rhinosporidiosis

Summary

Summary: Chronic, localized granulomatous infection of mucocutaneous tissues, especially the NOSE, and characterized by HYPERPLASIA and the development of POLYPS. It is found in humans and other animals and is caused by the mesomycetozoean organism RHINOSPORIDIUM SEEBERI.

Top Publications

  1. Makannavar J, Chavan S. Rhinosporidiosis--a clinicopathological study of 34 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2001;44:17-21 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis was the commonest (68%) fungal lesion encountered during the period of 11 1/2 years from January 1987 to July 1998. Men in 2nd, 3rd, 4th decade were commonly affected...
  2. Sudarshan V, Goel N, Gahine R, Krishnani C. Rhinosporidiosis in Raipur, Chhattisgarh: a report of 462 cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:718-21 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is endemic in the state of Chhattisgarh. 462 cases were encountered during the period of 12 years from January 1994 to December 2005. Maximum incidence was seen in men in the age group of 21-30 years...
  3. Hussein M, Rashad U. Rhinosporidiosis in Egypt: a case report and review of literature. Mycopathologia. 2005;159:205-7 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is an infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi that frequently presents as a polypoidal nasal lesions. Here, we report the first indigenous case of tumoral rhinosporidiosis in Egypt...
  4. Burgess H, Lockerbie B, Czerwinski S, Scott M. Equine laryngeal rhinosporidiosis in western Canada. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2012;24:777-80 pubmed publisher
    ..The mass was surgically excised and was diagnosed histologically as rhinosporidiosis. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequencing were used to confirm the etiological agent...
  5. Echejoh G, Manasseh A, Tanko M, Ogala Echejoh S, Silas O, Nimkur T, et al. Nasal rhinosporidiosis. J Natl Med Assoc. 2008;100:713-5 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a rare chronic granulomatous infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It affects mainly the mucosa of the nose, nasopharynx, palate, conjunctiva and the urethra...
  6. Ahluwalia K. Culture of the organism that causes rhinosporidiosis. J Laryngol Otol. 1999;113:523-8 pubmed
    The causative agent of rhinosporidiosis is a microscopic round body in polypoidal masses that is believed to be the sporangium of a fungus Rhinosporidium seeberi. But fungal aetiology can not be proved with certainty...
  7. Arseculeratne S. Rhinosporidiosis: what is the cause?. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2005;18:113-8 pubmed
    Significant advances in knowledge on rhinosporidiosis and Rhinosporidium seeberi were made in 1999, 2000, 2003 and 2004...
  8. Silva V, Pereira C, Ajello L, Mendoza L. Molecular evidence for multiple host-specific strains in the genus Rhinosporidium. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:1865-8 pubmed
    ..8S, and ITS2 from eight humans, two swans, and a dog with rhinosporidiosis were sequenced. The ITS regions were amplified by PCR using a primer designed from a unique region of R...
  9. de Silva N, Huegel H, Atapattu D, Arseculeratne S, Kumarasiri R, Gunawardena S, et al. Cell-mediated immune responses (CMIR) in human rhinosporidiosis. Mycopathologia. 2001;152:59-68 pubmed
    Cell mediated immune responses (CMIR) to Rhinosporidium seeberi in human patients with rhinosporidiosis have been studied. With immuno-histochemistry, the cell infiltration patterns in rhinosporidial tissues from 7 patients were similar...

More Information

Publications79

  1. Dhaulakhandi D, Ahluwalia K, Ravi A, Garg L. Detection of 16S rRNA gene in round bodies isolated from polyps of rhinosporidiosis. Infect Genet Evol. 2006;6:331-6 pubmed
    Polyps of rhinosporidiosis contain microscopic round bodies, believed to be causative agents of the disease. The source and identity of these round bodies has been debated ever since the first case was described in the year 1900...
  2. Nollet H, Vercauteren G, Martens A, Vanschandevijl K, Schauvliege S, Gasthuys F, et al. Laryngeal rhinosporidiosis in a Belgian warmblood horse. Zoonoses Public Health. 2008;55:274-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, laryngeal rhinosporidiosis is extremely rare since this localisation is only described in four human cases.
