clonorchiasis

Summary

Summary: Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)

Top Publications

  1. Cho S, Lee K, Lee B, Cho P, Cheun H, Hong S, et al. Prevalence of clonorchiasis in southern endemic areas of Korea in 2006. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:133-7 pubmed publisher
    This study was performed to investigate prevalence of clonorchiasis among the inhabitants living in villages along the 4 major rivers, Nakdong-gang (=river), Seomjin-gang, Youngsan-gang, and Guem-gang in southern Korea...
  2. Jeong Y, Kang H, Kim J, Yoon W, Chung T, Ko S. MR imaging findings of clonorchiasis. Korean J Radiol. 2004;5:25-30 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the MR spectrum and MR cholangiographic imaging findings of clonorchiasis. We reviewed 26 patients with confirmed clonorchiasis by either stool tests (n=24) or surgery (n=2)...
  3. Hong S, Lee S, Lee S, Kho W, Lee M, Li S, et al. Sustained-release praziquantel tablet: pharmacokinetics and the treatment of clonorchiasis in beagle dogs. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:316-20 pubmed
    ..The SRP tablet showed sustained release and slow absorption; and it had an improved anthelmintic efficacy against Clonorchis sinensis in experimental dogs, compared with conventional praziquantel. ..
  4. Ju J, Joo H, Lee M, Cho S, Cheun H, Kim J, et al. Identification of a serodiagnostic antigen, legumain, by immunoproteomic analysis of excretory-secretory products of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms. Proteomics. 2009;9:3066-78 pubmed publisher
    Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is the causative agent of clonorchiasis as well as liver and biliary diseases. The excretory-secretory products (ESPs) of the parasites play important roles in host-parasite interactions...
  5. Choi D, Jeon Y, Lee G, Choi M, Hong S. Changes in sonographic findings after treatment of patients with clonorchiasis in a heavy endemic area. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:19-23 pubmed publisher
    We measured changes in sonographic findings of patients with clonorchiasis after a treatment in a highly endemic area...
  6. Chen D, Chen J, Huang J, Chen X, Feng D, Liang B, et al. Epidemiological investigation of Clonorchis sinensis infection in freshwater fishes in the Pearl River Delta. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:835-9 pubmed publisher
    Pearl River Delta region is a high clonorchiasis-endemic area in China. However, no complete epidemiological data exist regarding its infection in freshwater fishes, an important epidemic factor for Clonorchis sinensis...
  7. Hong S, Yoon K, Lee M, Seo M, Choi M, Sim J, et al. Control of clonorchiasis by repeated praziquantel treatment and low diagnostic efficacy of sonography. Korean J Parasitol. 1998;36:249-54 pubmed
    ..The present study tried to control clonorchiasis in an endemic village by repeated treatments with praziquantel every 6 months and to evaluate sonography as a ..
  8. Ju Y, Oh J, Kong H, Sohn W, Kim J, Jung K, et al. [Epidemiologic study of Clonorchis sinensis infestation in a rural area of Kyongsangnam-do, South Korea]. J Prev Med Public Health. 2005;38:425-30 pubmed
    ..sinensis in the study subjects. It is necessary to establish consistent medical management and education programs for the treatment and prevention of C. sinensis infestation in the rural inhabitants of Korea. ..
  9. Wu W, Qian X, Huang Y, Hong Q. A review of the control of clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis in China. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1879-84 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonorchiasis sinensis and Taenia solium taeniasis/cysticercosis are major foodborne parasitoses. Clonorchiasis sinensis is actively transmitted in some areas of China, Korea, Russia, Vietnam, etc...

More Information

Publications88

  1. Kim B, Yeon J, Ock M. Infection rates of Enterobius vermicularis and Clonorchis sinensis of primary school children in Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do (province), Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2001;39:323-5 pubmed
    ..vermicularis. In the case of C. sinensis, health education for school children is recommended to prevent potential infection of adolescents. ..
