filarial elephantiasis


Summary: Parasitic infestation of the human lymphatic system by WUCHERERIA BANCROFTI or BRUGIA MALAYI. It is also called lymphatic filariasis.

Top Publications

  1. Das P, Vanamail P. Probability risk transmission matrix as a decision tool for assessing methods of transmission interruption of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Epidemiol Infect. 2008;136:520-4 pubmed
    ..2 is considered to be the threshold for confirming interruption of transmission. Thus, the relationship has been depicted in the form of a probability matrix, which could be used for selecting an appropriate control strategy...
  2. Babu B, Nayak A. Treatment costs and work time loss due to episodic adenolymphangitis in lymphatic filariasis patients in rural communities of Orissa, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:1102-9 pubmed
    ..The results demonstrate the extent of the economic burden caused by acute LF and provide justification for strengthening the ongoing LF elimination programme. ..
  3. Mathieu E, Lammie P, Radday J, Beach M, Streit T, Wendt J, et al. Factors associated with participation in a campaign of mass treatment against lymphatic filariasis, in Leogane, Haiti. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2004;98:703-14 pubmed
    ..9; CI = 1.2-7.5) were found to be positively associated with taking the drugs. Information from such post-treatment surveys should be useful in developing better health communication for subsequent MDA. ..
  4. Michael E, Malecela Lazaro M, Kabali C, Snow L, Kazura J. Mathematical models and lymphatic filariasis control: endpoints and optimal interventions. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:226-33 pubmed
  5. Anand S, Gnanasekar M, Thangadurai M, Prabhu P, Kaliraj P, Ramaswamy K. Immune response studies with Wuchereria bancrofti vespid allergen homologue (WbVAH) in human lymphatic filariasis. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:981-8 pubmed
    ..Further vaccination studies are underway in animal models to determine the role of WbVAH in protective immunity against W. bancrofti and B. malayi infections...
  6. Ichimori K, Crump A. Pacific collaboration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:441-4 pubmed
  7. Critchley J, Addiss D, Ejere H, Gamble C, Garner P, Gelband H. Albendazole for the control and elimination of lymphatic filariasis: systematic review. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:818-25 pubmed
    ..32 to 1.21, n=491), with a significant difference for density. The effect of albendazole against adult and larval filarial parasites, alone and in combination with other antifilarial drugs, deserves further rigorous research. ..
  8. Yuvaraj J, Pani S, Vanamail P, Ramaiah K, Das P. Impact of seven rounds of mass administration of diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin on prevalence of chronic lymphatic filariasis in south India. Trop Med Int Health. 2008;13:737-42 pubmed publisher
    ..To evaluate the impact of seven rounds of mass administration of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and ivermectin on the prevalence of chronic lymphatic filariasis and to compare it with that observed in a placebo arm in a community-level trial...
  9. Goldman A, Guisinger V, Aikins M, Amarillo M, Belizario V, Garshong B, et al. National mass drug administration costs for lymphatic filariasis elimination. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2007;1:e67 pubmed
    ..The results highlight the impact of the use of volunteers on program costs and provide specific cost data for 7 different countries that can be used as a basis both for modifying current programs and for developing new ones. ..

More Information


  1. Rathaur S, Yadav M, Gupta S, Anandharaman V, Reddy M. Filarial glutathione-S-transferase: a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis. Vaccine. 2008;26:4094-100 pubmed publisher
    ..The overall observations prompted us to envisage ScGST as a potential vaccine candidate against lymphatic filariasis...
  2. Melrose W. Chemotherapy for lymphatic filariasis: progress but not perfection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2003;1:571-7 pubmed
    ..An alternative strategy - that of targeting symbiont bacteria within the parasite - has also shown promising results. ..
  3. Vanamail P, Ramaiah K, Subramanian S, Pani S, Yuvaraj J, Das P. Pattern of community compliance with spaced, single-dose, mass administrations of diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin, for the elimination of lymphatic filariasis from rural areas of southern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:237-42 pubmed
    ..In terms of the elimination of LF, a semi-systematic pattern of compliance is worse than random compliance but better than systematic. The relevance of the levels and patterns of compliance to LF control or elimination is discussed. ..
