necatoriasis

Summary

Summary: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms of the genus NECATOR. The resulting anemia from this condition is less severe than that from ANCYLOSTOMIASIS.

Top Publications

  1. Haas W, Haberl B, Syafruddin -, Idris I, Kallert D, Kersten S, et al. Behavioural strategies used by the hookworms Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale to find, recognize and invade the human host. Parasitol Res. 2005;95:30-9 pubmed
    ..duodenale behaviour to the oral infection mode. Hookworm host-finding behaviour is not as complex as that of schistosome cercariae but seems well adapted to the ecological conditions in the transmission sites...
  2. Geiger S, Caldas I, Mc Glone B, Campi Azevedo A, de Oliveira L, Brooker S, et al. Stage-specific immune responses in human Necator americanus infection. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:347-58 pubmed
    ..We propose that the longevity of hookworms in their human hosts results from a stage-specific, down-modulation of the immune response...
  3. Teixeira Carvalho A, Fujiwara R, Stemmy E, Olive D, Damsker J, Loukas A, et al. Binding of excreted and/or secreted products of adult hookworms to human NK cells in Necator americanus-infected individuals from Brazil. Infect Immun. 2008;76:5810-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Binding of ES products causes the NK cells to become activated and secrete IFN-gamma locally, thereby contributing to the adult hookworm's ability to evade host immune responses...
  4. Xue J, Hui Qing Q, Jun Ming Y, Fujiwara R, Zhan B, Hotez P, et al. Necator americanus: optimization of the golden hamster model for testing anthelmintic drugs. Exp Parasitol. 2005;111:219-23 pubmed
    ..The model confirms the anthelminthic activity of albendazole, tribendimidine, and pyrantel pamoate and has the potential as a laboratory animal model to detect emerging drug resistance...
  5. Palmer D, Bradley M, Bundy D. IgG4 responses to antigens of adult Necator americanus: potential for use in large-scale epidemiological studies. Bull World Health Organ. 1996;74:381-6 pubmed
    ..americanus. The results show that specific IgG4 responses correlate positively and significantly with both measures of intensity and may be a useful marker of hookworm infection...
  6. Desakorn V, Suntharasamai P, Pukrittayakamee S, Migasena S, Bunnag D. Adherence of human eosinophils to infective filariform larvae of Necator americanus in vitro. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1987;18:66-72 pubmed
    ..Although it is not known whether eosinophil adherence has any larvicidal effect, the present study demonstrated for the first time a definite interaction between human eosinophils and hookworm filariform larvae...
  7. Schneider B, Jariwala A, Periago M, Gazzinelli M, Bose S, Hotez P, et al. A history of hookworm vaccine development. Hum Vaccin. 2011;7:1234-44 pubmed publisher
  8. Xiao S, Zhan B, Xue J, Goud G, Loukas A, Liu Y, et al. The evaluation of recombinant hookworm antigens as vaccines in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) challenged with human hookworm, Necator americanus. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:32-40 pubmed
    ..The hamster model of N. americanus provides useful information for the selection of antigens to be tested in downstream vaccine development...
  9. Taniuchi M, Verweij J, Noor Z, Sobuz S, Lieshout L, Petri W, et al. High throughput multiplex PCR and probe-based detection with Luminex beads for seven intestinal parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:332-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, this multiplex PCR-bead protocol provides a sensitive diagnostic screen for a large panel of intestinal parasites...

More Information

Publications97

  1. Mortimer K, Brown A, Feary J, Jagger C, Lewis S, Antoniak M, et al. Dose-ranging study for trials of therapeutic infection with Necator americanus in humans. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:914-20 pubmed
    ..Infection with 10 N. americanus larvae is well tolerated, elicits a modest host eosinophil response, and is potentially suitable for use in preliminary clinical therapeutic trials...
  2. Verweij J, Pit D, van Lieshout L, Baeta S, Dery G, Gasser R, et al. Determining the prevalence of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Necator americanus infections using specific PCR amplification of DNA from faecal samples. Trop Med Int Health. 2001;6:726-31 pubmed
    ..These results prove the usefulness of specific PCR assays as epidemiological tools to estimate the prevalence of O. bifurcum and N. americanus infections in human populations...