  3. Salazar Campos M, Surka J, Garcia Jardon M, Bustamante N. Ocular rhinosporidiosis. S Afr Med J. 2005;95:950, 952 pubmed
  4. Bhomaj S, Das J, Chaudhuri Z, Bansal R, Sharma P. Rhinosporidiosis and peripheral keratitis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers. 2001;32:338-40 pubmed
    ..presenting with peripheral keratitis and progressive nasal obstruction that revealed spores suggestive of rhinosporidiosis. The patient was started on topical amphotericin B 0.15% eye drops...
  5. Mithal C, Agarwal P, Mithal N. Ocular and adnexal rhinosporidiosis : the clinical profile and treatment outcomes in a tertiary eye care centre. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2012;4:45-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis may mimic a burst chalazion or a simple conjunctival polyp.
  6. Arseculeratne S, Panabokke R, Atapattu D. Lymphadenitis, trans-epidermal elimination and unusual histopathology in human rhinosporidiosis. Mycopathologia. 2002;153:57-69 pubmed
    ..Histopathological evidence of lymphadenitis in rhinosporidiosis is presented for the first time...
  7. Deshpande A, Agarwal S, Kelkar A. Primary cutaneous rhinosporidiosis diagnosed on FNAC: a case report with review of literature. Diagn Cytopathol. 2009;37:125-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary cutaneous lesion is extremely rare. We report the fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) of rhinosporidiosis occurring as a primary cutaneous lesion...
  8. Hanchanale V, Rao A, Joseph G. Images in clinical urology. A case of urethral rhinosporidiosis. Urology. 2005;66:1106-7 pubmed
  9. Chowdhury R, Behera S, Bhuyan D, Das G. Oculosporidiosis in a tertiary care hospital of western Orissa, India: a case series. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2007;55:299-301 pubmed
    ..Although this is an endemic area for such infestation, unilateral manifestation observed in all cases is interesting to note. Low recurrence rate in limited follow-up period could be due to early detection and standard management...
  10. Pe er J, Gnessin H, Levinger S, Averbukh E, Levy Y, Polacheck I. Conjunctival oculosporidiosis in east Africa caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1996;120:854-8 pubmed
    Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis is an infectious disease rarely recorded outside the Indian subcontinent. The disease is caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an endosporulating microorganism of uncertain taxonomic classification...
  11. Gigase P, Kestelyn P. Further African cases of rhinosporidiosis. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1993;73:149-52 pubmed
    Thirteen African cases of rhinosporidiosis are reported from Burundi, Rwanda, Tanzania, Chad and Zaire...
  12. Pathak D, Neelaiah S. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis: diagnosis by fine needle aspiration cytology. Acta Cytol. 2006;50:111-2 pubmed
  13. Mandal S, Bhakta A, Mandal A, Biswas B. Giant mass conjunctival rhinosporidiosis causing severe mechanical ectropion. J Indian Med Assoc. 2012;110:328-9 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a granulomatous disease of the mucous membrane caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an organism of uncertain taxonomic position, most probably a fungus...
  14. Kennedy F, Buggage R, Ajello L. Rhinosporidiosis: a description of an unprecedented outbreak in captive swans (Cygnus spp.) and a proposal for revision of the ontogenic nomenclature of Rhinosporidium seeberi. J Med Vet Mycol. 1995;33:157-65 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a mucocutaneous zooanthroponotic disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, a fungal-like organism of uncertain classification with an unknown mode of transmission...
  15. John S, Mohandas S. Conjunctival oculosporidiosis with scleral thinning and staphyloma formation. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2005;53:272-4 pubmed
  16. Ahluwalia K. New interpretations in rhinosporidiosis, enigmatic disease of the last nine decades. J Submicrosc Cytol Pathol. 1992;24:109-14 pubmed
    Fungal etiology is widely quoted for the disease rhinosporidiosis. Identity of the fungal sporangium and its relationship with the disease have baffled medical scientists and mycologists for several decades...
