parasitic eye infections

Summary

Summary: Mild to severe infections of the eye and its adjacent structures (adnexa) by adult or larval protozoan or metazoan parasites.

Top Publications

  1. Kearney M, Nilssen A, Lyslo A, Syrdalen P, Dannevig L. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by the reindeer warble fly larva. J Clin Pathol. 1991;44:276-84 pubmed
    ..Identification of the parasite in the histological material was based on the finding of cuticular spines and parts of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton identical with those of the first instar larva of H tarandi...
  2. Dissanaike A, Bandara C, Padmini H, Ihalamulla R, Naotunne T. Recovery of a species of Brugia, probably B. ceylonensis, from the conjunctiva of a patient in Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2000;94:83-6 pubmed
    ..malayi is believed to have been eradicated from Sri Lanka several years ago. The presence of a distinct head bulb excludes the possibility that the parasite was B. buckleyi...
  3. Pushker N, Bajaj M, Chandra M, Neena -. Ocular and orbital cysticercosis. Acta Ophthalmol Scand. 2001;79:408-13 pubmed
    ..To study the demographic factors, clinical diagnosis, results of investigation, modalities of treatment and their outcome in ocular and extraocular cysticercosis...
  4. Kiratli H, Bilgic S, Ozturkmen C, Aydin O. Intramuscular hydatid cyst of the medial rectus muscle. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:98-9 pubmed
    ..To describe a unique case of orbital hydatid cyst that was located solely within the medial rectus muscle...
  5. Otranto D, Lia R, Traversa D, Giannetto S. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) of carnivores and humans: morphological study by light and scanning electron microscopy. Parassitologia. 2003;45:125-33 pubmed
    ..The morphological characteristics useful for the identification of T. callipaeda are discussed...
  6. Wakamatsu T, Pierre Filho P. Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Dermatobia hominis: a successful treatment with oral ivermectin. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:1088-90 pubmed
  7. Otranto D, Lia R, Cantacessi C, Testini G, Troccoli A, Shen J, et al. Nematode biology and larval development of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in the drosophilid intermediate host in Europe and China. Parasitology. 2005;131:847-55 pubmed
    ..callipaeda and discussed. Finally, the relationship between T. callipaeda and its fly vector is considered in light of disease prophylaxis and to model its dissemination into habitats and environments favourable to Phortica flies...
  8. Sathyan P, Manikandan P, Bhaskar M, Padma S, Singh G, Appalaraju B. Subtenons infection by Dirofilaria repens. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:61-2 pubmed
    ..We are reporting a case of human Dirofilariasis affecting subtenons region in a 63 year-old woman from Coimbatore, South India. The purpose of this article is to review the clinical course and management of ocular Dirofilariasis...
  9. Otranto D, Cantacessi C, Testini G, Lia R. Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1167-73 pubmed
    ..The synchrony between the fly population dynamics and the biology of the nematode in the definitive host provides an interesting model for exploring the co-evolution of Thelazia spp. with their hosts...

More Information

Publications160 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chandra A, Singh M, Singh V, Rai A, Chakraborty S, Maurya O. A live cysticercosis in anterior chamber leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block. J Glaucoma. 2007;16:271-3 pubmed
    ..The intraocular tension was 48 mm Hg. The diagnosis of cysticercosis leading to glaucoma secondary to pupilary block was made. The cyst was removed surgically by viscoexpression. The histopathology proved to be a cysticercosis...
  2. Ruiz Moreno J, Bornay Llinares F, Prieto Maza G, Medrano M, Simon F, Eberhard M. Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens: serological confirmation of cure following surgery. Arch Ophthalmol. 1998;116:1370-2 pubmed
    ..To our knowledge, this is the fourth autochthonous case of D repens infecting humans in Spain and also the first autochthonous case of subconjunctival localization...