  4. Taylor M. Wolbachia in the inflammatory pathogenesis of human filariasis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2003;990:444-9 pubmed
    ..The use of antibiotic therapy to target Wolbachia of filarial parasites may therefore provide a means to prevent the development of filarial pathology. ..
  5. Debrah A, Mand S, Specht S, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Pfarr K, et al. Doxycycline reduces plasma VEGF-C/sVEGFR-3 and improves pathology in lymphatic filariasis. PLoS Pathog. 2006;2:e92 pubmed
  6. Babu S, Blauvelt C, Kumaraswami V, Nutman T. Regulatory networks induced by live parasites impair both Th1 and Th2 pathways in patent lymphatic filariasis: implications for parasite persistence. J Immunol. 2006;176:3248-56 pubmed
    ..Hence, we conclude that a profound impairment of live parasite-specific Th1 and Th2 immune responses occurs in lymphatic filariasis that is governed at the transcriptional level by a complex interplay of inhibitory mediators. ..
  7. Michael E, Malecela Lazaro M, Kazura J. Epidemiological modelling for monitoring and evaluation of lymphatic filariasis control. Adv Parasitol. 2007;65:191-237 pubmed
  8. Cantey P, Rao G, Rout J, Fox L. Predictors of compliance with a mass drug administration programme for lymphatic filariasis in Orissa State, India 2008. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:224-31 pubmed publisher
    ..Promoting a simple public health message before MDA distribution, which takes into account barriers to and predictors of adherence, could raise compliance with the LF MDA programme. ..
  9. Noroes J, Addiss D, Cedenho A, Figueredo Silva J, Lima G, Dreyer G. Pathogenesis of filarial hydrocele: risk associated with intrascrotal nodules caused by death of adult Wuchereria bancrofti. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:561-6 pubmed
    ..02). Acute hydrocele occurs frequently following death of adult W. bancrofti and single episodes of scrotal nodule formation. Chronic hydrocele may develop following 5.1% of these episodes. ..
  10. Babu B, Satyanarayana K. Factors responsible for coverage and compliance in mass drug administration during the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in the East Godavari District, South India. Trop Doct. 2003;33:79-82 pubmed
    ..The study identified some key factors to be followed for the success of the programme...
  11. Talbot J, Viall A, Direny A, De Rochars M, Addiss D, Streit T, et al. Predictors of compliance in mass drug administration for the treatment and prevention of lymphatic filariasis in Leogane, Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:283-8 pubmed
    ..12-6.70), as well as for people who lacked knowledge about both LF and programs to eliminate infection. Public health programs should be designed to target people who are at risk for systematic noncompliance. ..
  12. Esterre P, Plichart C, Huin Blondey M, Nguyen L. Soluble cellular adhesion molecules, selectins, VEGF and endothelin-1 in patients with Wuchereria bancrofti infection and association with clinical status. Parasite Immunol. 2005;27:9-16 pubmed
  13. Gambhir M, Michael E. Complex ecological dynamics and eradicability of the vector borne macroparasitic disease, lymphatic filariasis. PLoS ONE. 2008;3:e2874 pubmed publisher
  14. Moreno Y, Geary T. Stage- and gender-specific proteomic analysis of Brugia malayi excretory-secretory products. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e326 pubmed publisher
  15. Cuenco K, Halloran M, Louis Charles J, Lammie P. A family study of lymphedema of the leg in a lymphatic filariasis-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:180-4 pubmed
    ..This family study will be useful to investigate the role of genes and environment in the development of filarial-related lymphedema. ..
  16. Shenoy R, Suma T, Kumaraswami V, Rahmah N, Dhananjayan G, Padma S. Antifilarial drugs, in the doses employed in mass drug administrations by the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis, reverse lymphatic pathology in children with Brugia malayi infection. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:235-47 pubmed publisher
    ..The implications of these findings are presented and discussed. ..