  17. Harissi Dagher M, Robillard N, Corriveau C, Mabon M, Allaire G. Histopathologically confirmed ocular rhinosporidiosis in two Canadians. Can J Ophthalmol. 2006;41:226-9 pubmed
    In India and Southeast Asia, rhinosporidiosis is a common infectious disease, but it has rarely been reported in western countries...
  18. Kumari R, Laxmisha C, Thappa D. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis. Dermatol Online J. 2005;11:19 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disorder caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It frequently involves the nasopharynx and occasionally affects the skin...
  19. Jacob P, Rose J, Hoshing A, Chacko G. Tectonic corneal graft for conjunctival rhinosporidiosis with scleral melt. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2011;59:251-3 pubmed publisher
    ..of the conjunctiva showed subepithelial spherules of sporangia containing numerous endospores, suggestive of rhinosporidiosis. Diathermy was applied to flatten the staphyloma. The ectatic area was covered with a corneal patch graft...
  20. Nayak S, Acharjya B, Devi B, Sahoo A, Singh N. Disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:185-7 pubmed
    ..Fine needle aspiration cytology and histopathology of the cutaneous lesion confirmed the diagnosis as rhinosporidiosis. We report this rare case of disseminated cutaneous rhinosporidiosis.
  21. Rekha P, Thomas B, Pappachan J, Venugopal K, Jayakumar T, Sukumaran P. Tracheal rhinosporidiosis. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006;132:718-9 pubmed
  22. Ghosh A, De Sarkar A, Bhaduri G, Datta A, Das A, Bandyopadhyay A. Ocular rhinosporidiosis. J Indian Med Assoc. 2004;102:732, 764 pubmed
    Rhinosporidium seeberi, the causative organism causing rhinosporidiosis, also affects extranasal sites. A 1 5-year-old male presented with a conjunctival fleshy swelling near the inner canthus of the left eye...
  23. Vallarelli A, Rosa S, Souza E. Rhinosporidiosis: cutaneous manifestation. An Bras Dermatol. 2011;86:795-6 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is an infectious mucocutaneous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi...
  24. Nair S, Hannah P. Rhinosporidiosis of vagina: a case report. J Trop Med Hyg. 1987;90:329 pubmed
    This is a case report of a 60 year old woman with Rhinosporidiosis of vagina. The female genital tract is an extremely rare site for Rhinosporidiosis. The exact mode of transmission is not known.
  25. Sood N, Agarwal M, Gugnani H. Ocular rhinosporidiosis: a case report from Delhi. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2012;6:825-7 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis caused by Rhinosporidium seeberii, a protistal microorganism, is endemic in several parts of India. Infection involves mucous membranes of the nose and paranasal sinuses and usually manifests as vascular friable polyps...
  26. van der Coer J, Marres H, Wielinga E, Wong Alcalá L. Rhinosporidiosis in Europe. J Laryngol Otol. 1992;106:440-3 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is an inflammatory disease of the nasal mucosa caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. The disease is endemic in India but very rare in Europe or other continents...
  27. Fredricks D, Jolley J, Lepp P, Kosek J, Relman D. Rhinosporidium seeberi: a human pathogen from a novel group of aquatic protistan parasites. Emerg Infect Dis. 2000;6:273-82 pubmed
    ..seeberi phylogeny recently suggested by another group. R. seeberi is not a classic fungus, but rather the first known human pathogen from the DRIPs clade, a novel clade of aquatic protistan parasites (Ichthyosporea)...
  28. Arseculeratne S, Sumathipala S, Eriyagama N. Patterns of rhinosporidiosis in Sri Lanka: comparison with international data. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2010;41:175-91 pubmed
    One hundred forty-three cases of rhinosporidiosis, confirmed by smear or biopsy, treated in two major General Hospitals in Sri Lanka over a 14 year period (1995-2009) were analyzed in regard to their epidemiological, clinical, ..
  29. Gori S, Scasso A. Cytologic and differential diagnosis of rhinosporidiosis. Acta Cytol. 1994;38:361-6 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a mycotic infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. The fungus occurs in tissues as spherules measuring 0.25-3 mm. The spherules contain endospores...
