisher
    ..Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. They may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. In Nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited...
  65. Lourenço S, Palmeirim J. Which factors regulate the reproduction of ectoparasites of temperate-zone cave-dwelling bats?. Parasitol Res. 2008;104:127-34 pubmed publisher
    ..The fact that the reproductive cycle of parasite species of such distinct taxonomic groups are similarly adjusted to that of their bat host suggests that this adjustment is a highly adaptive trait...
  66. Klimpel S, Mehlhorn H, Heukelbach J, Feldmeier H, Mencke N. Field trial of the efficacy of a combination of imidacloprid and permethrin against Tunga penetrans (sand flea, jigger flea) in dogs in Brazil. Parasitol Res. 2005;97 Suppl 1:S113-S119 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the dogs distribute the flea eggs throughout the village, leading to a high incidence of tungiasis in humans, treatment of dogs probably also decreases the number of cases of tungiasis in the latter...
  67. Beck W, Boch K, Mackensen H, Wiegand B, Pfister K. Qualitative and quantitative observations on the flea population dynamics of dogs and cats in several areas of Germany. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:130-6 pubmed
    ..The overall frequencies reveal that C. felis was the most prominent species (81.5%), followed by C. canis (12.5%), A. erinacei (2.7%) and P. irritans (1.7%)...
  68. Fast M, Ross N, Craft C, Locke S, MacKinnon S, Johnson S. Lepeophtheirus salmonis: characterization of prostaglandin E(2) in secretory products of the salmon louse by RP-HPLC and mass spectrometry. Exp Parasitol. 2004;107:5-13 pubmed
    ..This is the first reported evidence of prostaglandin production in parasitic copepod secretions and its implications for the host-parasite relationship are discussed...
  69. Feldmeier H, Heukelbach J, Eisele M, Sousa A, Barbosa L, Carvalho C. Bacterial superinfection in human tungiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2002;7:559-64 pubmed
    ..To prevent spreading of pathogens to the surrounding tissue and/or the systemic circulation, sand fleas should be surgically extracted immediately after penetration...
  70. Amundrud T, Murray A. Modelling sea lice dispersion under varying environmental forcing in a Scottish sea loch. J Fish Dis. 2009;32:27-44 pubmed publisher
  71. Feldmeier H, Eisele M, Sabóia Moura R, Heukelbach J. Severe tungiasis in underprivileged communities: case series from Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:949-55 pubmed
    ..In economically depressed urban neighborhoods characterized by a high transmission potential, poor housing conditions, social neglect, and inadequate healthcare behavior, tungiasis may develop into severe disease...
  72. Ugbomoiko U, Ariza L, Heukelbach J. Pigs are the most important animal reservoir for Tunga penetrans (jigger flea) in rural Nigeria. Trop Doct. 2008;38:226-7 pubmed publisher
    ..4%; median = 1.5). Of all the tungiasis lesions identified 83% were found in pigs. Our data confirm that tungiasis is a zoonotic disease, and that pigs are its most important animal reservoir in this endemic community...
  73. Jones S, Kim E, Bennett W. Early development of resistance to the salmon louse, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer), in juvenile pink salmon, Oncorhynchus gorbuscha (Walbaum). J Fish Dis. 2008;31:591-600 pubmed publisher
    ..The present results indicate that elevated risk associated with L. salmonis infection among migrating post-emergent pink salmon may occur during a relatively brief period before the fish reaches 0.7 g...
  74. Penston M, Millar C, Zuur A, Davies I. Spatial and temporal distribution of Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krøyer) larvae in a sea loch containing Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., farms on the north-west coast of Scotland. J Fish Dis. 2008;31:361-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The distribution of copepodids was more widespread than that of nauplii, indicating that the larvae can be transported several kilometres from the point of release...