  2. Hong S, Choi M, Kim C, Chung B, Ji Z. The Kato-Katz method is reliable for diagnosis of Clonorchis sinensis infection. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2003;47:345-7 pubmed
    ..methods, the Kato-Katz (KK) method, formalin-ether technique (FE) and direct smear, for the diagnosis of clonorchiasis. The KK method proved to be most sensitive in six groups with different egg counts...
  3. Rana S, Bhasin D, Nanda M, Singh K. Parasitic infestations of the biliary tract. Curr Gastroenterol Rep. 2007;9:156-64 pubmed
    ..gigantica, is a zoonotic helminthiasis that can present as acute hepatic or chronic biliary tract infection. CT, MRI, and ultrasound guidance are useful imaging tools for identifying these parasites and their complications...
  4. Lee M, Chung Y, Lee S, Chung B, Li S, Choi M, et al. The identification of a Clonorchis sinensis gene encoding an antigenic egg protein. Parasitol Res. 2005;95:224-6 pubmed
    The cDNA library of Clonorchis sinensis was screened for genes encoding antigenic proteins by using sera from clonorchiasis patients...
  5. Wang J, Chung L, Lee J, Chang E, Chen E, Chao D, et al. Haplorchis infections in intermediate hosts from a clonorchiasis endemic area in Meinung, Taiwan, Republic of China. J Helminthol. 2002;76:185-8 pubmed
    ..pumilio. Reasons for the prevalence of Haplorchis species and the absence of Clonorchis sinensis in fish and snail hosts in a previously reported endemic area for human clonorchiasis are discussed.
  6. Liang C, Hu X, Lv Z, Wu Z, Yu X, Xu J, et al. [Experimental establishment of life cycle of Clonorchis sinensis]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27:148-50 pubmed
    ..To establish and maintain the life cycle of Clonorchis sinensis in laboratory...
  7. Huang S, Zhao G, Fu B, Xu M, Wang C, Wu S, et al. Genomics and molecular genetics of Clonorchis sinensis: current status and perspectives. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:71-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonorchiasis caused by Clonorchis sinensis is an important foodborne parasitosis of humans and animals, and is predominantly a hepatobiliary disease. Globally, nearly 35 million people were infected with C...
  8. Chen W, Wang X, Li X, Lv X, Zhou C, Deng C, et al. Molecular characterization of cathepsin B from Clonorchis sinensis excretory/secretory products and assessment of its potential for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:149 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to identify a cathepsin B of Clonorchis sinensis (CsCB) and to investigate its diagnostic value for human helminthiases...
  9. Huang Y, Li W, Huang L, Hu Y, Chen W, Wang X, et al. Identification and characterization of myophilin-like protein: a life stage and tissue-specific antigen of Clonorchis sinensis. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:1143-50 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonorchiasis, caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection, has been an important public health problem in China. More messages about biology and pathogenicity of C...
  10. Fan P. Viability of metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in frozen or salted freshwater fish. Int J Parasitol. 1998;28:603-5 pubmed
    ..that freezing or storing infected freshwater fish in heavy salt may not be effective in the prevention of clonorchiasis. However, it appears that refrigeration, or keeping the fish in salt for longer periods, may be suitable for ..
  11. Li Y, Hu X, Liu X, Xu J, Hu F, Ma C, et al. Molecular cloning and analysis of stage and tissue-specific expression of Cathepsin L-like protease from Clonorchis sinensis. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:447-52 pubmed publisher
    ..involve in invasion of cercaria into fish and development to metacercaria, excystment of metacercaria, and protein digestion of adult, which may render it a candidate antigen for fish vaccine and serodiagnosis of human clonorchiasis.
  12. Tan S, Qiu X, Yu H, Zeng X, Zhao Y, Hu L. [Evaluation of the risk of clonorchiasis inducing primary hepatocellular carcinoma]. Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi. 2008;16:114-6 pubmed
    To explore the relationship between clonorchiasis and primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and analyze the synergistic actions of HBV infection, alcohol consumption and clonorchiasis on HCC development.