  3. Agarwal B, Vemuganti G, Honavar S. Intraocular cysticercosis simulating retinoblastoma in a 5-year-old child. Eye (Lond). 2003;17:447-9 pubmed
  4. Sharma T, Sinha S, Shah N, Gopal L, Shanmugam M, Bhende P, et al. Intraocular cysticercosis: clinical characteristics and visual outcome after vitreoretinal surgery. Ophthalmology. 2003;110:996-1004 pubmed
    ..To report the clinical characteristics of, discuss the surgical options for, and analyze the factors affecting the anatomic and visual outcome of intraocular cysticercosis...
  5. Wang Z, Hu Y, Shen J, Wang K, Wang H, Jiang B, et al. [Longitudinal investigation and experimental studies on thelaziasis and the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda in Guanghua county of Hubei province]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24:588-90 pubmed
    ..To verify houseflies Musca spp. as the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda and reveal epidemiological situation of thelaziasis in Hubei province...
  6. Otranto D, Ferroglio E, Lia R, Traversa D, Rossi L. Current status and epidemiological observation of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs, cats and foxes in Italy: a "coincidence" or a parasitic disease of the Old Continent?. Vet Parasitol. 2003;116:315-25 pubmed
    ..callipaeda is also present in other European countries. Speculation as to the origins of this parasitic infestation in Europe and the biology of T. callipaeda and its vector/s is also discussed...
  7. Basak S, Sinha T, Bhattacharya D, Hazra T, Parikh S. Intravitreal live Gnathostoma spinigerum. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004;52:57-8 pubmed
    ..Most of the published reports are from South-East Asia. We report a case of intravitreal gnathostomiasis, where the worm was removed live and intact by pars plana vitrectomy...
  8. Agrawal S, Agrawal J, Agrawal T. Orbital cysticercosis-associated scleral indentation presenting with pseudo-retinal detachment. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004;137:1153-5 pubmed
    ..To report a clinical picture similar to retinal detachment caused by orbital myocysticercosis-associated scleral indentation...
  9. Otranto D, Lia R, Buono V, Traversa D, Giangaspero A. Biology of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) eyeworms in naturally infected definitive hosts. Parasitology. 2004;129:627-33 pubmed
    ..This basic knowledge of the development of T. callipaeda will hopefully help future epidemiological studies to identify the intermediate hosts and define the likely risk for vectors in field conditions...
  10. Otranto D, Traversa D. Thelazia eyeworm: an original endo- and ecto-parasitic nematode. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:1-4 pubmed
    ..The relationship between eyeworms and their hosts are discussed here, together with recent molecular insights that are instrumental in investigating the biology of Thelazia in their definitive and intermediate hosts...
  11. Shen J, Gasser R, Chu D, Wang Z, Yuan X, Cantacessi C, et al. Human thelaziosis--a neglected parasitic disease of the eye. J Parasitol. 2006;92:872-5 pubmed
  12. Chowdhury R, Behera S, Bhuyan D, Das G. Oculosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital of western Orissa, India: a case series. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:299-301 pubmed
    ..Although this is an endemic area for such infestation, unilateral manifestation observed in all cases is interesting to note. Low recurrence rate in limited follow-up period could be due to early detection and standard management...
  13. Kumar V, Kyprianou I, Keenan J. Ocular Angiostrongyliasis: removal of a live nematode from the anterior chamber. Eye (Lond). 2005;19:229-30 pubmed
  14. Muftuoglu G, Cicik E, Ozdamar A, Yetik H, Ozkan S. Vitreoretinal surgery for a subretinal hydatid cyst. Am J Ophthalmol. 2001;132:435-7 pubmed
    ..Visual acuity increased from counting fingers to 20/63 at the end of the follow-up time. A subretinal hydatid cyst that causes retinal detachment may be treated effectively with vitreoretinal surgery. ..
  15. Sridhar M, Sharma S. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a HIV-seronegative patient treated with debridement and oral itraconazole. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;136:745-6 pubmed
    ..To report a case of microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in an HIV-seronegative...
