hookworm infections

Summary

Summary: Infection of humans or animals with hookworms other than those caused by the genus Ancylostoma or Necator, for which the specific terms ANCYLOSTOMIASIS and NECATORIASIS are available.

Top Publications

  1. Narain K, Medhi G, Rajguru S, Mahanta J. Cure and reinfection patterns of geohelminthic infections after treatment in communities inhabiting the tropical rainforest of Assam, India. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:512-7 pubmed
    ..Hookworm reinfection was higher in the adult age group (15 to 39 years). The rates of new infection in previously uninfected subjects were lower compared with the rates for re-infection...
  2. Booth M, Vounatsou P, N Goran E, Tanner M, Utzinger J. The influence of sampling effort and the performance of the Kato-Katz technique in diagnosing Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm co-infections in rural Côte d'Ivoire. Parasitology. 2003;127:525-31 pubmed
    ..If confirmed in other settings, these findings have implications for estimating the prevalence of multiple species helminth infections, and hence the design and implementation of efficacious and cost-effective control programmes...
  3. Hotez P. Hookworm and poverty. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1136:38-44 pubmed
  4. Keiser J, Utzinger J. Efficacy of current drugs against soil-transmitted helminth infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;299:1937-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventive chemotherapy is the mainstay of control, but only 4 drugs are available: albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate...
  5. Knopp S, Rinaldi L, Khamis I, Stothard J, Rollinson D, Maurelli M, et al. A single FLOTAC is more sensitive than triplicate Kato-Katz for the diagnosis of low-intensity soil-transmitted helminth infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:347-54 pubmed publisher
    ..50 for T. trichiura, but only 0.30 for hookworm. The high sensitivity of FLOTAC holds promise for patient management, monitoring soil-transmitted helminth transmission and endpoint(s) of control at the population level...
  6. Christian P, Khatry S, West K. Antenatal anthelmintic treatment, birthweight, and infant survival in rural Nepal. Lancet. 2004;364:981-3 pubmed
    ..59; 95% CI 0.43-0.82). Antenatal anthelmintics could be effective in reducing maternal anaemia and improving birthweight and infant survival in hookworm-endemic regions. ..
  7. Casapia M, Joseph S, Núñez C, Rahme E, Gyorkos T. Parasite risk factors for stunting in grade 5 students in a community of extreme poverty in Peru. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:741-7 pubmed
  8. Brooker S, Alexander N, Geiger S, Moyeed R, Stander J, Fleming F, et al. Contrasting patterns in the small-scale heterogeneity of human helminth infections in urban and rural environments in Brazil. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1143-51 pubmed
    ..We suggest that such species-specific differences in patterns of infection by environment are primarily due to variation in exposure and parasite life cycle, although host genetic factors cannot be ruled out. ..
  9. de Silva N, Pathmeswaran A, Fernando S, Weerasinghe C, Selvaratnam R, Padmasiri E, et al. Impact of mass chemotherapy for the control of filariasis on geohelminth infections in Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:421-5 pubmed

More Information

Publications116 found, 100 shown here

  1. Soares Magalhaes R, Biritwum N, Gyapong J, Brooker S, Zhang Y, Blair L, et al. Mapping helminth co-infection and co-intensity: geostatistical prediction in ghana. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1200 pubmed publisher
    Morbidity due to Schistosoma haematobium and hookworm infections is marked in those with intense co-infections by these parasites...
  2. McSorley H, Loukas A. The immunology of human hookworm infections. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:549-59 pubmed publisher
    ..A substantial body of research on the immunobiology of hookworms originates from Australia, so this review will summarize the current status of the field with a particular emphasis on research carried out 'down under'...