  17. Babu B, Kar S. Coverage, compliance and some operational issues of mass drug administration during the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Orissa, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:702-9 pubmed
    ..It is essential to improve compliance in future rounds of MDA to achieve targets of control and eventual elimination of LF in a reasonable time frame. ..
  18. Durrheim D, Wynd S, Liese B, Gyapong J. Editorial: Lymphatic filariasis endemicity--an indicator of poverty?. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:843-5 pubmed
  19. Bockarie M, Kazura J. Lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: prospects for elimination. Med Microbiol Immunol. 2003;192:9-14 pubmed
  20. Snow L, Bockarie M, Michael E. Transmission dynamics of lymphatic filariasis: vector-specific density dependence in the development of Wuchereria bancrofti infective larvae in mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol. 2006;20:261-72 pubmed
  21. Tisch D, Michael E, Kazura J. Mass chemotherapy options to control lymphatic filariasis: a systematic review. Lancet Infect Dis. 2005;5:514-23 pubmed
    ..These results provide valuable estimates of drug effect using existing data, but highlight the need for more comprehensive comparative drug studies. ..
  22. Gnanasekar M, Rao K, He Y, Mishra P, Nutman T, Kaliraj P, et al. Novel phage display-based subtractive screening to identify vaccine candidates of Brugia malayi. Infect Immun. 2004;72:4707-15 pubmed
    ..The present study suggests that phage display-based cDNA screening may be a powerful tool to identify candidate vaccine antigens of infectious agents...
  23. Fischer P, Erickson S, Fischer K, Fuchs J, Rao R, Christensen B, et al. Persistence of Brugia malayi DNA in vector and non-vector mosquitoes: implications for xenomonitoring and transmission monitoring of lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:502-7 pubmed
  24. Shenoy R, Suma T, Kumaraswami V, Rahmah N, Dhananjayan G, Padma S, et al. Preliminary findings from a cross-sectional study on lymphatic filariasis in children, in an area of India endemic for Brugia malayi infection. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:205-13 pubmed
    ..Even these preliminary results have important implications for filariasis-control programmes and emphasise the need for disability-alleviation efforts among children as well as adults. ..
  25. Bockarie M, Taylor M, Gyapong J. Current practices in the management of lymphatic filariasis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2009;7:595-605 pubmed publisher
    ..The role of integrated vector management as a supplementary strategy for mass drug administration and new strategies for treatment and morbidity control through antibiotic targeting of the Wolbachia endosymbionts are also discussed. ..
  26. Ramaiah K, Das P, Vanamail P, Pani S. The impact of six rounds of single-dose mass administration of diethylcarbamazine or ivermectin on the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti by Culex quinquefasciatus and its implications for lymphatic filariasis elimination programmes. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:1082-92 pubmed
  27. Kerketta A, Babu B, Rath K, Jangid P, Nayak A, Kar S. A randomized clinical trial to compare the efficacy of three treatment regimens along with footcare in the morbidity management of filarial lymphoedema. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:698-705 pubmed
    ..4, 1.5 and 4.0 respectively for regimen I, II and III. Thus affordable treatments with simple antibiotics and foot care can give substantial relief to the patients and reverse early lymphoedema. ..
  28. Taylor M, Makunde W, McGarry H, Turner J, Mand S, Hoerauf A. Macrofilaricidal activity after doxycycline treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti: a double-blind, randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2005;365:2116-21 pubmed
    ..We used this strategy to investigate the effects of doxycycline treatment on the major cause of lymphatic filariasis, Wuchereria bancrofti...
  29. Mathieu E, Deming M, Lammie P, McLaughlin S, Beach M, Deodat D, et al. Comparison of methods for estimating drug coverage for filariasis elimination, Leogane Commune, Haiti. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2003;97:501-5 pubmed
    ..These methods may have a role for monitoring drug treatment coverage between less frequent, but more costly, probability sample surveys...
