schistosomiasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.

Top Publications

  1. Wilson R. Virulence factors of schistosomes. Microbes Infect. 2012;14:1442-50 pubmed publisher
  2. Al Shamiri A, Al Taj M, Ahmed A. Prevalence and co-infections of schistosomiasis/hepatitis B and C viruses among school children in an endemic areas in Taiz, Yemen. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:404-8 pubmed publisher
    ..prevalence and its relationship with hepatitis B and C viruses among school children in five endemic areas by schistosomiasis. During June 2007 and March 2009, 1 484 school children aged between 5 - 16 years participated in the current ..
  3. Ndeffo Mbah M, Kjetland E, Atkins K, Poolman E, Orenstein E, Meyers L, et al. Cost-effectiveness of a community-based intervention for reducing the transmission of Schistosoma haematobium and HIV in Africa. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:7952-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, preventing schistosomiasis has the potential to reduce HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa...
  4. Anthony B, Ramm G, McManus D. Role of resident liver cells in the pathogenesis of schistosomiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:572-9 pubmed publisher
    Pathology in schistosomiasis occurs as a result of eggs deposited in the liver by the schistosome parasite. A granulomatous reaction occurs, resulting in portal hypertension and hepatic fibrosis...
  5. Fairfax K, Nascimento M, Huang S, Everts B, Pearce E. Th2 responses in schistosomiasis. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:863-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis is caused by infection with parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma...
  6. Secor W. The effects of schistosomiasis on HIV/AIDS infection, progression and transmission. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7:254-9 pubmed publisher
    The recent findings pertaining to the public health impact of schistosomiasis on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS are summarized.
  7. Logan S, Armstrong M, Moore E, Nebbia G, Jarvis J, Suvari M, et al. Acute schistosomiasis in travelers: 14 years' experience at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;88:1032-4 pubmed publisher
    We report 79 cases of acute schistosomiasis. Most of these cases were young, male travelers who acquired their infection in Lake Malawi...
  8. Thetiot Laurent S, Boissier J, Robert A, Meunier B. Schistosomiasis chemotherapy. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2013;52:7936-56 pubmed publisher
    After malaria, schistosomiasis (or bilharzia) is the second most prevalent disease in Africa, and is occurring in over 70 countries in tropical and subtropical regions...
  9. Cavalcanti M, Silva L, Peralta R, Barreto M, Peralta J. Schistosomiasis in areas of low endemicity: a new era in diagnosis. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:75-82 pubmed publisher
    Parasitological detection of Schistosoma is the cornerstone of schistosomiasis diagnosis in areas of transmission worldwide...

More Information

Publications66

  1. Wang W, Wang L, Liang Y. Susceptibility or resistance of praziquantel in human schistosomiasis: a review. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1871-7 pubmed publisher
    ..mansoni has been found in many foci. In addition, there are several schistosomiasis cases caused by Schistosoma haematobium infections in which repeated standard treatment fails to clear the ..
  2. Mwinzi P, Montgomery S, Owaga C, Mwanje M, Muok E, Ayisi J, et al. Integrated community-directed intervention for schistosomiasis and soil transmitted helminths in western Kenya - a pilot study. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:182 pubmed
    ..Although effective and safe drugs are available, ensuring access to these drugs by all those at risk of schistosomiasis and STHs is still a challenge...
  3. Koukounari A, Donnelly C, Moustaki I, Tukahebwa E, Kabatereine N, Wilson S, et al. A latent Markov modelling approach to the evaluation of circulating cathodic antigen strips for schistosomiasis diagnosis pre- and post-praziquantel treatment in Uganda. PLoS Comput Biol. 2013;9:e1003402 pubmed publisher
    Regular treatment with praziquantel (PZQ) is the strategy for human schistosomiasis control aiming to prevent morbidity in later life...
  4. Lee E, Young N, Lim N, Gasser R, Fairlie W. Apoptosis in schistosomes: toward novel targets for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Trends Parasitol. 2014;30:75-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis is one of the world's major neglected tropical diseases...
  5. Liu R, Dong H, Jiang M. The new national integrated strategy emphasizing infection sources control for schistosomiasis control in China has made remarkable achievements. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:1483-91 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis japonica remains one important public health concern that cause great loss of humans' health and social-economic development in the Peoples' Republic of China...
  6. Knopp S, Person B, Ame S, Mohammed K, Ali S, Khamis I, et al. Elimination of schistosomiasis transmission in Zanzibar: baseline findings before the onset of a randomized intervention trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2474 pubmed publisher
    Gaining and sustaining control of schistosomiasis and, whenever feasible, achieving local elimination are the year 2020 targets set by the World Health Organization...