  16. Watt K, Swarbrick H. Trends in microbial keratitis associated with orthokeratology. Eye Contact Lens. 2007;33:373-7; discussion 382 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of cases of Acanthamoeba keratitis reported with this modality emphasizes the importance of eliminating the use of tap water in care regimens for overnight orthokeratology. ..
  17. Stammen J, Kluppel M. [Bilateral subconjunctival foreign bodies. Loiasis with bilateral Loa ophthalmia]. Ophthalmologe. 2002;99:304-5 pubmed
  18. Pusterla N, Watson J, Wilson W, Affolter V, Spier S. Cutaneous and ocular habronemiasis in horses: 63 cases (1988-2002). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2003;222:978-82 pubmed
    ..In general, the prognosis was good, and healing occurred within a few weeks. Fly control and regular deworming with ivermectin are recommended to reduce the incidence of habronemiasis. ..
  19. Kostolná B, Gerinec A, Ondriska F. [Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis using fluid from the anterior ocular chamber]. Cesk Slov Oftalmol. 2003;59:312-8 pubmed
    ..Toxoplasma etiology was confirmed by local antibody production analysis in 1 patient, toxocara etiology in 5 patients. In 20 patients in the control group local specific antibody production was not demonstrated. ..
  20. Dzbenski T, Hautz W, Bitkowska E. [Experimental toxocariasis in rabbits: immunological markers of ocular infections]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:591-6 pubmed
    ..None of the infected animals showed the signs of ocular involvement, however, toxocaral IgG antibodies and circulating parasite antigen were present in the anterior chamber fluid samples...
  21. Subudhi B, Dash S, Chakrabarty D, Mishra D, Senapati U. Ocular sparganosis. J Indian Med Assoc. 2006;104:529-30 pubmed
    ..During local dressing a live tapeworm about 20 cm in length and 3 mm in breadth emerged. Pathological examination confirmed it to be a tapeworm spirometra. The case was diagnosed to be ocular sparganosis...
  22. Font R, Samaha A, Keener M, Chevez Barrios P, Goosey J. Corneal microsporidiosis. Report of case, including electron microscopic observations. Ophthalmology. 2000;107:1769-75 pubmed
    ..No effective medical treatment for the stromal disease is available. Full-thickness keratoplasty is suggested because, in our patient, lamellar keratoplasty did not preclude recurrence of the disease. ..
  23. Patikulsila D, Ittipunkul N, Theerakittikul B. Intravitreal angiostrongyliasis: report of 2 cases. J Med Assoc Thai. 2003;86:981-5 pubmed
    ..Fluorescein angiography revealed severe pigmentary alteration, probably from inflammation of the choroid and retina due to subretinal migration of the worm prior to access into the vitreous cavity. ..
  24. Joseph J, Murthy S, Garg P, Sharma S. Use of different stains for microscopic evaluation of corneal scrapings for diagnosis of microsporidial keratitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2006;44:583-5 pubmed
    ..7%] and 28/30 [93.3%], respectively) in the diagnosis of microsporidial keratitis. ..
  25. Karvonen A, Halonen H, Seppälä O. Priming of host resistance to protect cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss against eye flukes and parasite-induced cataracts. J Fish Biol. 2010;76:1508-15 pubmed publisher
    ..The results suggest that this type of priming of host resistance is probably inefficient in preventing the deleterious effects of D. spathaceum infection in aquaculture conditions. ..
  26. Amr Z, Amr B, Abo Shehada M. Ophthalmomyiasis externa caused by Oestrus ovis L. in the Ajloun area of northern Jordan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1993;87:259-62 pubmed
    ..Symptoms included mild to severe conjunctivitis, cellulitis, lacrimation and conjunctival hyperaemia. All cases were among males, and they occurred either from April to July or from September to November. ..
  27. Rohela M, Jamaiah I, Hui T, Mak J, Ithoi I, Amirah A. Dirofilaria causing eye infection in a patient from Malaysia. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2009;40:914-8 pubmed
    ..A worm was seen and later removed from beneath the conjunctiva under local anesthesia and based on the morphological characteristics, it was identified as an immature Dirofilaria repens. ..