  30. Leeming G, Hetzel U, Campbell T, Kipar A. Equine rhinosporidiosis: an exotic disease in the UK. Vet Rec. 2007;160:552-4 pubmed
  31. Arseculeratne S, Atapattu D, Balasooriya P, Fernando R. The effects of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) on the endospores of Rhinosporidium seeberi. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:85-91 pubmed
    ..data exists on the activity of biocides (antiseptics and disinfectants) on Rhinosporidium seeberi that causes rhinosporidiosis in humans and animals. On account of the inability to culture R...
  32. Uledi S, Fauzia A. Human nasal rhinosporidiosis: a case report from Malawi. Pan Afr Med J. 2011;9:27 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a rare chronic granulomatous disease, characterised by polypous lesions of the mucous membrane. Commonly affects the mucous membrane of the naso-pharynx, conjunctiva and palate...
  33. Mallick A, Majhi T, Pal D. Rhinosporidiosis affecting multiple parts of the body. Trop Doct. 2012;42:174-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a rare chronic granulomatous condition caused by a fungus (Rhinosporidium seeberi). It has been seen mainly in southern India, Sri Lanka and Pakistan...
  34. Nath A, Madana J, Yolmo D, D SOUZA M. Disseminated rhinosporidiosis with unusual involvement of the nail apparatus. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2009;34:e886-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is an uncommon chronic granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It primarily affects the nasal mucosa and the nasopharynx...
  35. Ondzotto G. [Intranasal rhinosporidiosis: presentation of the 1st case seen in the Congo]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2002;95:78-80 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis, granulomatosis affection due to Rhinosporidium seeberi, is rare in Africa...
  36. Reidy J, Sudesh S, Klafter A, Olivia C. Infection of the conjunctiva by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Surv Ophthalmol. 1997;41:409-13 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is an unusual fungal disease that rarely affects the eye. It was first described as a pathogen in humans at the turn of the century...
  37. Lavaju P, Arya S, Kumar B, Upadhaya P. Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis presenting as a cystic mass-an unusual presentation. Nepal J Ophthalmol. 2010;2:157-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is endemic in India and Sri Lanka and parts of East Africa and South America. Cases of ocular rhinosporidiosis have also been reported from Nepal...
  38. Saha Ray M, Datta A, Sarkar P. Rhinosporidiosis of lacrimal sac: a rare case report from North East India. Indian J Med Sci. 2011;65:40-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis usually affects the mucous membrane of nose and conjunctiva, less frequently lacrimal sac, urethra, and skin...
  39. Mathew J, Padhy S, Lata S, Balachander H, Gopalakrishnan S. Case report: telelaryngoscopy-guided flexible fiberoptic intubation for laryngeal rhinosporidiosis. Anesth Analg. 2010;110:1066-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease endemic in India and Sri Lanka. The causative microorganism, Rhinosporidium seeberi, remains a poorly understood pathogen, which has been described as an aquatic protistan parasite...
  40. Janardhanan J, Patole S, Varghese L, Rupa V, Tirkey A, Varghese G. Elusive treatment for human rhinosporidiosis. Int J Infect Dis. 2016;48:3-4 pubmed publisher
    ..study was to clarify the contentious taxonomic classification of Rhinosporidium seeberi, the cause of human rhinosporidiosis, which may have treatment implications...
  41. Capoor M, Khanna G, Rajni -, Batra K, Nair D, Venkatchalam V, et al. Rhinosporidiosis in Delhi, north India: case series from a non-endemic area and mini-review. Mycopathologia. 2009;168:89-94 pubmed publisher
    We report three cases of rhinosporidiosis from migrant population of Delhi. Three male patients had sino-nasopharyngeal, nasopharyngeal and nasal rhinosporidiosis, respectively. One patient gave a history of bathing in stagnant water...