  30. Mohammed K, Molyneux D, Albonico M, Rio F. Progress towards eliminating lymphatic filariasis in Zanzibar: a model programme. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:340-4 pubmed
  31. El Setouhy M, Abd Elaziz K, Helmy H, Farid H, Kamal H, Ramzy R, et al. The effect of compliance on the impact of mass drug administration for elimination of lymphatic filariasis in Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:1069-73 pubmed
    ..These results underscore the importance of compliance for LF elimination programs based on MDA and suggest that two ingested doses of MDA are as effective as five doses for reducing filariasis infection rates...
  32. Helmy H, Weil G, Ellethy A, Ahmed E, Setouhy M, Ramzy R. Bancroftian filariasis: effect of repeated treatment with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on microfilaraemia, antigenaemia and antifilarial antibodies. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006;100:656-62 pubmed
    ..These findings have important implications regarding strategies for monitoring the effects of MDA in populations...
  33. Grady C, De Rochars M, Direny A, Orelus J, Wendt J, Radday J, et al. Endpoints for lymphatic filariasis programs. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:608-10 pubmed
    ..After 5 years of treatment, microfilaremia, antigenemia, and mosquito infection rates were significantly reduced, but LF transmission was not interrupted. These finding have implications for other LF elimination programs...
  34. Supali T, Djuardi Y, Pfarr K, Wibowo H, Taylor M, Hoerauf A, et al. Doxycycline treatment of Brugia malayi-infected persons reduces microfilaremia and adverse reactions after diethylcarbamazine and albendazole treatment. Clin Infect Dis. 2008;46:1385-93 pubmed publisher
    ..We assessed whether doxycycline alone or in combination with diethylcarbamazine-albendazole would lead to sustained amicrofilaremia and reduced incidence of adverse reactions...
  35. Semnani R, Nutman T. Toward an understanding of the interaction between filarial parasites and host antigen-presenting cells. Immunol Rev. 2004;201:127-38 pubmed
  36. Ramaiah K, Das P. Mass drug administration to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in India. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:499-502 pubmed
    ..On the basis of various studies in south India, this article assesses the costs, effectiveness and economic and social benefits of the MDA programmes aimed at eliminating lymphatic filariasis...
  37. Rajan T. Neonatal tolerance and patent filarial infection. Trends Parasitol. 2007;23:459-62 pubmed
    ..If the model is correct, there are profound implications for global eradication...
  38. Krishna Kumari A, Harichandrakumar K, Das L, Krishnamoorthy K. Physical and psychosocial burden due to lymphatic filariasis as perceived by patients and medical experts. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:567-73 pubmed
    ..Morbidity management programmes should be broadened to include counselling, rehabilitation and health education to manage the psychosocial problems caused by LF...
  39. Richards F, Pam D, Kal A, Gerlong G, Onyeka J, Sambo Y, et al. Significant decrease in the prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti infection in anopheline mosquitoes following the addition of albendazole to annual, ivermectin-based, mass treatments in Nigeria. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:155-64 pubmed
    ..6%) and infectivity (down to 0.4%) were observed (P<0.0001 for each). The combination of albendazole and ivermectin appears to be superior to ivermectin alone for reducing the frequency of W. bancrofti infection in mosquitoes...
  40. Debrah A, Mand S, Toliat M, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Nurnberg P, et al. Plasma vascular endothelial growth Factor-A (VEGF-A) and VEGF-A gene polymorphism are associated with hydrocele development in lymphatic filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;77:601-8 pubmed
    ..412, P = 0.026) was observed between plasma VEGF-A and stage of hydrocele. The data suggest that the C polymorphism at -460 is a genetic risk factor for hydrocele development in lymphatic filariasis...
  41. Molyneux D, Bradley M, Hoerauf A, Kyelem D, Taylor M. Mass drug treatment for lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:516-22 pubmed
  42. Cuenco K, Halloran M, Lammie P. Assessment of families for excess risk of lymphedema of the leg in a lymphatic filariasis-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:185-90 pubmed
    ..Twelve of the 15 families had a male with lymphedema, which influenced the interpretation of the results. The significance of these results is discussed...