  3. Quinnell R, Pritchard D, Raiko A, Brown A, Shaw M. Immune responses in human necatoriasis: association between interleukin-5 responses and resistance to reinfection. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:430-8 pubmed
    ..01). These data indicate that there is a mixed cytokine response in necatoriasis, with worm burden-associated suppression of IFN- gamma responses to adult N. americanus antigen...
  4. Basuni M, Muhi J, Othman N, Verweij J, Ahmad M, Miswan N, et al. A pentaplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of four species of soil-transmitted helminths. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:338-43 pubmed publisher
    ..05). In conclusion, the real-time PCR assay described in this study provides a specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of these four helminth species in epidemiological studies and monitoring of treatment programs...
  5. Geiger S, Massara C, Bethony J, Soboslay P, Correa Oliveira R. Cellular responses and cytokine production in post-treatment hookworm patients from an endemic area in Brazil. Clin Exp Immunol. 2004;136:334-40 pubmed
  6. Pritchard D, Hooi D, Brown A, Bockarie M, Caddick R, Quinnell R. Basophil competence during hookworm (Necator americanus) infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:860-5 pubmed
    ..This would suggest that this effector arm of the T helper 2 phenotype remains operative in infected populations...
  7. Jian X, Sen L, Hui Qin Q, Hai Nan R, Tie Hua L, Hai Chou X, et al. Necator americanus: maintenance through one hundred generations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). I. Host sex-associated differences in hookworm burden and fecundity. Exp Parasitol. 2003;104:62-6 pubmed
    ..This unique adaptation of N. americanus to hamsters permits its use for purposes of anthelminthic drug and vaccine development...
  8. Hamm D, Agossou A, Gantin R, Kocherscheidt L, Banla M, Dietz K, et al. Coinfections with Schistosoma haematobium, Necator americanus, and Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar in children: chemokine and cytokine responses and changes after antiparasite treatment. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1583-91 pubmed publisher
    ..dispar, and N. americanus generated prominent proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine responses, and, after antihelminth treatment, the inflammatory chemokine response lessened as the Th2 responsiveness in coinfected children increased...
  9. Verweij J, Brienen E, Ziem J, Yelifari L, Polderman A, van Lieshout L. Simultaneous detection and quantification of Ancylostoma duodenale, Necator americanus, and Oesophagostomum bifurcum in fecal samples using multiplex real-time PCR. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:685-90 pubmed
    ..Moreover, this procedure facilitates monitoring of intervention programs and allows species-specific detection of treatment failure following rounds of mass treatment...
  10. Ranjit N, Zhan B, Hamilton B, Stenzel D, Lowther J, Pearson M, et al. Proteolytic degradation of hemoglobin in the intestine of the human hookworm Necator americanus. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:904-12 pubmed
    ..americanus involves a network of distinct proteases, some of which act in an ordered fashion, providing a potential mechanism by which some of these hemoglobinases exert their efficacy as recombinant vaccines against hookworm infection...
  11. Winter J, Davies O, Brown A, Garnett M, Stolnik S, Pritchard D. The assessment of hookworm calreticulin as a potential vaccine for necatoriasis. Parasite Immunol. 2005;27:139-46 pubmed
    ..microparticles was associated with high levels of serum IgE and higher lung eosinophil activity, suggesting that the classical Th2 phenotype may not always be associated with protective immunity, albeit in experimental necatoriasis.
  12. Girod N, Brown A, Pritchard D, Billett E. Successful vaccination of BALB/c mice against human hookworm (Necator americanus): the immunological phenotype of the protective response. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:71-80 pubmed
    In this murine (BALB/c) model of necatoriasis, high levels of protection against challenge infection by Necator americanus larvae (n=300) were afforded by successive vaccinations at 14-day intervals, either subcutaneously or ..
  13. Bethony J, Chen J, Lin S, Xiao S, Zhan B, Li S, et al. Emerging patterns of hookworm infection: influence of aging on the intensity of Necator infection in Hainan Province, People's Republic of China. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;35:1336-44 pubmed
    ..None of the other 26 personal or 32 household risk factors were found to be significant. The importance of aging in Necator infection reveals an emerging public health problem among the elderly population of developing countries...