  3. Casey G, Jolley D, Phuc T, Tinh T, Tho D, Montresor A, et al. Long-term weekly iron-folic acid and de-worming is associated with stabilised haemoglobin and increasing iron stores in non-pregnant women in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2010;5:e15691 pubmed publisher
  4. Van Thuy P, Berger J, Nakanishi Y, Khan N, Lynch S, Dixon P. The use of NaFeEDTA-fortified fish sauce is an effective tool for controlling iron deficiency in women of childbearing age in rural Vietnam. J Nutr. 2005;135:2596-601 pubmed
    ..7 to 8.5% in Group F with no significant changes in Group C. NaFeEDTA fortification of fish sauce is an effective method for reducing the prevalence of iron deficiency in women in Vietnam. ..
  5. Knopp S, Speich B, Hattendorf J, Rinaldi L, Mohammed K, Khamis I, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz and FLOTAC for assessing anthelmintic drug efficacy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1036 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in the frame of a drug efficacy trial...
  6. Scherrer A, Sjöberg M, Allangba A, Traoré M, Lohourignon L, Tschannen A, et al. Sequential analysis of helminth egg output in human stool samples following albendazole and praziquantel administration. Acta Trop. 2009;109:226-31 pubmed publisher
    ..for assessing the efficacy of praziquantel against Schistosoma mansoni and albendazole against hookworm infections are not known. Forty-nine schoolchildren infected with S...
  7. Jia T, Melville S, Utzinger J, King C, Zhou X. Soil-transmitted helminth reinfection after drug treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1621 pubmed publisher
    ..This strategy, however, does not prevent reinfection. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess patterns and dynamics of STH reinfection after drug treatment...
  8. Howard S, Donnell C, Chan M. Methods for estimation of associations between multiple species parasite infections. Parasitology. 2001;122:233-51 pubmed
    ..A method for using these parameter estimates to predict the distribution of multiple infections when only marginal prevalence data are available is described and demonstrated. ..
  9. Tchuem Tchuente L, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Southgate V, Vercruysse J. Polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminth infections among school children in Loum, Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:975-86 pubmed
    ..haematobium and A. lumbricoides (sex- and age-dependent) but quantitative associations between these two species, as well as between S. haematobium and T. trichiura, were not convincing...
  10. Bungiro R, Cappello M. Hookworm infection: new developments and prospects for control. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2004;17:421-6 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes recent advances in each of these fields, and discusses ongoing efforts to develop vaccines against hookworm anemia and growth delay...
  11. Blount D, Hooi D, Feary J, Venn A, Telford G, Brown A, et al. Immunologic profiles of persons recruited for a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of hookworm infection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:911-6 pubmed publisher
    Data from epidemiologic studies suggest that hookworm infections, in establishing an immunologic phenotype conducive to parasite survival, may protect against the development of allergic disease...
  12. Matthys B, Tschannen A, Tian Bi N, Comoé H, Diabaté S, Traoré M, et al. Risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm in urban farming communities in western Côte d'Ivoire. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:709-23 pubmed
    To identify risk factors for Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections in urban farming communities, and to investigate small-scale spatial patterns of infection prevalence.
  13. Daveson A, Jones D, Gaze S, McSorley H, Clouston A, Pascoe A, et al. Effect of hookworm infection on wheat challenge in celiac disease--a randomised double-blinded placebo controlled trial. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e17366 pubmed publisher
  14. Guyatt H, Brooker S, Kihamia C, Hall A, Bundy D. Evaluation of efficacy of school-based anthelmintic treatments against anaemia in children in the United Republic of Tanzania. Bull World Health Organ. 2001;79:695-703 pubmed
    ..The results suggested that deworming programmes should be included in public health strategies for the control of anaemia in schoolchildren where there are high prevalences of hookworm and schistosomiasis. ..
  15. Bennett A, Guyatt H. Reducing intestinal nematode infection: efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole. Parasitol Today. 2000;16:71-4 pubmed
  16. Mabaso M, Appleton C, Hughes J, Gouws E. The effect of soil type and climate on hookworm (Necator americanus) distribution in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:722-7 pubmed
    ..This indicates the importance of summer conditions in the transmission of hookworm infection in KwaZulu-Natal and suggests that transmission may be seasonal. ..