  28. Miura M, Hayasaka S, Yamada T, Hayasaka Y, Kamimura K. Ophthalmomyiasis caused by larvae of Boettcherisca Peregrina. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2005;49:177-9 pubmed
  29. De Silva D, Strouthidis N, Tariq S, Davies N. An unusual cause of acute lid swelling. Eye (Lond). 2006;20:271-2 pubmed
  30. Beare N, Taylor T, Harding S, Lewallen S, Molyneux M. Malarial retinopathy: a newly established diagnostic sign in severe malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:790-7 pubmed
    ..This report reviews current knowledge of malarial retinopathy, including its use as a diagnostic test in the comatose child, and its value as a tool for research into the pathophysiology of cerebral malaria...
  31. Siepmann K, Wannke B, Neumann D, Rohrbach J. Subcutaneous tumor of the lower eyelid: a potential manifestation of a Dirofilaria repens infection. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:129-31 pubmed
    ..To report a case of Dirofilaria repens presenting as a subcutaneous tumor of the lower eyelid...
  32. Lewallen S, Bronzan R, Beare N, Harding S, Molyneux M, Taylor T. Using malarial retinopathy to improve the classification of children with cerebral malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1089-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Our proposed classification, by improving the specificity of diagnosis, would enhance consistency among different study sites and prove useful in future research studies...
  33. Xie L, Qi F, Gao H, Wang T, Shi W, Zhao J. Major shifts in corneal transplantation procedures in north China: 5316 eyes over 12 years. Br J Ophthalmol. 2009;93:1291-5 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the major shifts in the ratio of lamellar keratoplasty (LKP) to penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and in the preoperative indications for each procedure...
  34. Kuk S, Yildirim S, Ozden M, Erensoy A, Saki C. Ophthalmomyiasis is not only a problem for rural regions of Eastern Anatolia of Turkey. Med Sci Monit. 2009;15:CS166-8 pubmed
    ..It is hoped that this case encourages physicians to be aware of the diagnosis of ophthalmomyiasis externa and its complication and treatment. ..
  35. Tandon R, Sihota R, Dada T, Verma L. Optic neuritis following albendazole therapy for orbital cysticercosis. Aust N Z J Ophthalmol. 1998;26:339-41 pubmed
    ..Corticosteroids should be given in addition to albendazole in the treatment of orbital cysticercosis when cysts are in close proximity to the optic nerve. ..
  36. Taylor M. The epidemiology of ocular toxocariasis. J Helminthol. 2001;75:109-18 pubmed
    ..Most surveys of blindness stipulate a vision of 6/60 or less in the better eye and so toxocariasis cases go unrecorded. There is a need for surveys which identify the level of vision in both eyes. ..
  37. Chung G, Lai W, Thulborn K, Menner C, Blair N, Pulido J. Magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of subretinal cysticercosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002;134:931-2 pubmed
    ..This finding has important therapeutic implications, as any viable cysticercus in the eye or cerebral parenchyma can be treated surgically or medically, respectively. ..
  38. Garrido C, Campos M. First report of presumed parasitic keratitis in Indians from the Brazilian Amazon. Cornea. 2000;19:817-9 pubmed
    ..None of the examined patients presented onchocercal-related skin lesions or positive skin biopsies for filaria. There was a significant association between mansonelliasis and keratitis. ..
  39. Yokoi K, Goto H, Sakai J, Usui M. Clinical features of ocular toxocariasis in Japan. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2003;11:269-75 pubmed
    ..The peripheral type had a worse prognosis than the posterior pole type. However, in general, ocular toxocariasis resulted in fair visual outcomes. The antibody titer in intraocular fluid was helpful in the diagnosis. ..
  40. Karvonen A, Seppälä O, Valtonen E. Parasite resistance and avoidance behaviour in preventing eye fluke infections in fish. Parasitology. 2004;129:159-64 pubmed
    ..We conclude that by using a combination of behavioural avoidance and physiological resistance, fish could defend against the parasite more effectively. ..