  14. Pit D, Polderman A, Baeta S, Schulz Key H, Soboslay P. Parasite-specific antibody and cellular immune responses in human infected with Necator americanus and Oesophagostomum bifurcum. Parasitol Res. 2001;87:722-9 pubmed
  15. Reddy S, Vega K. Endoscopic diagnosis of chronic severe upper GI bleeding due to helminthic infection. Gastrointest Endosc. 2008;67:990-2 pubmed publisher
  16. Loukas A, Constant S, Bethony J. Immunobiology of hookworm infection. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2005;43:115-24 pubmed
    ..Significant progress has been made in the development of anti-hookworm recombinant vaccines, and clinical trials are expected to begin in the near future...
  17. Wright V, Bickle Q. Immune responses following experimental human hookworm infection. Clin Exp Immunol. 2005;142:398-403 pubmed
    ..Apart from the eosinophilia these responses declined to baseline levels within 4 months and were less pronounced on re-infection...
  18. Croese J, O Neil J, Masson J, Cooke S, Melrose W, Pritchard D, et al. A proof of concept study establishing Necator americanus in Crohn's patients and reservoir donors. Gut. 2006;55:136-7 pubmed
  19. Diemert D, Bethony J, Hotez P. Hookworm vaccines. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Plans call for eventual development of a vaccine that will combine at least 2 hookworm antigens--one targeting the larval stage of the life cycle and another targeting the adult worm living in the gastrointestinal tract...
  20. Maizels R, Balic A. Resistance to helminth infection: the case for interleukin-5-dependent mechanisms. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:427-9 pubmed
  21. Soboslay P, Hamm D, Pfäfflin F, Fendt J, Banla M, Schulz Key H. Cytokine and chemokine responses in patients co-infected with Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, Necator americanus and Mansonella perstans and changes after anti-parasite treatment. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:238-47 pubmed
    This study examined the impact of concurrent parasite infections (amoebiasis, filariasis, necatoriasis) and the effect of anti-parasite treatment on cytokine and chemokine responses in singly and poly-parasitized patients...
  22. Behnke J, Pritchard D. Necator americanus in neonatally infected hamsters. The time-course of infection and antibody response to the surface antigens of L4 and adult worms. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81:967-72 pubmed
    ..In contrast L4 had only 2 major cuticular antigens resolving at 41 and 93kDa. The 93kDa molecule on L4 and adult worms may be antigenically related...
  23. Geiger S, Fujiwara R, Santiago H, Correa Oliveira R, Bethony J. Early stage-specific immune responses in primary experimental human hookworm infection. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:1524-35 pubmed publisher
    ..During reinfection studies in endemic areas, such distinct cytokine and chemokine profiles might be additional markers to better classify egg-negative patients. ..
  24. Knopp S, Salim N, Schindler T, Karagiannis Voules D, Rothen J, Lweno O, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz, FLOTAC, Baermann, and PCR methods for the detection of light-intensity hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis infections in Tanzania. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:535-45 pubmed publisher
    ..All methods failed to detect very low-intensity infections. New diagnostic approaches are needed for monitoring of progressing helminth control programs, confirmation of elimination, or surveillance of disease recrudescence...
  25. Timothy L, Behnke J. Necator americanus in inbred mice: evidence in support of genetically determined differences in the cellular immune response to a primary infection. Parasitology. 1997;114 ( Pt 1):53-63 pubmed
    ..The relationship between the observed leucocyte responses and resistance to the migrating larvae of a primary infection is discussed. ..
  26. Feary J, Venn A, Mortimer K, Brown A, Hooi D, Falcone F, et al. Experimental hookworm infection: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in asthma. Clin Exp Allergy. 2010;40:299-306 pubmed publisher
    ..However, infection was well tolerated and resulted in a non-significant improvement in airway responsiveness, indicating that further studies that mimic more closely natural infection are feasible and should be undertaken. ..
  27. Stoltzfus R, Albonico M, Chwaya H, Tielsch J, Schulze K, Savioli L. Effects of the Zanzibar school-based deworming program on iron status of children. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;68:179-86 pubmed
    ..Where hookworm is heavily endemic, deworming programs can improve iron status and prevent moderate and severe anemia, but deworming may be needed at least twice yearly...