  13. Le T, van De N, Blair D, Sithithaworn P, McManus D. Clonorchis sinensis and Opisthorchis viverrini: development of a mitochondrial-based multiplex PCR for their identification and discrimination. Exp Parasitol. 2006;112:109-14 pubmed
    ..PCR approach described here proved to be a species-specific, sensitive and fast tool for accurate diagnosis of clonorchiasis and/or opisthorchiasis, permitting the detection of their metacercariae in infected fishes or adult/eggs from ..
  14. Dang T, Yajima A, Nguyen V, Montresor A. Prevalence, intensity and risk factors for clonorchiasis and possible use of questionnaires to detect individuals at risk in northern Vietnam. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1263-8 pubmed publisher
    ..sinensis infection and the cumulative quantity of freshwater fish consumed in a lifetime and suggest that simple questionnaires could be used in endemic areas to quickly identify populations at risk and enable targeted treatment. ..
  15. Shen C, Kim J, Lee J, Bae Y, Choi M, Oh J, et al. Collection of Clonorchis sinensis adult worms from infected humans after praziquantel treatment. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45:149-52 pubmed
    ..The adult worms of C. sinensis may be paralyzed by praziquantel and then discharged passively through bile flow in the bile duct and by peristaltic movement of the bowel...
  16. Lee G, Cho I, Lee Y, Noh H, Shin D, Lee S, et al. Epidemiological study of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis along the Geum-gang (River) in Okcheon-gun (county), Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2002;40:9-16 pubmed
    The endemic status of clonorchiasis and metagonimiasis along the Geum-gang (River) in Okcheon-gun (County) in Korea was examined. From February to December 2000, stools of total 1,081 inhabitants living in 5 villages were examined...
  17. Xue Ming L, Ying Dan C, Yi O, Hong Man Z, Rui L, Weil M. Overview of human clonorchiasis sinensis in China. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2011;42:248-54 pubmed
    ..A higher prevalence was observed in those with a better education and a higher income. Consumption of raw (or under-cooked) fresh water fish or shrimp were the main risk factors responsible for transmission of the parasite...
  18. Stunell H, Buckley O, Geoghegan T, Torreggiani W. Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis due to chronic infestation with Clonorchis sinensis (2006: 8b). Eur Radiol. 2006;16:2612-4 pubmed
  19. Choi M, Ge T, Yuan S, Hong S. Correlation of egg counts of Clonorchis sinensis by three methods of fecal examination. Korean J Parasitol. 2005;43:115-7 pubmed
    ..Its diagnostic sensitivity was found very high for clonorchiasis. The present study evaluated the correlation of Clonorchis sinensis egg counts by the KK method with those by ..
  20. Kim H, Han J, Kim M, Cho K, Shin I, Kim G, et al. Prevalence of clonorchiasis in patients with gastrointestinal disease: a Korean nationwide multicenter survey. World J Gastroenterol. 2009;15:86-94 pubmed
    ..To investigate prevalence of Clonorchis sinensis in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms, and the relation of the infection to hepatobiliary diseases in 26 hospitals in Korea...
  21. Nontasut P, Thong T, Waikagul J, Anantaphruti M, Fungladda W, Imamee N, et al. Social and behavioral factors associated with Clonorchis infection in one commune located in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2003;34:269-73 pubmed
    ..There was no significant difference between the infection rate of clonorchiasis, education level, and family income groups (p > 0.05)...
  22. Park J, Guk S, Kim T, Shin E, Lin A, Park J, et al. Clonorchis sinensis metacercarial infection in the pond smelt Hypomesus olidus and the minnow Zacco platypus collected from the Soyang and Daechung Lakes. Korean J Parasitol. 2004;42:41-4 pubmed
    ..The pond smelts and minnows collected from the Soyang and Daechung Lakes were verified to be the second intermediate hosts and the sources of human C. sinensis infection...
  23. Kim E, Verweij J, Jalili A, van Lieshout L, Choi M, Bae Y, et al. Detection of Clonorchis sinensis in stool samples using real-time PCR. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:513-8 pubmed publisher
    Human clonorchiasis, caused by infection with the trematode Clonorchis sinensis, is a common health problem in East Asia...