  43. Duerr H, Dietz K, Eichner M. Determinants of the eradicability of filarial infections: a conceptual approach. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:88-96 pubmed
  44. Ottesen E. Lymphatic filariasis: Treatment, control and elimination. Adv Parasitol. 2006;61:395-441 pubmed
  45. Thomas G, Richards F, Eigege A, Dakum N, Azzuwut M, Sarki J, et al. A pilot program of mass surgery weeks for treatment of hydrocele due to lymphatic filariasis in central Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:447-51 pubmed
    ..The eversion technique gives an acceptable outcome, and MSW are safe and effective if strict attention is paid to preoperative screening of candidates and asepsis...
  46. Tisch D, Bockarie M, Dimber Z, Kiniboro B, Tarongka N, Hazlett F, et al. Mass drug administration trial to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Papua New Guinea: changes in microfilaremia, filarial antigen, and Bm14 antibody after cessation. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:289-93 pubmed
    ..These data suggest that Bm14 antibody may be a sensitive test to monitor continuing transmission during and after mass drug administration aimed at eliminating transmission of lymphatic filariasis...
  47. Ravindran B. Aping Jane Goodall: insights into human lymphatic filariasis. Trends Parasitol. 2003;19:105-9 pubmed
    ..This article offers critical comments and highlights the insights acquired from such studies...
  48. Chandrasena T, Premaratna R, Muthugala M, Pathmeswaran A, de Silva N. Modified Dermatology Life Quality Index as a measure of quality of life in patients with filarial lymphoedema. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:245-9 pubmed
    ..Disease severity and early onset lymphoedema were found to be significantly associated with poorer QoL in filarial lymphoedema...
  49. Beau de Rochars M, Milord M, St Jean Y, Désormeaux A, Dorvil J, Lafontant J, et al. Geographic distribution of lymphatic filariasis in Haiti. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:598-601 pubmed
    ..1%) communes were all 250 children antigen negative. Thus, W. bancrofti infection in Haiti is much more widespread than previously realized; virtually the entire population of the country may be considered at risk of infection...
  50. Babu B, Hazra R, Chhotray G, Satyanarayana K. Knowledge and beliefs about elephantiasis and hydrocele of lymphatic filariasis and some socio-demographic determinants in an endemic community of Eastern India. Public Health. 2004;118:121-7 pubmed
    This study reports the knowledge and beliefs about filarial elephantiasis and hydrocele of people from an endemic area of Orissa, India...
  51. Mathieu E, Direny A, De Rochars M, Streit T, Addiss D, Lammie P. Participation in three consecutive mass drug administrations in Leogane, Haiti. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:862-8 pubmed
    ..We wanted to know the drug coverage, the proportion of persons who were systematically non-compliant and factors associated with this behaviour...
  52. Stolk W, Swaminathan S, van Oortmarssen G, Das P, Habbema J. Prospects for elimination of bancroftian filariasis by mass drug treatment in Pondicherry, India: a simulation study. J Infect Dis. 2003;188:1371-81 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the prospects for elimination of bancroftian filariasis by mass treatment in Pondicherry seem good, provided that the level of population coverage is sufficiently high...
  53. Babu B, Nayak A, Dhal K. Epidemiology of episodic adenolymphangitis: a longitudinal prospective surveillance among a rural community endemic for bancroftian filariasis in coastal Orissa, India. BMC Public Health. 2005;5:50 pubmed
    ..The epidemiological knowledge on acute condition of lymphatic filariasis is essential to understand the burden and issues on management of the disease...
  54. Kyelem D, Biswas G, Bockarie M, Bradley M, El Setouhy M, Fischer P, et al. Determinants of success in national programs to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a perspective identifying essential elements and research needs. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:480-4 pubmed
    ..While addressing these challenges is important, many key determinants of program success are already clearly understood; operationalizing these as soon as possible will greatly increase the potential for national program success...
  55. Krentel A, Fischer P, Manoempil P, Supali T, Servais G, Ruckert P. Using knowledge, attitudes and practice (KAP) surveys on lymphatic filariasis to prepare a health promotion campaign for mass drug administration in Alor District, Indonesia. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:1731-40 pubmed
    ..As a result, compliance was sufficient in the first round to successfully begin the elimination process...