  28. Pritchard D, Quinnell R, Moustafa M, McKean P, Slater A, Raiko A, et al. Hookworm (Necator americanus) infection and storage iron depletion. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85:235-8 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the role of hookworm in the aetiology of anaemia may be difficult to assess without the accurate measurement of hookworm burden...
  29. Tang C, Huang J. [Field studies on different control schemes for hookworm infection]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1993;11:219-23 pubmed
    ..It was concluded that mass treatment with mebendazole-medicated salt might be the most practical scheme for the control of hookworm infection...
  30. Culley F, Brown A, Girod N, Pritchard D, Williams T. Innate and cognate mechanisms of pulmonary eosinophilia in helminth infection. Eur J Immunol. 2002;32:1376-85 pubmed
    ..Primed cognate Th2 immunity does not increase local chemokine production, but does increase IL-5 production, which greatly enhances the availability of eosinophils for recruitment to the lung. ..
  31. Tang Y, Gao X, Rosa B, Abubucker S, Hallsworth Pepin K, Martin J, et al. Genome of the human hookworm Necator americanus. Nat Genet. 2014;46:261-269 pubmed publisher
    ..This genome provides an invaluable resource to boost ongoing efforts toward fundamental and applied postgenomic research, including the development of new methods to control hookworm and human immunological diseases. ..
  32. Wardell R, Clements A, Lal A, Summers D, Llewellyn S, Campbell S, et al. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005565 pubmed publisher
    ..This study also further supports that A. lumbricoides prefers acidic soils, highlighting a potential relatively unexplored avenue for control. ClinicalTrials.gov ACTRN12614000680662. ..
  33. Gandhi N, Jizhang C, Khoshnood K, Fuying X, Shanwen L, Yaoruo L, et al. Epidemiology of Necator americanus hookworm infections in Xiulongkan Village, Hainan Province, China: high prevalence and intensity among middle-aged and elderly residents. J Parasitol. 2001;87:739-43 pubmed
    ..Females were more likely to have moderate or heavy infections, whereas males were more likely to have light infections. The rates of hookworm transmission are particularly high among the middle-aged and elderly residents of Xiulongkan...
  34. Zhang X, Yang W, Yang C, Liao Z, Liu Y, Tang Z, et al. [Effect of albendazole and pyrantel in treating intestinal helminthiasis and controlling the recurrence of hookworm infections]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 1990;8:96-9 pubmed
    ..duodenale infections, while a single dose of 400mg albendazole per day for 3 or 5 days showed good effect in controlling the recurrence of hookworm infections in a certain area...
  35. Pal D, Chattopadhyay U, Sengupta G. A study on the prevalence of hookworm infection in four districts of West Bengal and its linkage with anaemia. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:449-52 pubmed
    ..The load ofhookworm infection appeared to be mostly in the mild range. Ascaris lumbricoides appeared to the most common accompanying infection. In the affected population, the degree of anaemia was mostly mild. ..
  36. Croese J, Wood M, Melrose W, Speare R. Allergy controls the population density of Necator americanus in the small intestine. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:402-9 pubmed
    ..We propose that allergic inflammation purposefully degrades the hookworm's bite, causing premature detachment, restricted feeding, and expulsion. This novel biological dynamic suggests a new paradigm of hookworm resistance. ..
  37. Mabaso M, Appleton C, Hughes J, Gouws E. Hookworm (Necator americanus) transmission in inland areas of sandy soils in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:471-6 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that particle size distribution of sand fractions, organic matter and clay content in the soil influence the survival of hookworm larvae and hence the parasite's transmission...
  38. Ezeamama A, Friedman J, Olveda R, Acosta L, Kurtis J, Mor V, et al. Functional significance of low-intensity polyparasite helminth infections in anemia. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:2160-70 pubmed
    ..We wanted to quantify the impact that polyparasite infections, including multiple concurrent low-intensity infections, have on anemia...
  39. Haswell Elkins M, Elkins D, Manjula K, Michael E, Anderson R. An investigation of hookworm infection and reinfection following mass anthelmintic treatment in the south Indian fishing community of Vairavankuppam. Parasitology. 1988;96 ( Pt 3):565-77 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that occupational practices related to walking through areas contaminated with hookworm larvae play an important role in generating the observed patterns of infection within this community...