  24. Chung B, Lee J, Choi M, Park M, Choi D, Hong S. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of cytokine genes are associated with fibrosis of the intrahepatic bile duct wall in human clonorchiasis. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:145-51 pubmed publisher
    ..examined the association of cytokine gene polymorphisms with intrahepatic bile duct wall fibrosis in human clonorchiasis. A total of 240 residents in Heilongjiang, China underwent ultrasonography, blood sampling, and stool ..
  25. Nagano I, Pei F, Wu Z, Wu J, Cui H, Boonmars T, et al. Molecular expression of a cysteine proteinase of Clonorchis sinensis and its application to an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for immunodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2004;11:411-6 pubmed
    ..assay (ELISA) using serum samples from humans infected with different parasites, including 50 patients with clonorchiasis, and negative controls. The sensitivities of the ELISA with the recombinant antigen and C...
  26. Hong S, Fang Y. Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis, an update. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:17-24 pubmed publisher
    ..Imaging diagnosis has been studied in depth and is widely used. Any evidence of clonorchiasis, such as eggs, DNAs, or images, may lead to recommendations of chemotherapy in endemic areas...
  27. Rim H. Clonorchiasis: an update. J Helminthol. 2005;79:269-81 pubmed
    ..b>Clonorchiasis occurs in all parts of the world where there are Asian immigrants from endemic areas...
  28. Lee T, Lee S, Jung S, Jeon S, Yun S, Oh H, et al. Hepatitis B virus infection and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma in Korea: a case-control study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1716-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Several studies have suggested that hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may play a role in the development of ICC, whereas the role of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is less clear...
  29. Traub R, Macaranas J, Mungthin M, Leelayoova S, Cribb T, Murrell K, et al. A new PCR-based approach indicates the range of Clonorchis sinensis now extends to Central Thailand. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e367 pubmed publisher
    ..This extends the known range of this liver fluke in Southeast Asia. The PCR developed herein provides an important tool for the specific identification of liver and intestinal fluke species for future epidemiological surveys...
  30. Liu W, Liu J, Zhang J, Long X, Lei J, Li Y. Comparison of ancient and modern Clonorchis sinensis based on ITS1 and ITS2 sequences. Acta Trop. 2007;101:91-4 pubmed
    ..The ITS1 sequence obtained differed from all modern ones available to date. This might indicate sequence divergence through time, or might reflect a sequence polymorphism that may eventually be found also in modern samples...
  31. Shen C, Choi M, Bae Y, Yu G, Wang S, Hong S. A case of anaphylactic reaction to praziquantel treatment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:603-5 pubmed
    A 35-year-old Chinese man was administered praziquantel for clonorchiasis, and 30 minutes later he experienced a sudden onset of itching urticaria over his entire body with dyspnea, palpitation, and dizziness...
  32. Lai D, Wang Q, Chen W, Cai L, Wu Z, Zhu X, et al. Molecular genetic profiles among individual Clonorchis sinensis adults collected from cats in two geographic regions of China revealed by RAPD and MGE-PCR methods. Acta Trop. 2008;107:213-6 pubmed publisher
    Clonorchis sinensis causes the important food-borne zoonosis, clonorchiasis, which is endemic in East Asia, especially in China mainly in Guangdong, Guangxi and Heilongjiang provinces and Korea...
  33. Zhang X, Jin Z, Da R, Dong Y, Song W, Chen X, et al. Fas/FasL-dependent apoptosis of hepatocytes induced in rat and patients with Clonorchis sinensis infection. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:393-9 pubmed publisher
    ..sinensis infection were examined. The typical histopathological findings of clonorchiasis were observed in rats 4 to 12 weeks postinfection, and majority hepatocytes exhibited hydropic degeneration, ..
  34. Yajima A, Cong D, Trung D, Cam T, Montresor A. Cost comparison of rapid questionnaire screening for individuals at risk of clonorchiasis in low- and high-prevalence communities in northern Vietnam. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:447-51 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonorchiasis is an emerging food-borne trematode infection in Vietnam. Due to the absence of cost-effective preventive measures its control largely relies on morbidity reduction by chemotherapy with praziquantel...