  42. Ghorpade A, Gurumurthy J, Banerjee P, Banerjee A, Bhalla M, Ravindranath M. Oculosporidiosis presenting as an under-eye swelling. Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol. 2007;73:196-7 pubmed
  43. Jaiswal V, Kumar M, Gupta S, Kherdekar M, Mahore M. Cytodiagnosis of rhinosporidiosis. J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;95:71-2 pubmed
    Two clinically suspected cases of nasal rhinosporidiosis were studied cytologically using a wipe out technique...
  44. Sivapathasundharam B, Saraswathi T, Manjunath K, Sriram G. Rhinosporidiosis of parotid duct. Indian J Dent Res. 2009;20:388-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a benign chronic granulomatous infection caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Rhinosporidiosis is endemic in south Asia, notably in southern India and Sri Lanka...
  45. Ukety T, Kaimbo K, Nelson A, Moussa G, Parys Van Ginderdeuren R, Vandepitte J. Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis. Report of three cases from Zaire. Ann Soc Belg Med Trop. 1992;72:219-23 pubmed
    The authors report three cases of conjunctival rhinosporidiosis from Zaire, two of which are believed to be the first documented in the northeastern part of the country. All patients were males...
  46. Wilke E, Ardiles T, Carlson R. A case of coccidioidal fungemia initially diagnosed as rhinosporidiosis. Heart Lung. 2005;34:217-21 pubmed
  47. Pushker N, Kashyap S, Bajaj M, Meel R, Sood A, Sharma S, et al. Primary lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis with grossly dilated sac and nasolacrimal duct. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg. 2009;25:234-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic infection of the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract...
  48. Ghorpade A. Rhinosporidiosis: gigantic cells with engulfed sporangia of Rhinosporidium seeberi in the case of dermosporidiosis. Int J Dermatol. 2008;47:694-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis in an Indian male with a tumorous skin lesion is reported...
  49. Brenseke B, Saunders G. Concurrent nasal adenocarcinoma and rhinosporidiosis in a cat. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2010;22:155-7 pubmed
    ..On histologic examination, the mass was a nasal adenocarcinoma, and the polyps were composed of hyperplastic nasal epithelium and submucosal stroma that contained sporangia consistent with Rhinosporidium seeberi...
  50. Qureshi F, Abdulmannan M, Eltayeb A, Qadri S, Al Qahtani H, Gabr A. Rhinosporidiosis of the male urethra. Ann Saudi Med. 2004;24:299-300 pubmed
  51. Batsakis J, El Naggar A. Rhinoscleroma and rhinosporidiosis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1992;101:879-82 pubmed
    For North American otolaryngologists, rhinoscleroma and rhinosporidiosis are moving more into the differential diagnosis of chronic inflammatory diseases of the upper airway, particularly the nasal cavity...
  52. Krishnamoorthy S, Sreedharan V, Koshy P, Kumar S, Anilakumari C. Culture of Rhinosporidium seeberi: preliminary report. J Laryngol Otol. 1989;103:178-80 pubmed
    ..Twenty-five swabs were collected from patients suffering from Rhinosporidiosis and cultured in standard media. Positive results were obtained in 23 cases...
  53. Angunawela P, De Tissera A, Dissanaike A. Rhinosporidiosis presenting with two soft tissue tumors followed by dissemination. Pathology. 1999;31:57-8 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Most mycologists believe that R. seeberi is either a Chytridium related to the Olpidiaceae (order Chytridialis, class Chytridiomycetes) or a Synchytrium...
  54. Das S, Kashyap B, Barua M, Gupta N, Saha R, Vaid L, et al. Nasal rhinosporidiosis in humans: new interpretations and a review of the literature of this enigmatic disease. Med Mycol. 2011;49:311-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi which primarily affects the mucosa of the nose, conjunctiva and urethra...
  55. Ghorpade A. Polymorphic cutaneous rhinosporidiosis. Eur J Dermatol. 2006;16:190-2 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous condition caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi primarily affecting the mucosa of the nose, eyes and sinuses. The patients usually present with nasal symptoms and skin involvement is uncommon [1-3]...
