onchocerciasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with nematodes of the genus ONCHOCERCA. Characteristics include the presence of firm subcutaneous nodules filled with adult worms, PRURITUS, and ocular lesions.

Top Publications

  1. Kipp W, Bamhuhiiga J, Rubaale T, Büttner D. Adverse reactions to ivermectin treatment in Simulium neavei-transmitted onchocerciasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:621-3 pubmed
    To assess adverse effects of ivermectin treatment in a Simulium neavei-transmitted focus of onchocerciasis, a study was conducted with 1,246 patients infected with Onchocerca volvulus in eight villages in western Uganda...
  2. Rodríguez Pérez M, Katholi C, Hassan H, Unnasch T. Large-scale entomologic assessment of Onchocerca volvulus transmission by poolscreen PCR in Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:1026-33 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that O. volvulus transmission in Mexico has been suppressed or brought to a level that may be insufficient to sustain the parasite population...
  3. Cupp E, Richards F, Lammie P, Eberhard M. Efficacy of ivermectin against Onchocerca volvulus in Ghana. Lancet. 2007;370:1123; author reply 1124-5 pubmed
  4. Chagas A, Medeiros J, Astolfi Filho S, Py Daniel V. Anticoagulant activity in salivary gland homogenates of Thyrsopelma guianense (Diptera: Simuliidae), the primary vector of onchocerciasis in the Brazilian Amazon. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2010;105:174-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first report on the activity of salivary gland proteins from the main vector of onchocerciasis in Brazil...
  5. Fobi G, Mourou Mbina J, Ozoh G, Kombila M, Agaya C, Olinga Olinga J, et al. [Onchocerciasis in the area of Lastourville, Gabon. Clinical and entomological aspects]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2006;99:269-71 pubmed
    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has implemented a series of surveys aimed at evaluating the long-term impact of its activities. The region of Lastourville (Gabon) is one of the selected sites for this study...
  6. Ndyomugyenyi R, Lakwo T, Habomugisha P, Male B. Progress towards the elimination of onchocerciasis as a public-health problem in Uganda: opportunities, challenges and the way forward. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:323-33 pubmed
    The national onchocerciasis-control programme in Uganda successfully eliminated Simulium neavei s.s. from the Itwara focus in 1997, by monthly ground spraying with larvicidal temophos (Abate)...
  7. Sréter T, Széll Z. Onchocercosis: a newly recognized disease in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:1-13 pubmed
    ..As infections in dogs may provide a practical experimental system, further studies should be encouraged to try to establish experimental Onchocerca infections in dogs...
  8. Korten S, Hoerauf A, Kaifi J, Buttner D. Low levels of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and reduced suppression of Th2-mediated inflammation in hyperreactive human onchocerciasis. Parasitology. 2011;138:35-45 pubmed publisher
    ..It is pronounced in hyperreactive onchocerciasis patients ('sowda' or 'local form'), who efficiently kill microfilariae resulting in severe dermatitis and ..
  9. Hira P, Al Buloushi A, Khalid N, Iqbal J, Bain O, Eberhard M. Zoonotic filariasis in the Arabian Peninsula: autochthonous onchocerciasis and dirofilariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:739-41 pubmed
    ..but could not be definitively identified. This patient represents the 15th reported case of zoonotic onchocerciasis in a country that is not endemic for human onchocerciasis...

More Information

Publications140 found, 100 shown here

  1. Njongmeta L, Nfon C, Gilbert J, Makepeace B, Tanya V, Trees A. Cattle protected from onchocerciasis by ivermectin are highly susceptible to infection after drug withdrawal. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1069-74 pubmed
    Ivermectin administration is now the major tool in the control of human onchocerciasis (caused by Onchocerca volvulus) based on its suppression of microfilariae and hence the prevention of disease...
  2. Krueger A, Fischer P, Morales Hojas R. Molecular phylogeny of the filaria genus Onchocerca with special emphasis on Afrotropical human and bovine parasites. Acta Trop. 2007;101:1-14 pubmed
    ..One species, O. volvulus, is a human parasite that can cause severe disease (onchocerciasis or 'river blindness')...
  3. Turner H, Churcher T, Walker M, Osei Atweneboana M, Prichard R, Basanez M. Uncertainty surrounding projections of the long-term impact of ivermectin treatment on human onchocerciasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2169 pubmed publisher
    ..have indicated that annual (or biannual) ivermectin distribution may lead to local elimination of human onchocerciasis in certain African foci...