  35. Marcos L, Terashima A, Gotuzzo E. Update on hepatobiliary flukes: fascioliasis, opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:523-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The present review focuses on current knowledge of clinical, diagnostic and treatment aspects caused by hepatobiliary flukes that can be applied to current protocols in endemic areas...
  36. Shin H, Oh J, Masuyer E, Curado M, Bouvard V, Fang Y, et al. Epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma: an update focusing on risk factors. Cancer Sci. 2010;101:579-85 pubmed publisher
    ..Although progress on cholangiocarcinoma prevention and treatment has been steady, more studies related to classification and risk factors will be helpful to develop an advanced strategy to cure and prevent cholangiocarcinoma...
  37. Qian M, Chen Y, Fang Y, Xu L, Zhu T, Tan T, et al. Disability weight of Clonorchis sinensis infection: captured from community study and model simulation. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1377 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonorchiasis is among the most neglected tropical diseases. It is caused by ingesting raw or undercooked fish or shrimp containing the larval of Clonorchis sinensis and mainly endemic in Southeast Asia including China, Korea and Vietnam...
  38. Choi D, Lim J, Lee K, Lee J, Choi S, Heo J, et al. Gallstones and Clonorchis sinensis infection: a hospital-based case-control study in Korea. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2008;23:e399-404 pubmed
    ..The authors conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of Clonorchis sinensis infection as a risk factor for the development of gallstones in Korea...
  39. Wang X, Chen W, Huang Y, Sun J, Men J, Liu H, et al. The draft genome of the carcinogenic human liver fluke Clonorchis sinensis. Genome Biol. 2011;12:R107 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental and epidemiological studies have shown a strong association between the incidence of cholangiocarcinoma and the infection rate of C. sinensis. To aid research into this organism, we have sequenced its genome...
  40. Choi D, Hong S. Imaging diagnosis of clonorchiasis. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45:77-85 pubmed
    Among several diagnostic tools for clonorchiasis (Clonorchis sinensis infection), radiologic examinations are commonly used in clinical practices...
  41. Ma C, Hu X, Hu F, Li Y, Chen X, Zhou Z, et al. Molecular characterization and serodiagnosis analysis of a novel lysophospholipase from Clonorchis sinensis. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:419-25 pubmed
    ..were evaluated with immunoglobulin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using serum samples from 20 patients with clonorchiasis and 20 patients with schistosomiasis...
  42. Lun Z, Gasser R, Lai D, Li A, Zhu X, Yu X, et al. Clonorchiasis: a key foodborne zoonosis in China. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:31-41 pubmed
    ..human beings and other piscivorous mammals, and causes substantial clinical or subclinical disease, known as clonorchiasis. There is considerable evidence for an aetiological relation between clonorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma in ..
  43. Joo K, Lee M, Yun T, Choo Y, Lee J, Jo Y, et al. [Diagnostic usefulness of intradermal test for clonorchiasis in patients with pancreatobiliary diseases]. Korean J Gastroenterol. 2003;42:232-6 pubmed
    The diagnosis of clonorchiasis is based on demonstrating eggs in stool or bile. It is believed that bile examination is the most precise method for detecting eggs...
  44. Parvathi A, Sanath Kumar H, Kenchanna Prakasha B, Lu J, Xu X, Hu W, et al. Clonorchis sinensis: development and evaluation of a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Exp Parasitol. 2007;115:291-5 pubmed
    ..The novel PCR method described here will be useful for the quarantine of fishery products and evaluation of transmission status of clonorchiasis in the endemic areas.
  45. Shin H, Oh J, Lim M, Shin A, Kong H, Jung K, et al. Descriptive epidemiology of cholangiocarcinoma and clonorchiasis in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1011-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2-9.8). Approximately 10% of cholangiocarcinomas in Korea were caused by chronic C. sinensis infections. More specific policies, including health education and an extensive effort for early detection in endemic areas, are needed...