  56. Babu B, Swain B, Rath K. Impact of chronic lymphatic filariasis on quantity and quality of productive work among weavers in an endemic village from India. Trop Med Int Health. 2006;11:712-7 pubmed
    ..To assess the impact of hydrocele and lymphoedema on the quantity and quality of productive work of weavers...
  57. Hise A, Hazlett F, Bockarie M, Zimmerman P, Tisch D, Kazura J. Polymorphisms of innate immunity genes and susceptibility to lymphatic filariasis. Genes Immun. 2003;4:524-7 pubmed
  58. Adesiyun A, Samaila M. Huge filarial elephantiasis vulvae in a Nigerian woman with subfertility. Arch Gynecol Obstet. 2008;278:597-600 pubmed publisher
    ..We report a case of huge filarial elephantiasis of the vulva, in a 40-year-old multipara with background history of secondary infertility...
  59. Molyneux D, Zagaria N. Lymphatic filariasis elimination: progress in global programme development. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96 Suppl 2:S15-40 pubmed
  60. Magalhaes T, Oliveira I, Melo Santos M, Oliveira C, Lima C, Ayres C. Expression of defensin, cecropin, and transferrin in Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) infected with Wuchereria bancrofti (Spirurida: Onchocercidae), and the abnormal development of nematodes in the mosquito. Exp Parasitol. 2008;120:364-71 pubmed publisher
    ..aegypti infected with W. bancrofti and provide a description of the worm development inside the insect. The specificities of A. aegypti-W. bancrofti model compared to other mosquito-filaria systems are discussed...
  61. Pichon G. Limitation and facilitation in the vectors and other aspects of the dynamics of filarial transmission: the need for vector control against Anopheles-transmitted filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96 Suppl 2:S143-52 pubmed
  62. McLaughlin S, Radday J, Michel M, Addiss D, Beach M, Lammie P, et al. Frequency, severity, and costs of adverse reactions following mass treatment for lymphatic filariasis using diethylcarbamazine and albendazole in Leogane, Haiti, 2000. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:568-73 pubmed
    ..Minor and moderate reactions are more commonly reported and their management represents a challenge to lymphatic filariasis elimination programs...
  63. Gupta S, Bhandari Y, Reddy M, Harinath B, Rathaur S. Setaria cervi: immunoprophylactic potential of glutathione-S-transferase against filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Exp Parasitol. 2005;109:252-5 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that native GST from S. cervi is effective in inducing protection against heterologous B. malayi filarial parasite and thus has potential in immunoprophylaxis...
  64. Yahathugoda T, Wickramasinghe D, Weerasooriya M, Samarawickrema W. Lymphoedema and its management in cases of lymphatic filariasis: the current situation in three suburbs of Matara, Sri Lanka, before the introduction of a morbidity-control programme. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:501-10 pubmed
    ..6). The DLQI for these subjects will be regularly re-evaluated, as a measure of the effectiveness of the CHBC programme that has now begun...
  65. Ramaiah K, Das P, Vanamail P, Pani S. Impact of 10 years of diethylcarbamazine and ivermectin mass administration on infection and transmission of lymphatic filariasis. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:555-63 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that ten rounds of DEC mass administration have the potential to interrupt transmission of infection in the majority of communities. The outcome was relatively less remarkable with ivermectin...
  66. Noroes J, Figueredo Silva J, Dreyer G. Intrascrotal nodules in adult men as a marker for filarial granuloma in a bancroftian filariasis-endemic area. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:317-21 pubmed
    ..These findings also have potential implications for bancroftian filariasis control programs...
  67. Pedersen E, Stolk W, Laney S, Michael E. The role of monitoring mosquito infection in the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:319-27 pubmed publisher
  68. Mand S, Debrah A, Batsa L, Adjei O, Hoerauf A. Reliable and frequent detection of adult Wuchereria bancrofti in Ghanaian women by ultrasonography. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:1111-4 pubmed
    ..The surprisingly high number of worm nests detectable in microfilaraemic women recommends ultrasonography for diagnosis and treatment efficacy monitoring of female patients infected with W. bancrofti...