  4. Timmann C, van der Kamp E, Kleensang A, Konig I, Thye T, Büttner D, et al. Human genetic resistance to Onchocerca volvulus: evidence for linkage to chromosome 2p from an autosome-wide scan. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:427-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Several lines of evidence suggest a relevant influence of human genetics...
  5. Rodríguez Pérez M, Unnasch T, Domínguez Vázquez A, Morales Castro A, Richards F, Peña Flores G, et al. Lack of active Onchocerca volvulus transmission in the northern Chiapas focus of Mexico. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:15-20 pubmed publisher
    The northern Chiapas onchocerciasis focus has undergone 11 years of ivermectin mass treatment...
  6. Kaiser C, Rubaale T, Tukesiga E, Kipp W, Kabagambe G, Ojony J, et al. Association between onchocerciasis and epilepsy in the Itwara hyperendemic focus, West Uganda: controlling for time and intensity of exposure. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;85:225-8 pubmed publisher
    In 38 pairs of epilepsy patients and controls matched for time and intensity of exposure to transmission of onchocerciasis, the presence of microfilariae in the skin of epilepsy patients was found insignificantly elevated compared with ..
  7. Awadzi K, Attah S, Addy E, Opoku N, Quartey B, Lazdins Helds J, et al. Thirty-month follow-up of sub-optimal responders to multiple treatments with ivermectin, in two onchocerciasis-endemic foci in Ghana. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:359-70 pubmed
    ..These observations confirm the existence of populations of adult female O. volvulus that respond poorly to repeated doses of ivermectin. The use of suramin in the treatment of the sub-optimal responders is discussed...
  8. Katabarwa M, Habomugisha P, Richards F, Hopkins D. Community-directed interventions strategy enhances efficient and effective integration of health care delivery and development activities in rural disadvantaged communities of Uganda. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:312-21 pubmed
    ..a desired coverage of the ultimate treatment goal (UTG) of at least 90% with ivermectin distribution for onchocerciasis control, and filled the gap between the health care services and the communities...
  9. Brieger W, Okeibunor J, Abiose A, Ndyomugyenyi R, Kisoka W, Wanji S, et al. Feasibility of measuring compliance to annual ivermectin treatment in the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:260-8 pubmed
    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) sponsors annual distribution of ivermectin to control onchocerciasis...
  10. Guevara A, Vieira J, Lilley B, Lopez A, Vieira N, Rumbea J, et al. Entomological evaluation by pool screen polymerase chain reaction of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in Ecuador following mass Mectizan distribution. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:222-7 pubmed
    ..by pool screen polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification in the three river basins in Ecuador endemic for onchocerciasis. Mass distribution of ivermectin (Mectizan) resulted in dramatic declines in the prevalence of infected and ..
  11. Molyneux D, Bradley M, Hoerauf A, Kyelem D, Taylor M. Mass drug treatment for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:516-22 pubmed
  12. Awadzi K, Edwards G, Opoku N, Ardrey A, Favager S, Addy E, et al. The safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of levamisole alone, levamisole plus ivermectin, and levamisole plus albendazole, and their efficacy against Onchocerca volvulus. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:595-614 pubmed
    ..The pathogenesis of the adverse events and the drug-drug interactions are discussed. ..
  13. Duke B. Evidence for macrofilaricidal activity of ivermectin against female Onchocerca volvulus: further analysis of a clinical trial in the Republic of Cameroon indicating two distinct killing mechanisms. Parasitology. 2005;130:447-53 pubmed
    ..volvulus of other drugs, which are closely related to ivermectin, come to be investigated...
  14. Ardelli B, Guerriero S, Prichard R. Ivermectin imposes selection pressure on P-glycoprotein from Onchocerca volvulus: linkage disequilibrium and genotype diversity. Parasitology. 2006;132:375-86 pubmed
    Widespread use of ivermectin (IVM) as part of the Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP) in West Africa could influence the evolution of the human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus...
  15. Turner H, Osei Atweneboana M, Walker M, Tettevi E, Churcher T, Asiedu O, et al. The cost of annual versus biannual community-directed treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin: Ghana as a case study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2452 pubmed publisher
    ..biannual (twice yearly) mass community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) might improve the chances of onchocerciasis elimination in some African foci...
  16. Achukwi M, Harnett W, Bradley J, Renz A. Onchocerca ochengi acquisition in zebu Gudali cattle exposed to natural transmission: parasite population dynamics and IgG antibody subclass responses to Ov10/Ov11 recombinant antigens. Vet Parasitol. 2004;122:35-49 pubmed
    ..ochengi parasites in zebu cattle, apart from being season, sex (gender) and host age associated, may also suggest a density-dependent regulation of parasite establishment in a proportion of the exposed population...