  7. Wilson S, Dunne D. Advances in our understanding of the epidemiology of Plasmodium and schistosome infection: informing coinfection studies. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7:225-30 pubmed publisher
    ..Combined, these infections lead to difficulties in conducting and interpreting human coinfection studies...
  8. Ross A, Olveda R, Acosta L, Harn D, Chy D, Li Y, et al. Road to the elimination of schistosomiasis from Asia: the journey is far from over. Microbes Infect. 2013;15:858-65 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease with a very long endemic history in Asia...
  9. Ndeffo Mbah M, Poolman E, Atkins K, Orenstein E, Meyers L, Townsend J, et al. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2346 pubmed publisher
    ..We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999...
  10. Cheng G, Jin Y. MicroRNAs: potentially important regulators for schistosome development and therapeutic targets against schistosomiasis. Parasitology. 2012;139:669-79 pubmed publisher
    ..We also summarize the current status for targeting miRNAs and the potential of this approach for therapy against schistosomiasis.
  11. Gomes L, Enk M, Rabello A. Diagnosing schistosomiasis: where are we?. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2014;47:3-11 pubmed publisher
    In light of the World Health Organization's initiative to extend schistosomiasis morbidity and mortality control programs by including a disease elimination strategy in low endemic settings, this paper reviews diagnostic tools described ..
  12. Chammartin F, Hürlimann E, Raso G, N Goran E, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P. Statistical methodological issues in mapping historical schistosomiasis survey data. Acta Trop. 2013;128:345-52 pubmed publisher
    For schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases for which resources for control are still limited, model-based maps are needed for prioritising spatial targeting of control interventions and surveillance of control programmes...
  13. Schur N, Vounatsou P, Utzinger J. Determining treatment needs at different spatial scales using geostatistical model-based risk estimates of schistosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1773 pubmed publisher
    After many years of neglect, schistosomiasis control is going to scale...
  14. Zhang Z, Zhu R, Ward M, Xu W, Zhang L, Guo J, et al. Long-term impact of the World Bank Loan Project for schistosomiasis control: a comparison of the spatial distribution of schistosomiasis risk in China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1620 pubmed publisher
    The World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for controlling schistosomiasis in China was implemented during 1992-2001...
  15. Hu Y, Zhang Z, Chen Y, Wang Z, Gao J, Tao B, et al. Spatial pattern of schistosomiasis in Xingzi, Jiangxi Province, China: the effects of environmental factors. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:214 pubmed publisher
    The recent rebounds of schistosomiasis in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River pose a challenge to the current control strategies...
  16. Elmadhoun W, Msmar A, Elnoby O, Noor S, Suliman A, Bushara S. Situation analysis of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthes in River Nile State, Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2013;107:195-9 pubmed publisher
    Infection with schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthes (SSTH) constitutes a major health problem worldwide, yet the burden of disease is in the tropical countries...
  17. Asarnow D, Singh R. Segmenting the etiological agent of schistosomiasis for high-content screening. IEEE Trans Med Imaging. 2013;32:1007-18 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease with a global health impact second only to malaria. The World Health Organization has classified schistosomiasis as an illness for which new therapies are urgently needed...
  18. Kabatereine N, Standley C, Sousa Figueiredo J, Fleming F, Stothard J, Talisuna A, et al. Integrated prevalence mapping of schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthiasis and malaria in lakeside and island communities in Lake Victoria, Uganda. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:232 pubmed publisher
    ..Despite extensive literature on the distribution of schistosomiasis on the mainland in Uganda, there has been a knowledge gap for the prevalence of co-infections with malaria, ..
  19. Liang X, Yuan J. Effect of Chinese herbal compound on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis by B-ultrasound. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2013;6:658-62 pubmed publisher
    ..the value of B-ultrasound on the evaluation of the effects of traditional Chinese medicine compound of Radix astragali, Salvia miltiorrhiza and Angelica sinensis, and TCM + praziquantel on liver fibrosis in rabbits with schistosomiasis.
  20. Abou Zeid A, Abkar T, Mohamed R. Schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminths among an adult population in a war affected area, Southern Kordofan state, Sudan. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:133 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis remains a major health problem at global and national levels, contributing to the vulnerability of the poor people in Sudan. Southern Kordofan is affected by Schistosomiasis but the disease prevalence was unknown.