  41. Audo I, Webster A, Bird A, Holder G, Kidd M. Progressive retinal dysfunction in diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Br J Ophthalmol. 2006;90:793-4 pubmed
  42. Cortez M, Giuliari G, Escaf L, Escaf S, Vidal C. Ocular cysticercosis of the anterior segment. J AAPOS. 2007;11:628-9 pubmed
    ..Because of the usually poor visual prognosis and the controversy in treatment, physicians should be aware of this disease and its different variants of presentation. ..
  43. Malaguido M, Casella A, Malaguido D. [Clinical treatment of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis with albendazole]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2007;70:814-22 pubmed
    ..More studies are necessary to evaluate the effectiveness of albendazole in the treatment of diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. ..
  44. Cho H, Lee Y, Shin S, Song H, Ahn M, Ryu J. Subconjuctival Loa loa with Calabar swelling. J Korean Med Sci. 2008;23:731-3 pubmed publisher
    ..She took ivermectin (200 microg/kg) as a single dose and suffered from a mild fever and chills for one day. This patient, to the best of our knowledge, is the first case of subconjunctival loiasis with Calabar swelling in Korea. ..
  45. Aitken D, Hay J, Kinnear F, Kirkness C, Lee W, Seal D. Amebic keratitis in a wearer of disposable contact lenses due to a mixed Vahlkampfia and Hartmannella infection. Ophthalmology. 1996;103:485-94 pubmed
    ..Vahlkampfia and Hartmannella, two other genera of free-living ameba, were isolated, however, using prolonged culture...
  46. Sherman M, Holland G, Holsclaw D, Weisz J, Omar O, Sherman R. Delusions of ocular parasitosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998;125:852-6 pubmed
    ..The cases presented in this report are consistent with a diagnosis of delusions of parasitosis. The eye can be a principal focus of attention in this disorder, which may lead to vision loss caused by self-inflicted injury. ..
  47. Theng J, Chan C, Ling M, Tan D. Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis in a healthy contact lens wearer without human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ophthalmology. 2001;108:976-8 pubmed
    ..Microsporidial keratoconjunctivitis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a contact lens wearer with atypical multifocal diffuse epithelial keratitis. ..
  48. Fenoy S, Ollero M, Guillen J, del Aguila C. Animal models in ocular toxocariasis. J Helminthol. 2001;75:119-24 pubmed
    ..Later, granulomatous lesions are formed. These do not necessarily contain a larva and their appearance varies in different animal models. Local production of IgE and the presence of specific IgG have been described. ..
  49. Jethani J, Vijayalakshmi P, Kumar M. Atypical ophthalmological presentation of neurocysticercosis in two children. J AAPOS. 2007;11:495-6 pubmed
    ..We report an atypical presentation of neurocysticercosis in two patients, with chief complaints of vertical diplopia and nystagmus...
  50. Kubota T, Itoh M. Sparganosis associated with orbital myositis. Jpn J Ophthalmol. 2007;51:311-2 pubmed
  51. Guigon B, Trepsat C. [Intraocular cysticercosis: a difficult diagnosis]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2002;25:78-80 pubmed
    ..The eye evolved toward a very inflammatory phthisis, which led to evisceration. ..
  52. Bakunowicz Łazarczyk A, Antosiuk R, Wysocka J, Sulkowska M. [Selected parameters of cellular immunity in uveitis in children]. Klin Oczna. 2001;103:187-90 pubmed
    ..The results allow for the assumption that quantitative changes in the subpopulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes are more pronounced in parasitic uveitis. ..
  53. Jesús M, Isabel R. Indocyanine green angiography for the detection of subretinal nematodes in diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). Int Ophthalmol. 2004;25:295-7 pubmed
    ..Additional indocyanine green angiography was therefore perfomed. Indocyanine green angiography could be a useful tool for the detection of subretinal nematodes. ..