  40. Stiles C, Altman W. Hookworm disease. 1913. Public Health Rep. 2006;121 Suppl 1:59-69; discussion 58 pubmed
  41. Wang Y, Xiao S, Xue J, Singer B, Utzinger J, Holmes E. Systems metabolic effects of a necator americanus infection in Syrian hamster. J Proteome Res. 2009;8:5442-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, elevated levels of urinary 2-aminoadipate was a characteristic feature of the infection, which may be associated with the documented neurological consequences of hookworm infection...
  42. Quinnell R, Bethony J, Pritchard D. The immunoepidemiology of human hookworm infection. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:443-54 pubmed
    ..There is increasing evidence for protective immunity in human hookworm infection, including anti-larval IL-5- and IgE-dependent mechanisms, and for immunological interactions between hookworm infection and other diseases...
  43. Pritchard D, Brown A. Is Necator americanus approaching a mutualistic symbiotic relationship with humans?. Trends Parasitol. 2001;17:169-72 pubmed
  44. Falcone F, Telford G, Hooi D, Brown A, Seabra R, Feary J, et al. Antigen-driven basophil activation is indicative of early Necator americanus infection in IgE-seronegative patients. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009;124:1343-50.e7 pubmed publisher
    ..The kinetics of gastrointestinal nematode-induced T(H)2-type responses, especially in the context of primary infection, have been extensively studied in experimental infection models but not in human subjects...
  45. Idris M, Shaban M, Fatahallah M. Effective control of hookworm infection in school children from Dhofar, Sultanate of Oman: a four-year experience with albendazole mass chemotherapy. Acta Trop. 2001;80:139-43 pubmed
    ..3% and from 6 to 0%, respectively, among rural and urban school children. Stool samples with egg load >1000 egg/gm were reduced from 28 to 0% after the first year of intervention and maintained as such in subsequent years. ..
  46. Sianto L, Reinhard K, Chame M, Chaves S, Mendonca S, Gonçalves M, et al. The finding of Echinostoma (Trematoda: Digenea) and hookworm eggs in coprolites collected from a Brazilian mummified body dated 600-1,200 years before present. J Parasitol. 2005;91:972-5 pubmed
    ..Alternative possibilities are also considered, including indigenous Brazilian Echinostoma species...
  47. Xue J, Zhan B, Guo J, He N, Qiang H, Hotez P, et al. Acquired hookworm immunity in the golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) elicited by living Necator americanus third-stage infective larvae. Exp Parasitol. 2012;130:6-12 pubmed publisher
    ..The trapped L3 were damaged and dead followed by the formation of granulomas encasing dead worms. The results demonstrate that hamsters primarily infected with N. americanus L3 develop acquired immunity against re-infection. ..
  48. Croese J, Speare R. Intestinal allergy expels hookworms: seeing is believing. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:547-50 pubmed
    ..This allergic reaction curtails the attachment of hookworms and accompanies the passage of additional worms as they are expelled from the proximal small intestine. ..
  49. Rajasekariah G, Deb B, Dhage K, Bose S. Response of adult Necator americanus to some known anthelminthics in hamsters. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83:279-85 pubmed
    ..It is considered that the hamster-hookworm model will prove of value in identifying and characterizing possible new anthelminthics...
  50. Brentlinger P, Capps L, Denson M. Hookworm infection and anemia in adult women in rural Chiapas, Mexico. Salud Publica Mex. 2003;45:117-9 pubmed
    ..Further investigation is recommended among women in Chiapas, and probably elsewhere in Mexico. The English version of this paper is available too at: http://www.insp.mx/salud/index.html. ..
  51. Romstad A, Gasser R, Nansen P, Polderman A, Monti J, Chilton N. Characterization of Oesophagostomum bifurcum and Necator americanus by PCR-RFLP of rDNA. J Parasitol. 1997;83:963-6 pubmed
    ..bifurcum and N. americanus to species, which has important implications for developing PCR-based tools to study the epidemiology and population biology of O. bifurcum...