  46. Zhou Z, Xia H, Hu X, Huang Y, Li Y, Li L, et al. Oral administration of a Bacillus subtilis spore-based vaccine expressing Clonorchis sinensis tegumental protein 22.3 kDa confers protection against Clonorchis sinensis. Vaccine. 2008;26:1817-25 pubmed publisher
    Human clonorchiasis, caused by the infection of Clonorchis sinensis, is endemic in China. In this study, a full-length cDNA sequence encoding C. sinensis tegumental protein 22.3 kDa (CsTP22.3) was identified from adult cDNA library...
  47. Rahman S, Bae Y, Hong S, Choi M. Early detection and estimation of infection burden by real-time PCR in rats experimentally infected with Clonorchis sinensis. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:297-303 pubmed publisher
    ..Fecal real-time PCR provides a potential tool for the diagnosis of clonorchiosis before eggs can be detected by conventional methods, and may be used to estimate the worm burden in the host...
  48. Choi M, Park I, Li S, Hong S. Excretory-secretory antigen is better than crude antigen for the serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis by ELISA. Korean J Parasitol. 2003;41:35-9 pubmed
    Although stool examination is the standard diagnostic method of clonorchiasis, serodiagnosis by ELISA using crude antigen is now widely used because of its convenience...
  49. Kim B, Ock M, Kim I, Yeo U. Infection status of Clonorchis sinensis in residents of Hamyang-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2002;40:191-3 pubmed
    ..This study suggests that periodic examination, treatment as well as education of residents should be continued and systematized...
  50. Choi M, Chang B, Lee S, Jang I, Shin S, Kho W, et al. Therapeutic evaluation of sustained-releasing praziquantel (SRP) for clonorchiasis: phase 1 and 2 clinical studies. Korean J Parasitol. 2006;44:361-6 pubmed
    Sustained-releasing praziquantel (SRP) tablet was designed for single dose treatment regimen of clonorchiasis. A previous pre-clinical study confirmed its sustained-releasing characteristics and a better cure rate than conventional ..
  51. Kim E, Kim J, Choi S, Kim J, Kim S, Choi M, et al. Infection status of freshwater fish with metacercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:247-51 pubmed publisher
    ..herzi, are able to be the index fish for estimation of C. sinensis transmission in a certain locality. Still several species of freshwater fish are briskly transmitting C. sinensis infection in many riverside areas of southern Korea...
  52. Lv X, Chen W, Wang X, Li X, Sun J, Deng C, et al. Molecular characterization and expression of a cysteine protease from Clonorchis sinensis and its application for serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:2211-9 pubmed publisher
    ..96%) and specificity (70.42%). These results revealed that CsCP may play an important role in the biology of C. sinensis and could be a diagnostic candidate for clonorchiasis.
  53. Lim J, Mairiang E, Ahn G. Biliary parasitic diseases including clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis and fascioliasis. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33:157-65 pubmed
    ..In the biliary phase, the flukes are demonstrated in the intra- and extrahepatic bile ducts and the gallbladder as small intraluminal flat objects, sometimes moving spontaneously. Bile ducts are dilated...
  54. Choi B, Kim H, Han M, Do Y, Han M, Lee S. CT findings of clonorchiasis. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989;152:281-4 pubmed
    b>Clonorchiasis is a snail-transmitted trematodiasis caused by Chinese liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Forty-two patients with the disease were examined with CT...
  55. Kang S, Sultana T, Loktev V, Wongratanacheewin S, Sohn W, Eom K, et al. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of nuclear rDNA sequences among three opisthorchid liver fluke species (Opisthorchiidae: Trematoda). Parasitol Int. 2008;57:191-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data are insufficient for discriminating between sudden cladogenesis and other potential causes of poor resolution. Further information from independent loci might help resolve this phylogeny...
  56. Choi M, Park S, Li Z, Ji Z, Yu G, Feng Z, et al. Effect of control strategies on prevalence, incidence and re-infection of clonorchiasis in endemic areas of China. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e601 pubmed publisher
    A pilot clonorchiasis control project was implemented to evaluate the efficacies of various chemotherapy strategies on prevalence, incidence and re-infection in Heilongjiang Province, China.