  56. Kumar B, Osmani M, Mudhar H. Rhinosporidiosis: an unusual presentation. Int Ophthalmol. 2005;26:243-5 pubmed
  57. Lupi O, Tyring S, McGinnis M. Tropical dermatology: fungal tropical diseases. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2005;53:931-51, quiz 952-4 pubmed
    ..b>Rhinosporidiosis was classed as a fungal infection but is now considered a protistan parasite that belongs to the class ..
  58. Kumar S, Mathew J, Cherian V, Rozario R, Kurien M. Laryngeal rhinosporidiosis: report of a rare case. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:568, 570 pubmed
    Extranasal manifestations of rhinosporidiosis are relatively uncommon. Laryngeal involvement is extremely rare, as only 3 cases have been previously reported...
  59. Green P. Exotic fungal infection in a horse. Vet Rec. 2007;160:812 pubmed
  60. Parthasarathi R, Sen S, Khan M. Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003;101:667-8, 670 pubmed
    Conjunctival rhinosporidiosis is usually a surprise diagnosis in histological section of an excised conjunctival mass. The condition is rarely encountered outside the endemic coastal areas of South India...
  61. Mendoza L, Herr R, Arseculeratne S, Ajello L. In vitro studies on the mechanisms of endospore release by Rhinosporidium seeberi. Mycopathologia. 1999;148:9-15 pubmed
    ..This study strongly supports a recent finding that placed R. seeberi with organisms in the protoctistan Mesomycetozoa clade...
  62. Atapattu D, Arseculeratne S, Rajapakse R, Perera N, Eriyagama N. Purification of the endospores and sporangia of Rhinosporidium seeberi on Percoll columns. Mycopathologia. 1999;145:113-9 pubmed
    ..Percoll columns were shown to be capable of isolating these stages of R. seeberi, free from human tissue and contaminating bacteria...
  63. Maslin J, Morand J, Camparo P. [Zygomycoses and blastomycoses]. Med Trop (Mars). 2003;63:23-7 pubmed
  64. Kini U, Amirtham U, Shetty S, Balasubramanya A. Rhinosporidiosis of the parotid duct cyst: cytomorphological diagnosis of an unusual extranasal presentation. Diagn Cytopathol. 2001;25:244-7 pubmed
    This cytology report highlights a case of rhinosporidiosis of the parotid duct cyst not associated with nasal manifestations...
  65. Azizi M. Photoclinic. Rhinosporidiosis. Arch Iran Med. 2006;9:81-2, 85 pubmed
  66. Madana J, Yolmo D, Gopalakrishnan S, Saxena S. Laryngotracheal rhinosporidiosis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2013;92:E27-30 pubmed
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic granulomatous disease caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi. It usually affects mucous membranes of the nose, nasopharynx, and ocular conjunctiva...
  67. Mukherjee B, Mohan A, Sumathi V, Biswas J. Infestation of the lacrimal sac by Rhinosporidium seeberi: a clinicopathological case report. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2013;61:588-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Clinical features, pathophysiology, and management of lacrimal sac rhinosporidiosis have been discussed.
  68. Pang K, Wu J, Huang D, Tyring S. Subcutaneous fungal infections. Dermatol Ther. 2004;17:523-31 pubmed
    ..They rarely disseminate or become systemic. Sporotrichosis, mycetoma, and chromoblastomycosis are more common subcutaneous mycoses than are rhinosporidiosis, zygomycosis, pheohyphomycosis, and lobomycosis.
  69. Herr R, Mendoza L, Arseculeratne S, Ajello L. Immunolocalization of an endogenous antigenic material of Rhinosporidium seeberi expressed only during mature sporangial development. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 1999;23:205-12 pubmed
    ..seeberi and tissue from Sri Lankan patients with rhinosporidiosis. The tissues were fixed in LR white resin, thin sectioned fixed onto nickel grids and evaluated by ..
  70. Almeida F, Feitoza L, Pinho J, Mello G, Lages J, Silva F, et al. Rhinosporidiosis: the largest case series in Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2016;49:473-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Rhinosporidiosis is a chronic infection of the mucous membrane and is caused by Rhinosporidium seeberi, an aquatic mesomycetozoan. The mode of infection is probably transepithelial penetration...