  17. Hillier S, Booth M, Muhangi L, Nkurunziza P, Khihembo M, Kakande M, et al. Plasmodium falciparum and helminth coinfection in a semi urban population of pregnant women in Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:920-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent studies suggest helminth infections may increase susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum infection. If confirmed, this increased susceptibility could be particularly important during pregnancy-induced immunosuppression...
  18. Krauth S, Coulibaly J, Knopp S, Traoré M, N Goran E, Utzinger J. An in-depth analysis of a piece of shit: distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in human stool. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1969 pubmed publisher
    ..We studied the spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm eggs in stool samples, the effect of homogenization, and determined egg counts over time in stool samples stored under different conditions...
  19. Pritchard D, Quinnell R, Slater A, McKean P, Dale D, Raiko A, et al. Epidemiology and immunology of Necator americanus infection in a community in Papua New Guinea: humoral responses to excretory-secretory and cuticular collagen antigens. Parasitology. 1990;100 Pt 2:317-26 pubmed
    ..Similarly, the presence of a positive correlation between eosinophil concentration and infection intensity in adults indicates that eosinophilia reflects, rather than determines, the host's worm burden...
  20. Traub R, Robertson I, Irwin P, Mencke N, Andrew Thompson R. The prevalence, intensities and risk factors associated with geohelminth infection in tea-growing communities of Assam, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:688-701 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors for infection with Ascaris, hookworms and Trichuris in three tea-growing communities in Assam, India...
  21. Fujiwara R, Geiger S, Bethony J, Mendez S. Comparative immunology of human and animal models of hookworm infection. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:285-93 pubmed
    ..Over the past years, the use of animal models in hookworm infections has been driven by the search of new anthelminthic therapies and, especially, vaccine development...
  22. Hotez P, Bethony J, Oliveira S, Brindley P, Loukas A. Multivalent anthelminthic vaccine to prevent hookworm and schistosomiasis. Expert Rev Vaccines. 2008;7:745-52 pubmed publisher
    ..A multivalent anthelminthic vaccine for hookworm infection and schistosomiasis would represent an important new tool for combating disease and poverty...
  23. Brooker S, Clements A, Hotez P, Hay S, Tatem A, Bundy D, et al. The co-distribution of Plasmodium falciparum and hookworm among African schoolchildren. Malar J. 2006;5:99 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that the control of parasitic helminths and of malaria in school children could be viewed as essential co-contributors to promoting the health of schoolchildren. ..
  24. Phuc T, Mihrshahi S, Casey G, Phu L, Tien N, Caruana S, et al. Lessons learned from implementation of a demonstration program to reduce the burden of anemia and hookworm in women in Yen Bai Province, Viet Nam. BMC Public Health. 2009;9:266 pubmed publisher
    ..In March 2008 the program was expanded to all districts in the province, a target population of approximately 250,000 WRA, and management was handed over to provincial authorities. ..
  25. Hotez P, Bethony J, Bottazzi M, Brooker S, Buss P. Hookworm: "the great infection of mankind". PLoS Med. 2005;2:e67 pubmed
  26. van Eijk A, Lindblade K, Odhiambo F, Peterson E, Rosen D, Karanja D, et al. Geohelminth Infections among pregnant women in rural western Kenya; a cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e370 pubmed publisher
    ..7 cm, 95% CI 0.3-1.2 cm). Hookworm infections with an egg count > or =1000/gram feces (11 women) were associated with lower hemoglobin (adjusted mean ..
  27. Feary J, Venn A, Brown A, Hooi D, Falcone F, Mortimer K, et al. Safety of hookworm infection in individuals with measurable airway responsiveness: a randomized placebo-controlled feasibility study. Clin Exp Allergy. 2009;39:1060-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Suitably powered trials are now indicated to determine the clinical effectiveness of hookworm infection in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma. ..