  21. Ouf E, Ojurongbe O, Akindele A, Sina Agbaje O, Van Tong H, Adeyeba A, et al. Ficolin-2 levels and FCN2 genetic polymorphisms as a susceptibility factor in schistosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:562-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Human ficolin-2 (L-ficolins) encoded by the FCN2 gene are pattern-recognition proteins involved in innate immunity and are associated with several infectious diseases...
  22. Keiser J, Utzinger J. Antimalarials in the treatment of schistosomiasis. Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18:3531-8 pubmed
    ..patient management and community-based morbidity control, the treatment, control, and eventual elimination of schistosomiasis is vulnerable should resistance to praziquantel emerge and spread...
  23. Hao W, Wang X, Yi W, Gao Y. [Analysis of lesions in 498 schistosomiasis patients]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:428, 432 pubmed
    To explore the characteristics of pathological diagnosis in schistosomiasis endemic areas.
  24. Lee H, Moody Davis A, Saha U, Suzuki B, Asarnow D, Chen S, et al. Quantification and clustering of phenotypic screening data using time-series analysis for chemotherapy of schistosomiasis. BMC Genomics. 2012;13 Suppl 1:S4 pubmed publisher
    ..Development of techniques for automated, high-throughput drug screening against these diseases, especially in whole-organism settings, constitutes one of the great challenges of modern drug discovery...
  25. Li S, Zheng H, Gao J, Zhang L, Zhu R, Xu J, et al. [Endemic status of schistosomiasis in People's Republic of China in 2012]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:557-63 pubmed
    This report showed the endemic status of schistosomiasis in P. R. China at national level in 2012. By the end of 2012, the total number of schistosomiasis japonica cases were estimated to be 240597, with a decrease of 16...
  26. van Dam G, de Dood C, Lewis M, Deelder A, van Lieshout L, Tanke H, et al. A robust dry reagent lateral flow assay for diagnosis of active schistosomiasis by detection of Schistosoma circulating anodic antigen. Exp Parasitol. 2013;135:274-82 pubmed publisher
  27. Stothard J, Sousa Figueiredo J, Navaratnam A. Advocacy, policies and practicalities of preventive chemotherapy campaigns for African children with schistosomiasis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013;11:733-52 pubmed publisher
    Preventive chemotherapy campaigns against schistosomiasis have progressively scaled-up during the last decade, administering single standard dose praziquantel (40 mg/kg) treatments to millions of African children...
  28. Sady H, Al Mekhlafi H, Mahdy M, Lim Y, Mahmud R, Surin J. Prevalence and associated factors of Schistosomiasis among children in Yemen: implications for an effective control programme. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2377 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis, one of the most prevalent neglected tropical diseases, is a life-threatening public health problem in Yemen especially in rural communities...
  29. Huang L, Qiu Y, Hua H, Niu X, Wu P, Wu H, et al. The efficacy and safety of entecavir in patients with advanced schistosomiasis co-infected with hepatitis B virus. Int J Infect Dis. 2013;17:e606-9 pubmed publisher
    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of entecavir (ETV) in patients with advanced schistosomiasis and hepatitis B virus (HBV) co-infection.
  30. Colley D, Bustinduy A, Secor W, King C. Human schistosomiasis. Lancet. 2014;383:2253-64 pubmed publisher
    Human schistosomiasis--or bilharzia--is a parasitic disease caused by trematode flukes of the genus Schistosoma. By conservative estimates, at least 230 million people worldwide are infected with Schistosoma spp...
  31. Ekpo U, Oluwole A, Abe E, Etta H, Olamiju F, Mafiana C. Schistosomiasis in infants and pre-school-aged children in sub-Saharan Africa: implication for control. Parasitology. 2012;139:835-41 pubmed publisher
    Until recently, the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis in sub-Saharan Africa have focused primarily on infections in school-aged children and to a lesser extent on adults...
  32. Gong Z, Luo Q, Lin L, Su Y, Peng H, Du K, et al. Association of MICA gene polymorphisms with liver fibrosis in schistosomiasis patients in the Dongting Lake region. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2012;45:222-9 pubmed
    ..priming (PCR-SSP) and sequencing-based typing (SBT) were applied for high-resolution allele typing of schistosomiasis cases (N = 103, age range = 36.2-80...
  33. Kinkel H, Dittrich S, Bäumer B, Weitzel T. Evaluation of eight serological tests for diagnosis of imported schistosomiasis. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:948-53 pubmed publisher
    The diagnosis of schistosomiasis in individuals from countries where the disease is not endemic is challenging, and few data are available on the accuracy of serological diagnosis in those patients...