  17. Ozoh G, Boussinesq M, Bissek A, Kobangue L, Kombila M, Mbina J, et al. Evaluation of the diethylcarbamazine patch to evaluate onchocerciasis endemicity in Central Africa. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:123-9 pubmed
    As part of a baseline data collection for assessing the impact of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control, to evaluate the diethylcarbamazine (DEC) patch test in determining the endemicity of onchocerciasis.
  18. Korten S, Badusche M, Büttner D, Hoerauf A, Brattig N, Fleischer B. Natural death of adult Onchocerca volvulus and filaricidal effects of doxycycline induce local FOXP3+/CD4+ regulatory T cells and granzyme expression. Microbes Infect. 2008;10:313-24 pubmed publisher
    ..revealed that dead adult worms were strongly associated with FOXP3+T cells in generalized hyporeactive onchocerciasis. FOXP3+ cells hardly expressed granzymes, but cell contacts with granzyme A+ or B+ cells were frequent...
  19. Brattig N, Schwohl A, Rickert R, Büttner D. The filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus generates the lipid mediator prostaglandin E(2). Microbes Infect. 2006;8:873-9 pubmed
    ..Release of PGE(2) from live or moribund filariae can affect the host s metabolism and immune response in favor of the filarial parasite. ..
  20. Prischich F, De Rinaldis M, Bruno F, Egeo G, Santori C, Zappaterreno A, et al. High prevalence of epilepsy in a village in the Littoral Province of Cameroon. Epilepsy Res. 2008;82:200-10 pubmed publisher
    ..the prevalence of epilepsy in a small village located in a geographically isolated area, hyper-endemic for onchocerciasis. It was followed by an electro-clinical evaluation of patients and a case-control study...
  21. Kisinza W, Kisoka W, Mutalemwa P, Njau J, Tenu F, Nkya T, et al. Community directed interventions for malaria, tuberculosis and vitamin A in onchocerciasis endemic districts of Tanzania. Tanzan J Health Res. 2008;10:232-9 pubmed
    ..The study was carried out in onchocerciasis endemic districts of Kilosa, Muheza, Lushoto, Korogwe and Ulanga districts in Tanzania...
  22. Basanez M, Razali K, Renz A, Kelly D. Density-dependent host choice by disease vectors: epidemiological implications of the ideal free distribution. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:256-69 pubmed
    ..Density dependence in the contact rate of infectious diseases transmitted by insects may be an important non-linear process with implications for their epidemiology and control...
  23. Uni S, Bain O, Agatsuma T, Harada M, Torii H, Fukuda M, et al. Onchocerca eberhardi n. sp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from sika deer in Japan; relationships between species parasitic in cervids and bovids in the Holarctic region. Parasite. 2007;14:199-211 pubmed
  24. Hoerauf A, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Buttner M, Debrah A, Konadu P, Mand S, et al. Effects of 6-week azithromycin treatment on the Wolbachia endobacteria of Onchocerca volvulus. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:279-86 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2002, in an endemic area in Ghana, 37 onchocerciasis patients were treated for 6 weeks with azithromycin: 23 patients received 250 mg every day, and 14 took 1,200 ..
  25. Sauerbrey M. The Onchocerciasis Elimination Program for the Americas (OEPA). Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102 Suppl 1:25-9 pubmed publisher
    Human onchocerciasis (river blindness) occurs in 13 foci distributed among six countries in Latin America (Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Mexico and Venezuela), where about 500,000 people are considered at risk...
  26. Richards F, Amann J, Arana B, Punkosdy G, Klein R, Blanco C, et al. No depletion of Wolbachia from Onchocerca volvulus after a short course of rifampin and/or azithromycin. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:878-82 pubmed
    ..Short courses with these antibiotics will not clear Wolbachia from O. volvulus. ..
  27. Bourguinat C, Pion S, Kamgno J, Gardon J, Duke B, Boussinesq M, et al. Genetic selection of low fertile Onchocerca volvulus by ivermectin treatment. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007;1:e72 pubmed
    Onchocerca volvulus is the causative agent of onchocerciasis, or "river blindness"...
  28. Basanez M, Pion S, Boakes E, Filipe J, Churcher T, Boussinesq M. Effect of single-dose ivermectin on Onchocerca volvulus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2008;8:310-22 pubmed publisher
    The broad-spectrum antiparasitic drug ivermectin was licensed for use against onchocerciasis in 1987, yet the mechanisms by which it exerts a fast decrease and long-lasting suppression of Onchocerca volvulus microfilaridermia, and ..