  28. Gaze S, McSorley H, Daveson J, Jones D, Bethony J, Oliveira L, et al. Characterising the mucosal and systemic immune responses to experimental human hookworm infection. PLoS Pathog. 2012;8:e1002520 pubmed publisher
  29. Gilgen D, Mascie Taylor C. The effect of anthelmintic treatment on helminth infection and anaemia. Parasitology. 2001;122 Pt 1:105-10 pubmed
    ..Significant negative associations were found between hookworm egg counts and ferritin levels and Trichuris trichiura egg counts and haemoglobin concentration. ..
  30. Hotez P, Brooker S, Bethony J, Bottazzi M, Loukas A, Xiao S. Hookworm infection. N Engl J Med. 2004;351:799-807 pubmed
  31. Kabatereine N, Tukahebwa E, Kazibwe F, Twa Twa J, Barenzi J, Zaramba S, et al. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Uganda: epidemiology and cost of control. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:1187-9 pubmed
    ..Based on preliminary cost analysis of an ongoing school-based control programme, the financial delivery cost per school-child treated with albendazole is estimated to be between US dollar 0.04 and 0.08 in different districts. ..
  32. Larocque R, Gyorkos T. Should deworming be included in antenatal packages in hookworm-endemic areas of developing countries?. Can J Public Health. 2006;97:222-4 pubmed
    ..Future research should be directed towards 1) strengthening the evidence base with empirical data from randomized controlled trials, and 2) furthering our understanding related to government uptake of the WHO policy on deworming. ..
  33. Ashford R, Craig P, Oppenheimer S. Polyparasitism on the Kenya coast. 1. Prevalence, and association between parasitic infections. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1992;86:671-9 pubmed
    ..There was no evidence of positive or negative influence of one infection on another. ..
  34. Soukhathammavong P, Sayasone S, Phongluxa K, Xayaseng V, Utzinger J, Vounatsou P, et al. Low efficacy of single-dose albendazole and mebendazole against hookworm and effect on concomitant helminth infection in Lao PDR. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1417 pubmed publisher
    ..Since Opisthorchis viverrini is co-endemic in our study setting, the effect of the two drugs could also be determined against this liver fluke...
  35. Bethony J, Loukas A, Smout M, Brooker S, Mendez S, Plieskatt J, et al. Antibodies against a secreted protein from hookworm larvae reduce the intensity of hookworm infection in humans and vaccinated laboratory animals. FASEB J. 2005;19:1743-5 pubmed
    ..These findings provide strong support for the development of an effective recombinant vaccine against hookworm infection in humans...
  36. Kabatereine N, Brooker S, Koukounari A, Kazibwe F, Tukahebwa E, Fleming F, et al. Impact of a national helminth control programme on infection and morbidity in Ugandan schoolchildren. Bull World Health Organ. 2007;85:91-9 pubmed
    ..mansoni infection at baseline. Anthelmintic treatment delivered as part of a national helminth control programme can decrease infection and morbidity among schoolchildren and improve haemoglobin concentration. ..
  37. Smith J, Brooker S. Impact of hookworm infection and deworming on anaemia in non-pregnant populations: a systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:776-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Haemoglobin concentration (Hb) was compared between uninfected individuals and individuals harbouring hookworm infections of different intensities, expressed as standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI)..
  38. Conlan J, Khamlome B, Vongxay K, Elliot A, Pallant L, Sripa B, et al. Soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Laos: a community-wide cross-sectional study of humans and dogs in a mass drug administration environment. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:624-34 pubmed publisher
    ..Hookworm prevalence in village dogs was 94%, and the dominant species was A. ceylanicum. Necator americanus was also detected in dogs. It appears that dogs have a role in human hookworm transmission and warrant further investigation...
  39. Ngui R, Ching L, Kai T, Roslan M, Lim Y. Molecular identification of human hookworm infections in economically disadvantaged communities in Peninsular Malaysia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2012;86:837-42 pubmed publisher
    Species identification of human hookworm infections among eight communities in rural areas of Peninsular Malaysia was determined during 2009-2011...