  57. Sithithaworn P, Andrews R, Nguyen V, Wongsaroj T, Sinuon M, Odermatt P, et al. The current status of opisthorchiasis and clonorchiasis in the Mekong Basin. Parasitol Int. 2012;61:10-6 pubmed publisher
    ..A more concerted effort from all community, educational, public health and government sectors is necessary to successfully combat this fatal liver disease of the poor...
  58. Kim Y. Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma associated with clonorchiasis: CT evaluation. Abdom Imaging. 2003;28:68-71 pubmed
    I evaluated the computed tomographic (CT) features of nine pathologically proven cases of cholangiocarcinoma in the extrahepatic bile duct associated with clonorchiasis.
  59. Lim J. Liver flukes: the malady neglected. Korean J Radiol. 2011;12:269-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Considering the impact of this food-borne malady on public health and the severe possible clinical consequences, liver fluke infection should not be forgotten or neglected...
  60. Kim C, Lee J, Chung B, Li S, Choi M, Hong S. Influencing factors for cure of clonorchiasis by praziquantel therapy: infection burden and CYP3A5 gene polymorphism. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49:45-9 pubmed publisher
    Chemotherapy of clonorchiasis with praziquantel (PZQ) is effective but about 15% of treated cases have been reported uncured...
  61. Liu L, Harinasuta K. Liver and intestinal flukes. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 1996;25:627-36 pubmed
    ..Zoonotic trematode infections include the sheep liver fluke F. hepatica and the intestinal flukes Fasciolopsis, Echinostoma, Heterophyes, and Metagonimus...
  62. Kim D, Kim J, Moon J, Kim K, Kim T, Hong S, et al. Transcriptional induction of minichromosome maintenance protein 7 (Mcm7) in human cholangiocarcinoma cells treated with Clonorchis sinensis excretory-secretory products. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2010;173:10-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Clonorchiasis is an infection associated with bile duct malignancy and subsequent development of cholangiocarcinoma. This disease is mainly caused by Clonorchis sinensis worms and their excretory-secretory products (ESP)...
  63. Choi B, Han J, Hong S, Lee K. Clonorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma: etiologic relationship and imaging diagnosis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2004;17:540-52, table of contents pubmed
    Despite a gradual decrease in prevalence, clonorchiasis is still prevalent in East Asia. A large and compelling body of evidence links clonorchiasis and cholangiocarcinoma, although the mechanisms involved are not completely understood...
  64. Wang X, Liang C, Chen W, Fan Y, Hu X, Xu J, et al. Experimental model in rats for study on transmission dynamics and evaluation of Clonorchis sinensis infection immunologically, morphologically, and pathologically. Parasitol Res. 2009;106:15-21 pubmed publisher
    ..sinensis was frequency-dependent and dose-related. Humoral immunity played a prevalent role in resisting to C . sinensis based on the rat models. C . sinensis infection played an undoubted role in biliary and hepatic diseases...
  65. Choi M, Choi D, Choi M, Ji Z, Li Z, Cho S, et al. Correlation between sonographic findings and infection intensity in clonorchiasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:1139-44 pubmed
    ..Total 1,384 residents were subjected to this study at an endemic area in China, in which a clonorchiasis control program had been performed. History taking, fecal examination, and sonography were performed, and 87...
  66. Joo K, Bang S. A bile based study of Clonorchis sinensis infections in patients with biliary tract diseases in Ulsan, Korea. Yonsei Med J. 2005;46:794-8 pubmed
    ..However, it has limited value for diagnosing clonorchiasis when the biliary tract is obstructed or when there is a light infection...
  67. Jang K, Hong S, Lee K, Lee J, Choi S, Heo J, et al. Intraductal papillary neoplasm of the bile duct associated with Clonorchis sinensis infection. Virchows Arch. 2008;453:589-98 pubmed publisher
    ..The predominant immuno-phenotype of IPNB cases with Clonorchiasis was pancreatobiliary type (MUC1+/MUC2-/CDX2-; 9/12 cases), while that of IPNB cases with negative for C...