  54. Harissi Dagher M, Robillard N, Corriveau C, Mabon M, Allaire G. Histopathologically confirmed ocular rhinosporidiosis in two Canadians. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:226-9 pubmed
    ..Two cases of rhinosporidiosis have been recently diagnosed and managed at our university-based hospital...
  55. Schallenberg M, Gok M, Katsounas A, Mellin K, Steuhl K. [Keratitis caused by infection with Echinococcus granulosus]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 2007;224:213-5 pubmed
  56. Rothova A, De Boer J, Ten Dam van Loon N, Postma G, de Visser L, Zuurveen S, et al. Usefulness of aqueous humor analysis for the diagnosis of posterior uveitis. Ophthalmology. 2008;115:306-11 pubmed
    ..To assess the clinical usefulness of aqueous fluid analysis for the diagnosis and treatment of patients suspected of having infectious posterior uveitis (PU)...
  57. Madigubba S, Vishwanath K, Reddy G, Vemuganti G. Changing trends in ocular cysticercosis over two decades: an analysis of 118 surgically excised cysts. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2007;25:214-9 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the frequency of ocular cysticercosis and to demonstrate the changing trends in localisation of ocular cysticercosis along with a brief review of literature...
  58. Gomez L, Rueda T, Pulido C, Sanchez Roman J. [Ocular toxocariasis. A case report]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2008;83:49-52 pubmed
    ..The diagnosis is based on funduscopic aspects, serology and IgG positivity of the vitreous. In relation to treatment, as the use of anthelminthics therapy is controversial, the use of corticosteroids and vitrectomy is recommended. ..
  59. Dantas Torres F, Lia R, Barbuto M, Casiraghi M, Crovace A, Caligiani L, et al. Ocular dirofilariosis by Dirofilaria immitis in a dog: first case report from Europe. J Small Anim Pract. 2009;50:667-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Although other cases of ocular dirofilariosis by D. immitis have been previously recorded in Australia and the United States, the case reported herein is the first in a dog from Europe...
  60. Gunnarsson G, Hurlbut D, DeGirolami P, Federman M, Wanke C. Multiorgan microsporidiosis: report of five cases and review. Clin Infect Dis. 1995;21:37-44 pubmed
    ..Further investigation of the pathogenic tendencies and route of acquisition of these organisms and the therapeutic agents active against them is needed. ..
  61. Lewallen S, Harding S, Ajewole J, Schulenburg W, Molyneux M, Marsh K, et al. A review of the spectrum of clinical ocular fundus findings in P. falciparum malaria in African children with a proposed classification and grading system. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93:619-22 pubmed
    ..Photographs and descriptions of these are presented, along with a proposed grading scheme. ..
  62. Dissanaike A, Ihalamulla R, Naotunne T, Senarathna T, Withana D. Third report of ocular parastrongyliasis (angiostrongyliasis) from Sri Lanka. Parassitologia. 2001;43:95-7 pubmed
    ..This is the third authentic case of such an infection in Sri Lanka in recent years. ..
  63. Lau L, Lee F, Hsu W, Pampiglione S, Fioravanti M, Orihel T. Human subconjunctival infection of Macacanema formosana: the first case of human infection reported worldwide. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002;120:643-7 pubmed
  64. Betharia S, Sharma V, Pushker N. Ultrasound findings in orbital hydatid cysts. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003;135:568-70 pubmed
    ..However, we found that the double wall sign could be elicited ultrasonically in all cases of hydatid cyst, if looked for carefully, and the diagnosis could be confirmed. ..
  65. López García J, García Lozano I, Martínez Garchitorena J. [Phthiriasis palpebrarum: diagnosis and treatment]. Arch Soc Esp Oftalmol. 2003;78:365-74 pubmed
    ..We review the epidemiological, clinical and diagnostic features of phthriasis palpebrarum as well as the different treatment options to eradicate the parasite and to prevent infestations...