  40. Booth M, Bundy D, Albonico M, Chwaya H, Alawi K, Savioli L. Associations among multiple geohelminth species infections in schoolchildren from Pemba Island. Parasitology. 1998;116 ( Pt 1):85-93 pubmed
    ..paper presents a detailed analysis of the associations among Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm infections in 1539 schoolchildren on Pemba Island, Tanzania, where 58% of the sampled children carried infections of ..
  41. Utzinger J, Muller I, Vounatsou P, Singer B, N Goran E, Tanner M. Random spatial distribution of Schistosoma mansoni and hookworm infections among school children within a single village. J Parasitol. 2003;89:686-92 pubmed
    ..mansoni and hookworm, confirming the focal nature of these 2 parasites. On the other hand, S. mansoni and hookworm infections exhibited random spatial patterns within the main village...
  42. Yori P, Kosek M, Gilman R, Cordova J, Bern C, Chavez C, et al. Seroepidemiology of strongyloidiasis in the Peruvian Amazon. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:97-102 pubmed
    ..02-1.06) were associated with an increased risk of a positive S. stercoralis ELISA result. The ELISA had a negative predictive value of 98% and is an excellent screening test for strongyloidiasis. ..
  43. Acevedo Whitehouse K, Spraker T, Lyons E, Melin S, Gulland F, Delong R, et al. Contrasting effects of heterozygosity on survival and hookworm resistance in California sea lion pups. Mol Ecol. 2006;15:1973-82 pubmed
    ..Our study could have important implications for the conservation of small, isolated or threatened populations, particularly when they are at a risk of facing pathogenic challenges...
  44. Tanner S, Leonard W, McDade T, Reyes Garcia V, Godoy R, Huanca T. Influence of helminth infections on childhood nutritional status in lowland Bolivia. Am J Hum Biol. 2009;21:651-6 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate the difficulty of assessing nutritional impacts of endemic infections. ..
  45. Nacher M, Singhasivanon P, Traore B, Dejvorakul S, Phumratanaprapin W, Looareesuwan S, et al. Short report: Hookworm infection is associated with decreased body temperature during mild Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2001;65:136-7 pubmed
    ..5 +/- 0.9 and 38 +/- 0.8, respectively; P < 0.001). Thus, we suggest the age dependence of the pyrogenic threshold could have been confounded by the epidemiology of iron deficiency. ..
  46. Saathoff E, Olsen A, Kvalsvig J, Appleton C. Patterns of geohelminth infection, impact of albendazole treatment and re-infection after treatment in schoolchildren from rural KwaZulu-Natal/South-Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2004;4:27 pubmed
    ..This article describes the baseline situation and the effect of treatment on geohelminth infection in a rural part of the province...
  47. Casey G, Sartori D, Horton S, Phuc T, Phu L, Thach D, et al. Weekly iron-folic acid supplementation with regular deworming is cost-effective in preventing anaemia in women of reproductive age in Vietnam. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e23723 pubmed publisher
  48. Saathoff E, Olsen A, Kvalsvig J, Geissler P. Geophagy and its association with geohelminth infection in rural schoolchildren from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:485-90 pubmed
    ..lumbricoides reinfection. In contrast, differences in prevalence of T. trichiura and hookworm infection between groups with different soil preference were small...
  49. Mendez S, Zhan B, Goud G, Ghosh K, Dobardzic A, Wu W, et al. Effect of combining the larval antigens Ancylostoma secreted protein 2 (ASP-2) and metalloprotease 1 (MTP-1) in protecting hamsters against hookworm infection and disease caused by Ancylostoma ceylanicum. Vaccine. 2005;23:3123-30 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that combination of two or more antigens may present an effective vaccine development strategy to improve protection and/or disease symptoms in affected individuals...