  69. De Rochars M, Kanjilal S, Direny A, Radday J, Lafontant J, Mathieu E, et al. The Leogane, Haiti demonstration project: decreased microfilaremia and program costs after three years of mass drug administration. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;73:888-94 pubmed
    ..23 US dollars, 1.96 US dollars, and 1.30 US dollars per person, respectively. The Leogane experience highlights the importance of adapting community education and mobilization campaigns to achieve and maintain good coverage...
  70. Williams S, Laney S, Bierwert L, Saunders L, Boakye D, Fischer P, et al. Development and standardization of a rapid, PCR-based method for the detection of Wuchereria bancrofti in mosquitoes, for xenomonitoring the human prevalence of bancroftian filariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2002;96 Suppl 2:S41-6 pubmed
    ..Two of the four methods stood out as clearly the best and these will be now optimised and evaluated in two further rounds of testing...
  71. Babu B, Mishra S. Mass drug administration under the programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis in Orissa, India: a mixed-methods study to identify factors associated with compliance and non-compliance. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1207-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In many endemic areas, the issues related to non-compliance were taken casually during implementation. Hence, it is imperative to make the programme more efficient by addressing the issues linked to low compliance...
  72. Weil G, Kastens W, Susapu M, Laney S, Williams S, King C, et al. The impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e344 pubmed publisher
    ..This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region...
  73. Babu S, Blauvelt C, Kumaraswami V, Nutman T. Chemokine receptors of T cells and of B cells in lymphatic filarial infection: a role for CCR9 in pathogenesis. J Infect Dis. 2005;191:1018-26 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that chemokine receptors (particularly CCR9) are involved in the pathogenesis of lymphatic filarial disease and that trafficking of particular cellular subsets may influence clinical outcome...
  74. Gyapong J, Kumaraswami V, Biswas G, Ottesen E. Treatment strategies underpinning the global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2005;6:179-200 pubmed
  75. Michael E, Snow L, Bockarie M. Ecological meta-analysis of density-dependent processes in the transmission of lymphatic filariasis: survival of infected vectors. J Med Entomol. 2009;46:873-80 pubmed
  76. El Setouhy M, Ramzy R, Ahmed E, Kandil A, Hussain O, Farid H, et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing single- and multi-dose combination therapy with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole for treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;70:191-6 pubmed
  77. Ottesen E, Hooper P, Bradley M, Biswas G. The global programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: health impact after 8 years. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e317 pubmed publisher
  78. Michael E, Malecela Lazaro M, Simonsen P, Pedersen E, Barker G, Kumar A, et al. Mathematical modelling and the control of lymphatic filariasis. Lancet Infect Dis. 2004;4:223-34 pubmed
  79. Bockarie M, Pedersen E, White G, Michael E. Role of vector control in the global program to eliminate lymphatic filariasis. Annu Rev Entomol. 2009;54:469-87 pubmed publisher
  80. Suma T, Shenoy R, Kumaraswami V. A qualitative study of the perceptions, practices and socio-psychological suffering related to chronic brugian filariasis in Kerala, southern India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:839-45 pubmed
    ..Awareness of these factors will be of help in planning suitable disability-management packages, including the rehabilitation of those who find it difficult to carry on with their existing jobs because of the severity of their disease...
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    ..District health officers seek to integrate treatment activities in areas of overlapping disease endemicity, but they are faced with having to merge different programmatic guidelines...
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    ..A mid-term evaluation was conducted with the objectives to review the progress of the single dose of di-ethyl-carbamazine (DEC) administration, and to understand the functioning of the programme to recommend mid-term amendments...
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    ..It is recommended that a combination of penicillin prophylaxis and affected-limb care be incorporated into filariasis-control programmes, to decrease morbidity...
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    ..The costs of the COMBI(+) and COMBI(+ +) strategies were only U.S.$0.002 and U.S.$0.009 per capita, respectively...
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