  29. Hopkins A. Challenges for the integration of mass drug administrations against multiple 'neglected tropical diseases'. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103 Suppl 1:S23-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Nevertheless, integration should not be forced for the sake of policy. Where things fit well they should be developed, where not, coordination within the primary-healthcare system can produce an equally long-lasting impact. ..
  30. Duerr H, Raddatz G, Eichner M. Control of onchocerciasis in Africa: threshold shifts, breakpoints and rules for elimination. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:581-9 pubmed publisher
    Control of onchocerciasis in Africa is currently based on annual community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) which has been assumed to be not efficient enough to bring about elimination...
  31. Uttah E, Ibeh D. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011;48:197-204 pubmed
    The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species of microfilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations.
  32. Cupp E, Cupp M. Short report: impact of ivermectin community-level treatments on elimination of adult Onchocerca volvulus when individuals receive multiple treatments per year. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:1159-61 pubmed
    ..The effect is particularly obvious on adult male worms and suggests that this gender is susceptible to repetitive treatment after transmission has been blocked or greatly reduced as a result of community treatment. ..
  33. Gonzalez R, Cruz Ortiz N, Rizzo N, Richards J, Zea Flores G, Dominguez A, et al. Successful interruption of transmission of Onchocerca volvulus in the Escuintla-Guatemala focus, Guatemala. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e404 pubmed publisher
    Elimination of onchocerciasis (river blindness) through mass administration of ivermectin in the six countries in Latin America where it is endemic is considered feasible due to the relatively small size and geographic isolation of ..
  34. Murdoch M. Onchodermatitis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2010;23:124-31 pubmed publisher
    ..This review is timely because awareness of the burden of disease from onchodermatitis has increased significantly over recent years. Recent progress in the field is reviewed with emphasis on publications within the past 2 years...
  35. Traoré M, Sarr M, Badji A, Bissan Y, Diawara L, Doumbia K, et al. Proof-of-principle of onchocerciasis elimination with ivermectin treatment in endemic foci in Africa: final results of a study in Mali and Senegal. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1825 pubmed publisher
    Mass treatment with ivermectin controls onchocerciasis as a public health problem, but it was not known if it could also interrupt transmission and eliminate the parasite in endemic foci in Africa where vectors are highly efficient...
  36. Omura S, Crump A. The life and times of ivermectin - a success story. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2004;2:984-9 pubmed
    ..The drug is now being used, free of charge, in two global disease-elimination programmes that are benefiting millions of the world's poorest people...
  37. Cho Ngwa F, Daggfeldt A, Titanji V, Grönvik K. Preparation and characterization of specific monoclonal antibodies for the detection of adult worm infections in onchocerciasis. Hybridoma (Larchmt). 2005;24:283-90 pubmed
    ..of Onchocerca in vivo are required to accelerate the development of new macrofilaricides in river blindness (onchocerciasis)...
  38. Hopkins D, Richards F, Ruiz Tiben E, Emerson P, Withers P. Dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and trachoma. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2008;1136:45-52 pubmed
    The four diseases discussed in this chapter (dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and trachoma) are among the officially designated "Neglected Tropical Diseases," and each is also both the result of and a contributor ..
  39. Tamarozzi F, Tendongfor N, Enyong P, Esum M, Faragher B, Wanji S, et al. Long term impact of large scale community-directed delivery of doxycycline for the treatment of onchocerciasis. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:53 pubmed publisher
    ..superior to ivermectin and of great potential as an alternative approach for the treatment and control of onchocerciasis, particularly in areas of Loa loa co-endemicity...
  40. Kutin K, Kruppa T, Brenya R, Garms R. Efficiency of Simulium sanctipauli as a vector of Onchocerca volvulus in the forest zone of Ghana. Med Vet Entomol. 2004;18:167-73 pubmed
    ..Onchocercidae) in the forest zone of central Ghana was studied in the Upper Denkyira district, where onchocerciasis is hyperendemic...
  41. Boussinesq M. Onchocerciasis control: biological research is still needed. Parasite. 2008;15:510-4 pubmed
    Achievements obtained by the onchocerciasis control programmes should not lead to a relaxation in the biological research on Onchocerco volvulus...