  50. Ensink J, van der Hoek W, Mukhtar M, Tahir Z, Amerasinghe F. High risk of hookworm infection among wastewater farmers in Pakistan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005;99:809-18 pubmed
  51. Gyorkos T, Larocque R, Casapia M, Gotuzzo E. Lack of risk of adverse birth outcomes after deworming in pregnant women. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006;25:791-4 pubmed
  52. Nkuo Akenji T, Chi P, Cho J, Ndamukong K, Sumbele I. Malaria and helminth co-infection in children living in a malaria endemic setting of mount Cameroon and predictors of anemia. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1191-5 pubmed
    ..This difference in prevalence was significant (chi2 = 6.734, P = 0.031). Multiple regression analysis exposed fever (P > 0.001) and age (P = 0.004) as significant predictors of anemia...
  53. Pasricha S, Caruana S, Phuc T, Casey G, Jolley D, Kingsland S, et al. Anemia, iron deficiency, meat consumption, and hookworm infection in women of reproductive age in northwest Vietnam. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:375-81 pubmed
    ..Intake of meat was more clearly associated with hemoglobin and iron indices than hookworm. An approach to addressing iron deficiency in this population should emphasize both iron supplementation and deworming...
  54. Ezeamama A, McGarvey S, Acosta L, Zierler S, Manalo D, Wu H, et al. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e245 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia...
  55. Brooker S, Clements A. Spatial heterogeneity of parasite co-infection: Determinants and geostatistical prediction at regional scales. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:591-7 pubmed publisher
  56. Pullan R, Bethony J, Geiger S, Correa Oliveira R, Brooker S, Quinnell R. Human helminth co-infection: no evidence of common genetic control of hookworm and Schistosoma mansoni infection intensity in a Brazilian community. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:299-306 pubmed publisher
  57. Kounnavong S, Vonglokham M, Houamboun K, Odermatt P, Boupha B. Soil-transmitted helminth infections and risk factors in preschool children in southern rural Lao People's Democratic Republic. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:160-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventive measures should address important risk factors. Health education regarding personal hygiene, appropriate water management and the construction and proper use of latrines are additional essential elements...
  58. Albonico M, de Carneri I, Di Matteo L, Ghiglietti R, Toscano P, Uledi M, et al. Intestinal parasitic infections of urban and rural children on Pemba Island: implications for control. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1993;87:579-83 pubmed
    ..There were no significant differences between the results from the urban area and those from the rural area. The observations are important in the planning of control activities...
  59. Lyons E, Melin S, DeLong R, Orr A, Gulland F, Tolliver S. Current prevalence of adult Uncinaria spp. in northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) and California sea lion (Zalophus californianus) pups on San Miguel Island, California, with notes on the biology of these hookworms. Vet Parasitol. 2001;97:309-18 pubmed
    ..One hookworm larva was recovered from milk stripped from the teats of a stranded Z. californianus female at The Marine Mammal Center, Sausalito, CA...
  60. Lyons E, DeLong R, Spraker T, Melin S, Tolliver S. Observations in 2001 on hookworms ( Uncinaria spp.) in otariid pinnipeds. Parasitol Res. 2003;89:503-5 pubmed
    ..The apparent zero infection rate in these pups is possibly because the rocky terrain of this rookery is not suitable for hookworm transmission...
  61. Mitreva M, McCarter J, Arasu P, Hawdon J, Martin J, Dante M, et al. Investigating hookworm genomes by comparative analysis of two Ancylostoma species. BMC Genomics. 2005;6:58 pubmed
    ..Applying genomics techniques to these species, we analyzed 3,840 and 3,149 genes from Ancylostoma caninum and A. ceylanicum...
  62. Do T, Mølbak K, Phung D, Dalsgaard A. Helminth infections among people using wastewater and human excreta in peri-urban agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12 Suppl 2:82-90 pubmed
    ..To assess the prevalence of helminth infections and their associated risks in a community using both wastewater and human excreta in agriculture and aquaculture...
  63. Mihrshahi S, Casey G, Montresor A, Phuc T, Thach D, Tien N, et al. The effectiveness of 4 monthly albendazole treatment in the reduction of soil-transmitted helminth infections in women of reproductive age in Viet Nam. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1037-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The study also highlights the important contribution of education to women's health...