  52. Kshaunish D, Kausik D, Dasgupta J, Dhali G, Chowdhury A. Hookworm infection presenting as overt gastrointestinal bleeding: lessons from double-balloon enteroscopy in the tropics. Am J Gastroenterol. 2008;103:1310-1 pubmed publisher
  53. Lamabadusuriya S, Perera S. An unusual cause of melaena in a child. Ceylon Med J. 2003;48:27-8 pubmed
  54. Wiwanitkit V, Soogarun S, Saksirisampant W, Suwansaksri J. Platelet parameters in subjects infected with hookworm. Platelets. 2003;14:391-3 pubmed
    ..Of interest, the alteration in platelet size, identified by platelet parameters, has never been documented in the literature. This observation might be a pathological process or might be an accidental finding in our study...
  55. Bradley M, Chandiwana S, Bundy D, Medley G. The epidemiology and population biology of Necator americanus infection in a rural community in Zimbabwe. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1992;86:73-6 pubmed
    ..The basic reproductive rate (R0 congruent to 2) was found to be similar to estimates from other geographical areas...
  56. Mudenda N, Malone J, Kearney M, Mischler P, Nieto P, McCarroll J, et al. Modelling the ecological niche of hookworm in Brazil based on climate. Geospat Health. 2012;6:S111-23 pubmed
    ..Both environmental temperature and soil moisture content were found to be important parameters for predicting the prevalence of N. americanus...
  57. Geiger S, Alexander N, Fujiwara R, Brooker S, Cundill B, Diemert D, et al. Necator americanus and helminth co-infections: further down-modulation of hookworm-specific type 1 immune responses. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1280 pubmed publisher
  58. Wu J, Holmes E, Xue J, Xiao S, Singer B, Tang H, et al. Metabolic alterations in the hamster co-infected with Schistosoma japonicum and Necator americanus. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:695-703 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results provide a first step towards understanding the metabolic response of an animal host to multiple parasitic infections...
  59. Pritchard D, Quinnell R, McKean P, Walsh L, Leggett K, Slater A, et al. Antigenic cross-reactivity between Necator americanus and Ascaris lumbricoides in a community in Papua New Guinea infected predominantly with hookworm. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1991;85:511-4 pubmed
    ..These observations could have considerable bearing on the interpretation of data from sero-epidemiological studies which failed to take account of concurrent infection with these parasites...
  60. Nontasut P, Singhasivanon V, Prarinyanuparp V, Chiamratana B, Sanguankiat S, Dekumyoy P, et al. Effect of single-dose albendazole and single-dose mebendazole on Necator americanus. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1989;20:237-42 pubmed
    ..Albendazole, 400 mg, as a single dose treatment was shown to be superior to mebendazole, 600 mg, single dose for the mass treatment of hookworm infection, especially that of Necator americanus, in an endemic area...
  61. Wells C, Behnke J. Acquired resistance to the human hookworm Necator americanus in mice. Parasite Immunol. 1988;10:493-505 pubmed
  62. Sacko M, De Clercq D, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Dorny P, Vercruysse J. Comparison of the efficacy of mebendazole, albendazole and pyrantel in treatment of human hookworm infections in the southern region of Mali, West Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93:195-203 pubmed
    ..We emphasize the need for standardization of the methods used for trial designs, for calculation of summary data relating to drug efficacies and the accompanying statistical tests...
  63. Quinnell R, Griffin J, Nowell M, Raiko A, Pritchard D. Predisposition to hookworm infection in Papua New Guinea. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:139-42 pubmed
  64. Campo Esquisabel A, Ledesma Castaño F, Salesa Gutiérrez de Rozas R. [Asymptomatic eosinophilia in an African immigrant]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2007;25:63 pubmed
  65. Gendrel D, Richard Lenoble D, Kombila M, Dupont C, Moreno J, Gendrel C, et al. Influence of intestinal parasitism on lactose absorption in well-nourished African children. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1992;46:137-40 pubmed
    ..These data indicate that a decrease of lactase activity in well-nourished African children is not related to the presence or the importance of Ascaris or other intestinal parasites if the nutritional status is normal...