  34. Zhang Z, Zhu R, Bergquist R, Chen D, Chen Y, Zhang L, et al. Spatial comparison of areas at risk for schistosomiasis in the hilly and mountainous regions in the People's Republic of China: evaluation of the long-term effect of the 10-year World Bank Loan Project. Geospat Health. 2012;6:205-14 pubmed
    ..effectiveness of the mainly chemotherapy-based control strategy of the World Bank Loan Project (WBLP) for schistosomiasis control in Chinese hilly and mountainous regions was evaluated with a view to determine the best road forward...
  35. Pérez Del Villar L, Burguillo F, Lopez Aban J, Muro A. Systematic review and meta-analysis of artemisinin based therapies for the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e45867 pubmed publisher
    Chemotherapy based on repeated doses of praziquantel is still the most effective control strategy against Schistosomiasis, however artemisinin derivatives emerged as a family of compounds with schistomicide activity...
  36. Li S, Qian Y, Yang K, Wang Q, Zhang H, Liu J, et al. Successful outcome of an integrated strategy for the reduction of schistosomiasis transmission in an endemically complex area. Geospat Health. 2012;6:215-20 pubmed
    b>Schistosomiasis is one of the major public health problems in the People's Republic of China (and elsewhere), seriously threatening health as well as social and economic development...
  37. Stothard J, Sousa Figueiredo J, Betson M, Bustinduy A, Reinhard Rupp J. Schistosomiasis in African infants and preschool children: let them now be treated!. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:197-205 pubmed publisher
    The occurrence of schistosomiasis within African infants and preschool children has been much better documented in recent years, revealing an important burden of disease previously overlooked...
  38. Sadhu P, Kumar S, Chandrasekharam M, Pica Mattoccia L, Cioli D, Rao V. Synthesis of new praziquantel analogues: potential candidates for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2012;22:1103-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Tetrahydro-?-carboline analogues showed moderate activity whereas the presence of p-trifluoromethylbenzoyl and p-toluenesulphonyl moieties resulted in complete suppression of antischistosomal activity...
  39. Knopp S, Becker S, Ingram K, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Diagnosis and treatment of schistosomiasis in children in the era of intensified control. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2013;11:1237-58 pubmed publisher
    In the current era of intensified and integrated control against schistosomiasis and other neglected tropical diseases, there is a need to carefully rethink and take into consideration disease-specific issues pertaining to the diagnosis, ..
  40. Bergquist R. Closing in on 'perhaps the most dreadful of the remaining plagues': an independent view of the multidisciplinary alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control in Africa. Acta Trop. 2013;128:179-81 pubmed publisher
    The 4-year (2006-2010) alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa (CONTRAST), funded by the European Commission, stands out as a 'game-changer' by successfully harnessing and ..
  41. Rollinson D, Knopp S, Levitz S, Stothard J, Tchuem Tchuenté L, Garba A, et al. Time to set the agenda for schistosomiasis elimination. Acta Trop. 2013;128:423-40 pubmed publisher
    It is time to raise global awareness to the possibility of schistosomiasis elimination and to support endemic countries in their quest to determine the most appropriate approaches to eliminate this persistent and debilitating disease...
  42. Yang K, Sun L, Huang Y, Yang G, Wu F, Hang D, et al. A real-time platform for monitoring schistosomiasis transmission supported by Google Earth and a web-based geographical information system. Geospat Health. 2012;6:195-203 pubmed
    A basic framework for the rapid assessment of the risk for schistosomiasis was developed by combining spatial data from Google Earth® with a geographical information system (GIS) package, bundling the modules together with an Internet ..
  43. Hodges M, Soares Magalhaes R, Paye J, Koroma J, Sonnie M, Clements A, et al. Combined spatial prediction of schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Sierra Leone: a tool for integrated disease control. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1694 pubmed publisher
    ..mansoni and soil-transmitted helminths, the national control programme was able to plan the MDA strategies according to the World Health Organization guidelines for preventive chemotherapy for these diseases...
  44. Rudge J, Webster J, Lu D, Wang T, Fang G, Basanez M. Identifying host species driving transmission of schistosomiasis japonica, a multihost parasite system, in China. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:11457-62 pubmed publisher
    ..In China, despite decades of multifaceted control efforts against schistosomiasis, the indirectly transmitted helminth Schistosoma japonicum remains endemic, partly because of the presence of ..