  68. Lai C, Chin C, Chung H, Liu H, Hwang J, Lin H. Clonorchiasis-associated perforated eosinophilic cholecystitis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:396-8 pubmed
    b>Clonorchiasis, a disease caused by infection with Clonorchis sinensis, is endemic in the Far East. Cholelithiasis, pyogenic cholangitis, cholecystitis, and biliary tract obstruction are common complications of chronic infection...
  69. Choi D, Lim J, Lee K, Lee J, Choi S, Heo J, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma and Clonorchis sinensis infection: a case-control study in Korea. J Hepatol. 2006;44:1066-73 pubmed
    ..The authors conducted a hospital-based case-control study to evaluate the role of Clonorchis sinensis infection as a risk factor for the development of cholangiocarcinoma (CC), including extrahepatic CC, in Korea...
  70. Lee J, Kim I, Sohn W, Lee J, Yong T. Vaccination with DNA encoding cysteine proteinase confers protective immune response to rats infected with Clonorchis sinensis. Vaccine. 2006;24:2358-66 pubmed
    ..sinensis metacercariae. These results indicate that pcDNA3.1-CsCP induces both humoral and cellular immune responses. The CsCP gene may be a good candidate for use in future studies of vaccination against clonorchiasis.
  71. Lee J, Rim H, Bak U. Effect of Clonorchis sinensis infection and dimethylnitrosamine administration on the induction of cholangiocarcinoma in Syrian golden hamsters. Korean J Parasitol. 1993;31:21-30 pubmed
    ..It was suggested that C. sinensis infection and DMN administration could be a synergism on the development of cholangiocarcinoma in Syrian golden hamsters...
  72. Huang L, Hu Y, Huang Y, Fang H, Li R, Hu D, et al. Gene/protein expression level, immunolocalization and binding characteristics of fatty acid binding protein from Clonorchis sinensis (CsFABP). Mol Cell Biochem. 2012;363:367-76 pubmed publisher
    ..a multigene family of lipid-binding proteins and is considered to be a promising vaccine candidate for human clonorchiasis. In this study, binding characteristics of CsFABP have been examined for the first time...
  73. Hong S, Rim H, Min D, Li X, Xu J, Feng Z, et al. Control of clonorchiasis by repeated treatments with praziquantel. Korean J Parasitol. 2001;39:285-92 pubmed
    The present study aimed to evaluate control efficacy of clonorchiasis by two schemes of repeated treatment with praziquantel at two endemic villages in China...
  74. Lin R, Li X, Lan C, Yu S, Kawanaka M. Investigation on the epidemiological factors of Clonorchis sinensis infection in an area of south China. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:1114-7 pubmed
    ..sinensis infection in the human population...
  75. Bae Y, Kim S, Lee E, Sohn W, Kong Y. Identification and biochemical characterization of two novel peroxiredoxins in a liver fluke, Clonorchis sinensis. Parasitology. 2011;138:1143-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The expression patterns and histological distributions specific to CsPRx2 and CsPRx3 might suggest different physiological functions of the antioxidant enzymes in protecting the worms against oxidative damage...
  76. Kim Y, Lee S, Choi G, Hwang S, Kim H, Lee E, et al. Performance of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of Clonorchis sinensis infestation in high- and low-risk groups. J Clin Microbiol. 2010;48:2365-7 pubmed publisher
    ..9979). The C. sinensis ELISA may be more useful than the intradermal test; however, because of its low specificity, it may not be used independently for the diagnosis of C. sinensis infestation or a prevalence survey in a high-risk group...
  77. Chu D, Li J, Lee D, Rong Z, Chen X, Chan A. Unusual presentations of hepatic clonorchiasis. Gastrointest Endosc. 2003;58:637-9 pubmed
  78. Lee M, Hong S, Kim H. Seroprevalence of tissue invading parasitic infections diagnosed by ELISA in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2010;25:1272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our results suggest that tissue invading parasitic infections should always be included in differential diagnosis for patients with eosinophilia associated lesions of the central nervous system, liver, and lungs in Korea...
  79. Yu S, Kawanaka M, Li X, Xu L, Lan C, Rui L. Epidemiological investigation on Clonorchis sinensis in human population in an area of South China. Jpn J Infect Dis. 2003;56:168-71 pubmed