  66. Phuphisut O, Yoonuan T, Sanguankiat S, Chaisiri K, Maipanich W, Pubampen S, et al. Triplex polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of major soil-transmitted helminths, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Necator americanus, in fecal samples. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2014;45:267-75 pubmed
    ..This multiplex PCR assay provides an alternative method for routine diagnosis of STHs infection, and might be applied for epidemiological studies of STHs in endemic areas...
  67. Rajasekariah G, Deb B, Dhage K, Bose S. Response of laboratory-adapted human hookworm and other nematodes to ivermectin. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1986;80:615-21 pubmed
    ..It thus appears that ivermectin is in no way superior in its activity against N. americanus and T. muris than the existing anthelmintics...
  68. Hu M, Chilton N, Abs EL Osta Y, Gasser R. Comparative analysis of mitochondrial genome data for Necator americanus from two endemic regions reveals substantial genetic variation. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:955-63 pubmed
    ..Consistent with previous studies, these findings provide evidence for substantial genetic variation within N. americanus, which may have implications for the transmission and control of hookworm disease...
  69. Mai C, Hamm D, Banla M, Agossou A, Schulz Key H, Heuschkel C, et al. Onchocerca volvulus-specific antibody and cytokine responses in onchocerciasis patients after 16 years of repeated ivermectin therapy. Clin Exp Immunol. 2007;147:504-12 pubmed
    ..Such deficient reconstitution of immune competence may be due to an as yet continuing and uncontrolled reinfection with O. volvulus, but parasite co-infections can also bias and may prevent the development of such immunity...
  70. Schwenkenbecher J, Kaplan R. Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the canine hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:1015-21 pubmed
    ..caninum. Furthermore, a number of the markers demonstrated suitability for analysis of the human hookworm species Necator americanus and A. duodenale...
  71. Jian X, Shu Hua X, Hui Qing Q, Sen L, Hotez P, Bing Gui S, et al. Necator americanus: maintenance through one hundred generations in golden hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus). II. Morphological development of the adult and its comparison with humans. Exp Parasitol. 2003;105:192-200 pubmed
    ..The hamster model of N. americanus is potentially useful for studying the development of new anthelminthic drugs and vaccines...
  72. Bungiro R, Cappello M. Hookworm infection: new developments and prospects for control. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:421-6 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes recent advances in each of these fields, and discusses ongoing efforts to develop vaccines against hookworm anemia and growth delay...
  73. Morales C, Ferrer G, Zuckerman M. Hookworm detected by capsule endoscopy. Gastrointest Endosc. 2005;62:782-3; discussion 783 pubmed
  74. Hominick W, Dean C, Schad G. Population biology of hookworms in west Bengal: analysis of numbers of infective larvae recovered from damp pads applied to the soil surface at defaecation sites. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1987;81:978-86 pubmed
    ..Thus, people who contribute large numbers of eggs to the environment are not necessarily those who are the greatest source of infection for others.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)..
  75. Gunawardena S, Gunawardena N, Kahathuduwa G, Karunaweera N, de Silva N, Ranasinghe U, et al. Integrated school-based surveillance for soil-transmitted helminth infections and lymphatic filariasis in Gampaha district, Sri Lanka. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2014;90:661-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Most STH detected were low or moderate intensity Trichuris trichiura infections. The added cost of including STH testing was ?$5,000 per EU. These results suggest that it is feasible to integrate school-based surveillance for STH and LF...
  76. Brooker S, Jardim Botelho A, Quinnell R, Geiger S, Caldas I, Fleming F, et al. Age-related changes in hookworm infection, anaemia and iron deficiency in an area of high Necator americanus hookworm transmission in south-eastern Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:146-54 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate that, even in areas where there is a low overall prevalence of anaemia, hookworm can still have an important impact on host iron status, especially in school-aged children and the elderly...
  77. Diemert D, Pinto A, Freire J, Jariwala A, Santiago H, Hamilton R, et al. Generalized urticaria induced by the Na-ASP-2 hookworm vaccine: implications for the development of vaccines against helminths. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012;130:169-76.e6 pubmed publisher
    ..Vaccination of laboratory animals with recombinant Na-ASP-2 provides significant protection against challenge infections. In endemic areas antibodies to Na-ASP-2 are associated with reduced risk of heavy N americanus infections...