  42. Gutman J, Emukah E, Okpala N, Okoro C, Obasi A, Miri E, et al. Effects of annual mass treatment with ivermectin for onchocerciasis on the prevalence of intestinal helminths. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:534-41 pubmed publisher
    We evaluated the effect of annual ivermectin (IV) distribution for onchocerciasis on the prevalence of soil transmitted helminth (STH) infections in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PAC) children by comparing children in villages ..
  43. Emukah E, Osuoha E, Miri E, Onyenama J, Amazigo U, Obijuru C, et al. A longitudinal study of impact of repeated mass ivermectin treatment on clinical manifestations of onchocerciasis in Imo State, Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:556-61 pubmed
    ..g., nodules not identified in the 1995 examinations). Differences in community coverage did not appear to influence the benefit from treatment of individual residents. ..
  44. Thylefors B, Alleman M. Towards the elimination of onchocerciasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2006;100:733-46 pubmed
    Human onchocerciasis is a severely disabling filarial disease that is endemic in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen...
  45. Amazigo U. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC). Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102 Suppl 1:19-22 pubmed publisher
    The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) was launched in 1995, ultimately to eliminate human onchocerciasis from the African countries in which the disease was endemic...
  46. Thylefors B. The Mectizan Donation Program (MDP). Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102 Suppl 1:39-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Inc., created a number of new opportunities for onchocerciasis control...
  47. Semiyaga N, Lalobo O, Ndyomugyenyi R. Refusal to take ivermectin: the associated 'risk' factors in Hoima district, Uganda. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:165-72 pubmed
    Community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI), for the control of onchocerciasis, was launched in Uganda in 1997...
  48. Achukwi M, Harnett W, Enyong P, Renz A. Successful vaccination against Onchocerca ochengi infestation in cattle using live Onchocerca volvulus infective larvae. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:113-6 pubmed
    ..l. in sub-Saharan Africa could lead to the protection of humans against onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca volvulus (zooprophylaxis)...
  49. Traore S, Wilson M, Sima A, Barro T, Diallo A, Ake A, et al. The elimination of the onchocerciasis vector from the island of Bioko as a result of larviciding by the WHO African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control. Acta Trop. 2009;111:211-8 pubmed publisher
    ..of Bioko is part of the Republic of Equatorial Guinea and is the only island in the World to have endemic onchocerciasis. The disease is hyperendemic and shows a forest-type epidemiology with low levels of blindness and high levels ..
  50. Cheke R, Garms R. Indices of onchocerciasis transmission by different members of the Simulium damnosum complex conflict with the paradigm of forest and savanna parasite strains. Acta Trop. 2013;125:43-52 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis in savanna zones is generally more severe than in the forest and pathologies also differ geographically, differences often ascribed to the existence of two or more strains and incompatibilities between vectors and strains...
  51. Takaoka H, Bain O, Uni S, Korenaga M, Kozek W, Shirasaka C, et al. Zoonotic onchocerciasis caused by a parasite from wild boar in Oita, Japan. A comprehensive analysis of morphological characteristics of the worms for its diagnosis. Parasite. 2004;11:285-92 pubmed
    ..d. japonica. Four of the 10 zoonotic cases of onchocerciasis reported worldwide were from Oita, three of them being caused by O. d...
  52. Ardelli B, Guerriero S, Prichard R. Characterization of a half-size ATP-binding cassette transporter gene which may be a useful marker for ivermectin selection in Onchocerca volvulus. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2006;145:94-100 pubmed
    ..Ivermectin (IVM) is the only drug approved for treatment of onchocerciasis and is a substrate for some ABC transporters...
  53. Hoerauf A. Filariasis: new drugs and new opportunities for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2008;21:673-81 pubmed publisher
    Chemotherapy against onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis has been discussed mainly within the framework of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine, ivermectin and albendazole...
  54. Rodríguez Pérez M, Unnasch T, Real Najarro O. Assessment and monitoring of onchocerciasis in Latin America. Adv Parasitol. 2011;77:175-226 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis has historically been one of the leading causes of infectious blindness worldwide. It is endemic to tropical regions both in Africa and Latin America and in the Yemen...
  55. Beytut E, Akca A, Bain O. Teat onchocercosis in cows with reference to prevalence, species involved and pathology. Res Vet Sci. 2005;78:45-51 pubmed
    ..The presence of extensive teat lesions along with microfilariae of the Onchocerca species as found in this study warrants further assessment of the impact of onchocercosis on dairy farming...