  66. Sodhi P, Ratan S, Nanda R, Malik K, Arora R, Kumar A. Mobile orbital Cysticercus cyst--an unusual presentation. Orbit. 2004;23:111-3 pubmed
  67. English F. Eyelid contamination as a cause of endophthalmitis. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2006;32:377-8 pubmed
  68. Kheirkhah A, Blanco G, Casas V, Tseng S. Fluorescein dye improves microscopic evaluation and counting of demodex in blepharitis with cylindrical dandruff. Cornea. 2007;26:697-700 pubmed
    ..To show whether fluorescein dye helps detect and count Demodex embedded in cylindrical dandruff (CD) of epilated eyelashes from patients with blepharitis...
  69. Gozum N, Kir N, Ovali T. Internal ophthalmomyiasis presenting as endophthalmitis associated with an intraocular foreign body. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging. 2003;34:472-4 pubmed
    ..Ophthalmomyiasis should be included in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and intraocular foreign bodies in patients from rural areas. ..
  70. Mohan K, Saroha V, Sharma A, Pandav S, Singh U. Extraocular muscle cysticercosis: clinical presentations and outcome of treatment. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2005;42:28-33 pubmed
    ..The direction of motility restriction does not indicate the muscle involved. Residual restriction of ocular motility is common despite the addition of corticosteroids to albendazole therapy. ..
  71. Malov V, Cheremnykh L, Gorbachenko A, Moiseenko A, Bertram L, Kniazeva E, et al. [A clinical case of dirofilariasis]. Klin Med (Mosk). 2005;83:69-72 pubmed
  72. Nicola F. [Non-viral infectious keratitis: predisposing factors, etiologic agents and laboratory diagnosis]. Rev Argent Microbiol. 2005;37:229-39 pubmed
  73. Muhammad G, Saqib M. Successful treatment of ocular equine microfilariasis (Setaria species) with ivermectin. Vet Rec. 2007;160:25-6 pubmed
  74. Aiello F, Palma S, Varesi C, Cerulli A, Valente R, Aiello L. A rare case report of Loa loa ocular filariasis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2010;20:237-9 pubmed
    ..We report a case of ocular worm treated surgically and confirmed by microbiological identification...
  75. Dorchies P, Larrouy G, Deconinck P, Chantal J. [Human external ophthalmomyiasis: a bibliographic review apropos of cases in the Republic of Djibouti]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 1995;88:86-9 pubmed
    ..Ophtalmomyiasis externa was observed in Djibouti Republic. A literature survey of agents indicates that sheep nasal bot fly larvae, Oestrus ovis, are frequent in many countries. Unusual case of oral or nasal infections are indicated. ..
  76. Tou N, Ibi K, Tawara A, Nakamura F, Hadeyama T. [A case of secondary retinal detachment caused by ocular toxocariasis]. Nippon Ganka Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;110:415-20 pubmed
    ..Ocular toxocariasis can cause bullous retinal detachment. To confirm the diagnosis, examination of the antibody titer of Toxocara canis in the subretinal fluid is useful. ..
  77. Noireau F, Apembet J, Nzoulani A, Carme B. Clinical manifestations of loiasis in an endemic area in the Congo. Trop Med Parasitol. 1990;41:37-9 pubmed
    ..9% of the adult population. The study of the life-time risk of eyeworm, also conducted in the Pygmy and Bantu populations of another village, was shown to be useful in epidemiological evaluations...
  78. Ashenhurst M, Pietucha S. Management of ophthalmomyiasis externa: case report. Can J Ophthalmol. 2004;39:285-7 pubmed
  79. Devoto M, Zaffaroni M. Orbital myiasis in a patient with a chronically exposed hydroxyapatite implant. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004;20:395-6 pubmed
    ..The patient was able to wear a prosthesis 2 weeks later. The parasites were identified as belonging to Cochliomyia hominivorax, a fly responsible for the majority of cases of myiasis in the Western hemisphere...