  78. Asojo O, Goud G, Dhar K, Loukas A, Zhan B, Deumic V, et al. X-ray structure of Na-ASP-2, a pathogenesis-related-1 protein from the nematode parasite, Necator americanus, and a vaccine antigen for human hookworm infection. J Mol Biol. 2005;346:801-14 pubmed
    ..From these modeling studies, possible binding modes were predicted. In addition, this first structure of a PR-1 protein from parasitic helminths may shed light on the molecular basis of host-parasite interactions...
  79. McSorley H, Gaze S, Daveson J, Jones D, Anderson R, Clouston A, et al. Suppression of inflammatory immune responses in celiac disease by experimental hookworm infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e24092 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus we hypothesise that hookworm-induced TH2 and IL-10 cross-regulation of the TH1/TH17 inflammatory response may be responsible for the suppression of these responses during experimental hookworm infection...
  80. Ye X, Wu Z, Sun F. The population biology and control of Necator americanus in a village community in south-eastern China. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1994;88:635-43 pubmed
    ..americanus might be easier to control by mass-treatment chemotherapy (eradication requiring only 63% of the population to be treated every year for 4 years) than those of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura...
  81. Xue J, Xiao S, Xu L, Qiang H. The effect of tribendimidine and its metabolites against Necator americanus in golden hamsters and Nippostrongylus braziliensis in rats. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:775-81 pubmed publisher
    ..americanus-infected hamsters; the effect of oral dADT against N. braziliensis in rats is somewhat better than TBD, while AdADT endorses poor effect; and TPAL and TPAC are ineffective metabolites of TBD against both species of nematodes...
  82. Eve E, Ferraz E, Thatcher V. Parasitic infections in villagers from three districts of the Brazilian Amazon. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1998;92:79-87 pubmed
    ..Whether the light to moderate levels of infection observed require intervention is discussed...
  83. Torlesse H, Hodges M. Albendazole therapy and reduced decline in haemoglobin concentration during pregnancy (Sierra Leone). Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2001;95:195-201 pubmed
    ..7 g/L haemoglobin (P < 0.001). The effects of albendazole and iron-folate supplements were additive. These findings lend support to WHO's recommendation for anthelmintic treatment during pregnancy...
  84. Dabo A, Sow M, Sangare L, Maiga I, Keita A, Bagayoko Y, et al. [Transmission of schistosomiasis in an urban population and prevalence of intestinal helminthiasis in Bamako, Mali ]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2003;96:187-90 pubmed
    ..Developing local control programmes in schools located in the vicinity of water bodies would contribute to break the parasite transmission cycle in Bamako...
  85. Hotez P, Zhan B, Bethony J, Loukas A, Williamson A, Goud G, et al. Progress in the development of a recombinant vaccine for human hookworm disease: the Human Hookworm Vaccine Initiative. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1245-58 pubmed
    ..Another challenge will be to produce anti-hookworm vaccine antigens at high yield low cost suitable for immunising large impoverished populations living in the developing nations of the tropics...
  86. Nahmias J, Kennet R, Goldsmith R, Greenberg Z. Evaluation of albendazole, pyrantel, bephenium, pyrantel-praziquantel and pyrantel-bephenium for single-dose mass treatment of necatoriasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83:625-9 pubmed
    An effective drug for single-dose mass treatment of necatoriasis was sought by testing three drugs and two drug combinations in Ethiopian immigrants to Israel found to have light infections...
  87. Rose R, Behnke J. Necator americanus in the DSN hamster: density-dependent expulsion of adult worms during primary infection. Parasitology. 1990;100 Pt 3:469-78 pubmed
    ..may have resulted from host immunity, the persistence of the residual worm burdens, the marked density-dependent anaemia and the subtle effect on host weight, all reflected well-documented aspects of chronic human necatoriasis.
  88. Zhan B, Perally S, Brophy P, Xue J, Goud G, Liu S, et al. Molecular cloning, biochemical characterization, and partial protective immunity of the heme-binding glutathione S-transferases from the human hookworm Necator americanus. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1552-63 pubmed publisher
    ..In contrast, no protection was observed in vaccine trials with Na-GST-2 or Na-GST-3. On the basis of these and other preclinical data, Na-GST-1 is under possible consideration for further vaccine development...