  56. Tekle A, Zouré H, Wanji S, Leak S, Noma M, Remme J, et al. Integrated rapid mapping of onchocerciasis and loiasis in the Democratic Republic of Congo: impact on control strategies. Acta Trop. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S81-90 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis can be effectively controlled by annual mass treatment with ivermectin in endemic communities...
  57. Nfon C, Makepeace B, Njongmeta L, Tanya V, Trees A. Lack of resistance after re-exposure of cattle cured of Onchocerca ochengi infection with oxytetracycline. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:67-72 pubmed
    ..control and ivermectin chemotherapy have led to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of river blindness (onchocerciasis), there is a consensus that additional control tools are required to sustain and extend this success...
  58. Rodríguez Pérez M, Lutzow Steiner M, Segura Cabrera A, Lizarazo Ortega C, Domínguez Vázquez A, Sauerbrey M, et al. Rapid suppression of Onchocerca volvulus transmission in two communities of the Southern Chiapas focus, Mexico, achieved by quarterly treatments with Mectizan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:239-44 pubmed
    ..two formerly hyperendemic communities (Las Golondrinas and Las Nubes II) located in the main endemic focus for onchocerciasis in Southern Chiapas, Mexico...
  59. Coffeng L, Stolk W, Zoure H, Veerman J, Agblewonu K, Murdoch M, et al. African Programme For Onchocerciasis Control 1995-2015: model-estimated health impact and cost. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2032 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis causes a considerable disease burden in Africa, mainly through skin and eye disease. Since 1995, the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) has coordinated annual mass treatment with ivermectin in 16 countries...
  60. Druet Cabanac M, Boussinesq M, Dongmo L, Farnarier G, Bouteille B, Preux P. Review of epidemiological studies searching for a relationship between onchocerciasis and epilepsy. Neuroepidemiology. 2004;23:144-9 pubmed
    A review and a meta-analysis of the available epidemiological literature for evidence of an association between onchocerciasis infection and epilepsy were carried out...
  61. Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Uni S, Bain O, Takaoka H. Genetic evidence for the presence of two species of Onchocerca from the wild boar in Japan. Parasite. 2010;17:33-7 pubmed
    ..order to clarify the genetic differences between Onchocerca dewittei japonica, the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan and a related undescribed Onchocerca sp...
  62. Kirch A, Duerr H, Boatin B, Alley W, Hoffmann W, Schulz Key H, et al. Impact of parental onchocerciasis and intensity of transmission on development and persistence of Onchocerca volvulus infection in offspring: an 18 year follow-up study. Parasitology. 2003;127:327-35 pubmed
    ..Longitudinal follow up of children showed that during vector control activities by the Onchocerciasis Control Programme (OCP) and in low-level transmission areas, infection persisted at higher levels in children ..
  63. Tielsch J, Beeche A. Impact of ivermectin on illness and disability associated with onchocerciasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:A45-56 pubmed
    The Onchocerciasis Control Program (OCP), one of the most successful vertical disease control programs in the history of public health, came to an end in 2003 with devolvement of responsibilities for control program activities passed to ..
  64. Duerr H, Raddatz G, Eichner M. Diagnostic value of nodule palpation in onchocerciasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:148-54 pubmed
    ..is the major diagnostic tool for determining the prevalence of infection in areas of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) and is recommended for identifying communities at risk and selecting them for mass drug ..
  65. Njepuome N, Hopkins D, Richards F, Anagbogu I, Pearce P, Jibril M, et al. Nigeria's war on terror: fighting dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis at the grassroots. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:691-8 pubmed
    Africa's populous country, Nigeria, contains or contained more cases of dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, lymphatic filariasis, and schistosomiasis than any other African nation and ranks or ranked first (dracunculiasis, onchocerciasis, ..
  66. Katabarwa M, Habomugisha P, Agunyo S, McKelvey A, Ogweng N, Kwebiiha S, et al. Traditional kinship system enhanced classic community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2010;104:265-72 pubmed publisher
    The challenges of community-directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis control in Africa have been: maintaining a desired treatment coverage, demand for monetary incentives, high attrition of community distributors and ..
  67. Fukuda M, Takaoka H, Uni S, Bain O. Infective larvae of five Onchocerca species from experimentally infected Simulium species in an area of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Japan. Parasite. 2008;15:111-9 pubmed
    Microfilariae of five Onchocerca species, O. dewittei japonica (the causative agent of zoonotic onchocerciasis in Oita, Kyushu, Japan) from wild boar (Sus scrofa), O. skrjabini and O. eberhardi from sika deer (Cenus nippon), O...