  80. Kaliaperumal S, Rao V, Parija S. Cysticercosis of the eye in South India--a case series. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2005;23:227-30 pubmed
    ..To study the clinical presentation and treatment outcome of patients with ocular cysticercosis in southern India...
  81. Weinand F, Bauer C. [Ophthalmomyiasis externa acquired in Germany: case report and review of the literature]. Ophthalmologica. 2001;215:383-6 pubmed
    ..Local therapy was not applied. Infestation with larvae of O. ovis has to be considered not only in tourists from Mediterranean countries, but also in Germany in the late summer. ..
  82. Pinto R, dos Santos L, Tortelly R, Menezes R, de Moraes W, Juvenal J, et al. Pathology and first report of natural infections of the eye trematode Philophthalmus lachrymosus Braun, 1902 (Digenea, Philophthalmidae) in a non-human mammalian host. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2005;100:579-83 pubmed
    ..1766 with P. lachrymosus and associated pathology. Clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions as well as new morphometric data on the parasite are presented. ..
  83. Gao Y, Di Pascuale M, Elizondo A, Tseng S. Clinical treatment of ocular demodecosis by lid scrub with tea tree oil. Cornea. 2007;26:136-43 pubmed
    ..Lid scrub with TTO can effectively eradicate ocular Demodex and result in subjective and objective improvements. This preliminary positive result warrants future prospective investigation of Demodex pathogenicity. ..
  84. Manning S. Ocular examination in the diagnosis of angiostrongylosis in dogs. Vet Rec. 2007;160:625-7 pubmed
  85. Hayashi E, Akao N, Fujita K. Evidence for the involvement of the optic nerve as a migration route for larvae in ocular toxocariasis of Mongolian gerbils. J Helminthol. 2003;77:311-5 pubmed
  86. Fogla R, Padmanabhan P, Therese K, Biswas J, Madhavan H. Chronic microsporidial stromal keratitis in an immunocompetent, non-contact lens wearer. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2005;53:123-5 pubmed
    ..Electron microscopy of the keratoplasty specimen demonstrated sporoblasts with diplokaryotic nuclei and multiple coils of the filament. The light and electron microscopic features were consistent with microsporidial keratitis. ..
  87. Ozcelik S, Sumer Z, Degerli S, Ozyazici G, Hayta S, Akyol M, et al. [The incidence of Demodex folliculorum in patients with chronic kidney deficiency]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2007;31:66-8 pubmed
    ..05). Consequently, it was concluded that Demodex folliculorum may be a cause of eye disorders such as blepharitis, and this parasite can be frequently observed in persons with immune system anomalies. ..
  88. Bajaj M, Pushker N. Optic nerve cysticercosis. Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 2002;30:140-3 pubmed
    ..A positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test for cysticercosis further confirmed the diagnosis. Medical therapy in the form of oral albendazole and steroids resulted in complete resolution of the cyst, with few visual sequelae. ..
  89. Lamothe Argumedo R, Diaz Camacho S, Nawa Y. The first human case in Mexico of conjunctivitis caused by the avian parasite, Philophthalmus lacrimosus. J Parasitol. 2003;89:183-5 pubmed
    ..The parasite was identified morphologically as Philophthalmus lacrimosus Braun, 1902. This is the first case of human philophthalmosis in Mexico and, to our knowledge, the first human case of P. lacrimosus infection in the world. ..
  90. Yin K, Liu Y. [Morphological observation on the eggs and larvae of Thelazia callipaeda from human eye]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2005;23:145, 181 pubmed
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    ..In the course of prolonged observation of patients treated many times with albendazole (Zentel, Smith Kline and Beecham GB) no improvement of vision and no regression of late and irreversible ocular pathology were noted. ..
  92. Jamshidi A, Jamshidi M, Mobedi I, Khosroara M. Periocular dirofilariasis in a young woman: a case report. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:265-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The worm was diagnosed as, likelihood, Dirofilaria immitis on microscopic examinations. The present case suggests that D. immitis can cause periocular infections...