  45. van Hellemond J, Vonk A, de Vogel C, Koelewijn R, Vaessen N, Fahal A, et al. Association of eumycetoma and schistosomiasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2241 pubmed publisher
    ..Since chronic schistosomiasis results in a strong Th2-type response and since endemic areas for eumycetoma and schistosomiasis do ..
  46. Coulibaly J, N Gbesso Y, N Guessan N, Winkler M, Utzinger J, N Goran E. Epidemiology of schistosomiasis in two high-risk communities of south Cote d'Ivoire with particular emphasis on pre-school-aged children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013;89:32-41 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis control efforts mainly target school-aged children. We studied the epidemiology of schistosomiasis in two high-risk communities in south Côte d'Ivoire, placing particular emphasis on pre-school-aged children...
  47. Omedo M, Matey E, Awiti A, Ogutu M, Alaii J, Karanja D, et al. Community health workers' experiences and perspectives on mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control in western Kenya: the SCORE Project. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;87:1065-72 pubmed publisher
    Abstract. The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) includes communitywide treatment in areas with ? 25% prevalence of schistosomiasis along the shores of Lake Victoria using community health workers (..
  48. Larkin B, Smith P, Ponichtera H, Shainheit M, Rutitzky L, Stadecker M. Induction and regulation of pathogenic Th17 cell responses in schistosomiasis. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:873-88 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis is a major tropical disease caused by trematode helminths in which the host mounts a pathogenic immune response against tissue-trapped parasite eggs...
  49. Mazigo H, Nuwaha F, Kinung hi S, Morona D, Pinot de Moira A, Wilson S, et al. Epidemiology and control of human schistosomiasis in Tanzania. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:274 pubmed publisher
    In Tanzania, the first cases of schistosomiasis were reported in the early 19th century. Since then, various studies have reported prevalences of up to 100% in some areas...
  50. Bourke C, Nausch N, Rujeni N, Appleby L, Mitchell K, Midzi N, et al. Integrated analysis of innate, Th1, Th2, Th17, and regulatory cytokines identifies changes in immune polarisation following treatment of human schistosomiasis. J Infect Dis. 2013;208:159-69 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis elicits cross-regulatory immune responses, but it is unclear how antihelminthic treatment affects this balance...
  51. Gryseels B. Schistosomiasis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012;26:383-97 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis is a tropical parasitic disease, caused by blood-dwelling worms of the genus Schistosoma...
  52. Woodhall D, Wiegand R, Wellman M, Matey E, Abudho B, Karanja D, et al. Use of geospatial modeling to predict Schistosoma mansoni prevalence in Nyanza Province, Kenya. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e71635 pubmed publisher
    b>Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease that affects over 200 million people, can lead to significant morbidity and mortality; distribution of single dose preventative chemotherapy significantly reduces disease burden...
  53. Gray D, Thrift A, Williams G, Zheng F, Li Y, Guo J, et al. Five-year longitudinal assessment of the downstream impact on schistosomiasis transmission following closure of the Three Gorges Dam. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1588 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on ecological, environmental, population genetic and molecular factors, schistosomiasis transmission in PRC can be categorised into four discrete ecosystems or transmission modes...
  54. Sousa Figueiredo J, Gamboa D, Pedro J, Fançony C, Langa A, Magalhães R, et al. Epidemiology of malaria, schistosomiasis, geohelminths, anemia and malnutrition in the context of a demographic surveillance system in northern Angola. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e33189 pubmed publisher
    Malaria, schistosomiasis and geohelminth infection are linked to maternal and child morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa...
  55. Yang G, Sun L, Hong Q, Zhu H, Yang K, Gao Q, et al. Optimizing molluscicide treatment strategies in different control stages of schistosomiasis in the People's Republic of China. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:260 pubmed publisher
    The application of chemical molluscicides is still one of the most effective measures for schistosomiasis control in P. R. China...
  56. Wichmann D, Poppert S, von Thien H, Clerinx J, Dieckmann S, Jensenius M, et al. Prospective European-wide multicentre study on a blood based real-time PCR for the diagnosis of acute schistosomiasis. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:55 pubmed publisher
    Acute schistosomiasis constitutes a rare but serious condition in individuals experiencing their first prepatent Schistosoma infection. To circumvent costly and time-consuming diagnostics, an early and rapid diagnosis is required...
  57. Hürlimann E, Schur N, Boutsika K, Stensgaard A, Laserna de Himpsl M, Ziegelbauer K, et al. Toward an open-access global database for mapping, control, and surveillance of neglected tropical diseases. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1404 pubmed publisher
    ..We describe the steps taken toward the development of such a database that can be employed for spatial disease risk modeling and control of NTDs...