  68. Gustavsen K, Hopkins A, Sauerbrey M. Onchocerciasis in the Americas: from arrival to (near) elimination. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:205 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis (river blindness) is a blinding parasitic disease that threatens the health of approximately 120 million people worldwide...
  69. Coffeng L, Pion S, O Hanlon S, Cousens S, Abiose A, Fischer P, et al. Onchocerciasis: the pre-control association between prevalence of palpable nodules and skin microfilariae. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2168 pubmed publisher
    The prospect of eliminating onchocerciasis from Africa by mass treatment with ivermectin has been rejuvenated following recent successes in foci in Mali, Nigeria and Senegal...
  70. Rodríguez Pérez M, Domínguez Vázquez A, Mendez Galvan J, Sifuentes Rincón A, Larralde Corona P, Barrera Saldaña H, et al. Antibody detection tests for Onchocerca volvulus: comparison of the sensitivity of a cocktail of recombinant antigens used in the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with a rapid-format antibody card test. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:539-41 pubmed
    There is a need for a specific, sensitive, and practical diagnostic test to monitor onchocerciasis elimination campaigns...
  71. Brattig N, Schwohl A, Hoerauf A, Büttner D. Identification of the lipid mediator prostaglandin E2 in tissue immune cells of humans infected with the filaria Onchocerca volvulus. Acta Trop. 2009;112:231-5 pubmed publisher
    ..was preferentially observed in the infiltrating macrophages in patients with a generalized hyporeactive onchocerciasis and less in patients with the hyperreactive form...
  72. Ozoh G, Murdoch M, Bissek A, Hagan M, Ogbuagu K, Shamad M, et al. The African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control: impact on onchocercal skin disease. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:875-83 pubmed publisher
    To assess the long-term impact of the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control on itching and onchocercal skin disease (OSD).
  73. Pion S, Nana Djeunga H, Kamgno J, Tendongfor N, Wanji S, Njiokou F, et al. Dynamics of Onchocerca volvulus microfilarial densities after ivermectin treatment in an ivermectin-naïve and a multiply treated population from Cameroon. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2084 pubmed publisher
    Ivermectin has been the keystone of onchocerciasis control for the last 25 years. Sub-optimal responses to the drug have been reported in Ghanaian communities under long-term treatment...
  74. Jolodar A, Fischer P, Bergmann S, Büttner D, Hammerschmidt S, Brattig N. Molecular cloning of an alpha-enolase from the human filarial parasite Onchocerca volvulus that binds human plasminogen. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2003;1627:111-20 pubmed
    ..The recognition by antibodies in sera of O. volvulus-infected persons indicate an involvement of the protein in the interaction between the parasite and the human host...
  75. Ndyomugyenyi R, Kabatereine N. Integrated community-directed treatment for the control of onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths infections in Uganda: advantages and disadvantages. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:997-1004 pubmed
    b>Onchocerciasis is co-endemic with schistosomiasis and intestinal helminths infections, which are all diseases of the rural and the poorest communities in Africa...
  76. Kaiser C, Asaba G, Kasoro S, Rubaale T, Kabagambe G, Mbabazi M. Mortality from epilepsy in an onchocerciasis-endemic area in West Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:48-55 pubmed
    ..from epilepsy was investigated in a rural area of West Uganda where epilepsy is found to be closely linked to onchocerciasis. Thirty-three female and 28 male patients (age range 4-58 years, median 15 years) were identified in a ..
  77. Colatrella B. The Mectizan Donation Program: 20 years of successful collaboration - a retrospective. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102 Suppl 1:7-11 pubmed publisher
    ..of local community healthworkers - to treat a debilitating, disfiguring and often blinding disease called onchocerciasis (river blindness)...
  78. Churcher T, Basanez M. Sampling strategies to detect anthelmintic resistance: the perspective of human onchocerciasis. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:11-7 pubmed publisher
  79. Otubanjo O, Adeoye G, Ibidapo C, Akinsanya B, Okeke P, Atalabi T, et al. Adverse reactions from community directed treatment with ivermectin (CDTI) for onchocerciasis and loiasis in Ondo State, Nigeria. Rev Biol Trop. 2008;56:1635-43 pubmed
    b>Onchocerciasis is an endemic disease in Ondo state, Nigeria. Community directed distribution of ivermectin is currently on-going in some local government areas of the state...
  80. Brieger W, Okeibunor J, Abiose A, Wanji S, Elhassan E, Ndyomugyenyi R, et al. Compliance with eight years of annual ivermectin treatment of onchocerciasis in Cameroon and Nigeria. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:152 pubmed publisher
    As the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC) matured into its 10th year of ensuring community involvement in mass annual treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin, there was recognition of a need to study not only annual ..