  64. Appleton C, Mosala T, Levin J, Olsen A. Geohelminth infection and re-infection after chemotherapy among slum-dwelling children in Durban, South Africa. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:249-61 pubmed publisher
    ..trichiura infections at 12 months post-treatment compared with approximately 23% at baseline. Hookworm infections did not re-appear after treatment...
  65. Sato M, Sanguankiat S, Yoonuan T, Pongvongsa T, Keomoungkhoun M, Phimmayoi I, et al. Copro-molecular identification of infections with hookworm eggs in rural Lao PDR. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:617-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The positives by the Kato-Katz method, and by the combined hookworm/Trichostrongylus specific-PCR, were comparable, although the agreement between the two methodologies was only 50%...
  66. Jiraanankul V, Aphijirawat W, Mungthin M, Khositnithikul R, Rangsin R, Traub R, et al. Incidence and risk factors of hookworm infection in a rural community of central Thailand. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:594-8 pubmed publisher
    ..ceylanicum were also detected. Our data suggest transmission of both human and animal hookworms in this community. Thus, prevention and control strategies of hookworm infection should cover both human and animal infection...
  67. Brooker S, Peshu N, Warn P, Mosobo M, Guyatt H, Marsh K, et al. The epidemiology of hookworm infection and its contribution to anaemia among pre-school children on the Kenyan coast. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1999;93:240-6 pubmed
    ..This relationship held for all ages, both sexes, and was independent of socioeconomic factors. The application of attributable morbidity methods confirmed the contribution of hookworm infection to anaemia...
  68. Fleming F, Brooker S, Geiger S, Caldas I, Correa Oliveira R, Hotez P, et al. Synergistic associations between hookworm and other helminth species in a rural community in Brazil. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:56-64 pubmed
    ..To identify possible synergistic associations of hookworm and other helminths...
  69. Aikawa R, Ngyen C, Sasaki S, Binns C. Risk factors for iron-deficiency anaemia among pregnant women living in rural Vietnam. Public Health Nutr. 2006;9:443-8 pubmed
    ..To assess the prevalence of anaemia in rural Vietnam and to determine its risk factors...
  70. Le Huong T, Brouwer I, Nguyen K, Burema J, Kok F. The effect of iron fortification and de-worming on anaemia and iron status of Vietnamese schoolchildren. Br J Nutr. 2007;97:955-62 pubmed
    ..Chronic infection or other unidentified factors may play an important role in the seasonal reduction of anaemia seen in all treatment groups...
  71. Flohr C, Tuyen L, Lewis S, Minh T, Campbell J, Britton J, et al. Low efficacy of mebendazole against hookworm in Vietnam: two randomized controlled trials. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:732-6 pubmed
    ..We recommend that efficacy of anti-helminth therapies is pilot tested before implementation of national gut worm control programs...
  72. Calis J, Phiri K, Faragher E, Brabin B, Bates I, Cuevas L, et al. Severe anemia in Malawian children. N Engl J Med. 2008;358:888-99 pubmed publisher
    ..Severe anemia is a major cause of sickness and death in African children, yet the causes of anemia in this population have been inadequately studied...
  73. Hesham Al Mekhlafi M, Surin J, Atiya A, Ariffin W, Mohammed Mahdy A, Che Abdullah H. Pattern and predictors of soil-transmitted helminth reinfection among aboriginal schoolchildren in rural Peninsular Malaysia. Acta Trop. 2008;107:200-4 pubmed publisher
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    ..The 746 (76.4%) children on whom baseline Hb was available were included in this study...
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    ..trichiura from 127-246, and of hookworm from 122-267. Host age, sex and household size were found to be significant factors influencing faecal egg output, and indirect measure of the intensity of the helminth infections...
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    ..This is particularly critical when samples are not preserved, even over short periods of time, and even with formalin preservation...
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    ..mansoni egg count (increments of 10 eggs/g) were -0.011 microgram/L and -0.012 microgram/L, respectively. Iron deficiency was a problem in this population and hookworm infections contributed significantly to this situation.
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    ..mansoni and hookworm infections and the underlying mechanisms...