  81. Otranto D, Dantas Torres F, Cebeci Z, Yeniad B, Buyukbabani N, Boral O, et al. Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:84 pubmed publisher
    ..Other Onchocerca spp. have been sporadically reported as zoonotic agents. Cases of canine onchocerciasis caused by Onchocerca lupi are on the rise in the United States and Europe...
  82. Fischer P, Bonow I, Büttner D, Kamal I, Liebau E. An aspartate aminotransferase of Wolbachia endobacteria from Onchocerca volvulus is recognized by IgG1 antibodies from residents of endemic areas. Parasitol Res. 2003;90:38-47 pubmed
    ..These results also show that an intracellular protein of Wolbachia endobacteria (WolAspAT) acts as antigen in human filariasis...
  83. Brattig N. Pathogenesis and host responses in human onchocerciasis: impact of Onchocerca filariae and Wolbachia endobacteria. Microbes Infect. 2004;6:113-28 pubmed
    Onchocerca volvulus is a tissue-invasive parasitic nematode causing skin and eye pathology in human onchocerciasis. The filariae habour abundant intracellular Wolbachia bacteria, now recognised as obligatory symbionts, and therefore ..
  84. Trpis M. Consequences of vector behavior in epidemiology of onchocerciasis on the Firestone Rubber Plantation in Liberia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:833-40 pubmed
    In the current study, we have assessed the distribution of black fly vectors and the occurrence of onchocerciasis among residents of the Firestone Rubber Plantation (FRP) in Liberia...
  85. Amazigo U, Boatin B. The future of onchocerciasis control in Africa. Lancet. 2006;368:1946-7 pubmed
  86. Vieira J, Cooper P, Lovato R, Mancero T, Rivera J, Proaño R, et al. Impact of long-term treatment of onchocerciasis with ivermectin in Ecuador: potential for elimination of infection. BMC Med. 2007;5:9 pubmed
    b>Onchocerciasis is a leading cause of blindness worldwide, hence elimination of the infection is an important health priority...
  87. Talani P, Missamou F, Kankou J, Niabe B, Obengui -, Moyen G. [Rapid epidemiological mapping of onchocerciasis in Congo Brazzaville]. Dakar Med. 2005;50:164-7 pubmed
    A cross sectional study was carried out from the 6th of June to the 30th of September 2000 in order to determine the areas of transmission of onchocerciasis.
  88. Post R, Mustapha M, Krueger A. Taxonomy and inventory of the cytospecies and cytotypes of the Simulium damnosum complex (Diptera: Simuliidae) in relation to onchocerciasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12:1342-53 pubmed
    ..There are 183 inversions known from the complex as a whole, of which 49% are fixed and/or diagnostic between cytoforms, and the fixed/diagnostic inversions seem to occur disproportionately on chromosome arm 2L...
  89. Katabarwa M, Lakwo T, Habumogisha P, Richards F, Eberhard M. Could neurocysticercosis be the cause of "onchocerciasis-associated" epileptic seizures?. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:400-1 pubmed
    We conducted a nodule prevalence survey in four onchocerciasis sentinel communities in Moyo and two in Kanungu districts of Uganda. Seven (33...
  90. Liebau E, Höppner J, Mühlmeister M, Burmeister C, Lüersen K, Perbandt M, et al. The secretory omega-class glutathione transferase OvGST3 from the human pathogenic parasite Onchocerca volvulus. FEBS J. 2008;275:3438-53 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis or river blindness, caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus, is the second leading cause of blindness due to infectious diseases. The protective role of the omega-class glutathione transferase 3 from O...
  91. Gloeckner C, Garner A, Mersha F, Oksov Y, Tricoche N, Eubanks L, et al. Repositioning of an existing drug for the neglected tropical disease Onchocerciasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010;107:3424-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Onchocerciasis, or river blindness, is a neglected tropical disease caused by the filarial nematode Onchocerca volvulus that affects more than 37 million people, mainly in third world countries...
  92. Brattig N, Tenner Racz K, Korten S, Hoerauf A, Büttner D. Immunohistology of ectopic secondary lymph follicles in subcutaneous nodules from patients with hyperreactive onchocerciasis (sowda). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:657-66 pubmed publisher
    ..composition of secondary lymph follicles in subcutaneous nodules from eight patients with hyperreactive onchocerciasis (synonymous "localised" form or sowda) using immunohistology...