Summary: Infections with nematodes of the superfamily FILARIOIDEA. The presence of living worms in the body is mainly asymptomatic but the death of adult worms leads to granulomatous inflammation and permanent fibrosis. Organisms of the genus Elaeophora infect wild elk and domestic sheep causing ischemic necrosis of the brain, blindness, and dermatosis of the face.

Top Publications

  1. Carme B. [Lymphatic filariasis in Republic of Congo and scrotal elephantiasis]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2005;98:363-4 pubmed the fact that data's diffused by WHO which are widely included in the literature, unfortunately present this filariasis as being endemic in the Republic of Congo...
  2. Hübner M, Torrero M, McCall J, Mitre E. Litomosoides sigmodontis: a simple method to infect mice with L3 larvae obtained from the pleural space of recently infected jirds (Meriones unguiculatus). Exp Parasitol. 2009;123:95-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, this method allows for geographical separation of the facility maintaining the L. sigmodontis life cycle from the institution at which mice are infected...
  3. Vij M, Kumari N, Krishnani N. Microfilaria in liver aspiration cytology: an extremely rare finding. Diagn Cytopathol. 2011;39:521-2 pubmed publisher
    b>Filariasis is a common public health problem in the Indian subcontinent. The diagnosis can be made conventionally by demonstrating microfilaria in peripheral blood smears...
  4. Muturi E, Mbogo C, Ng ang a Z, Kabiru E, Mwandawiro C, Novak R, et al. Relationship between malaria and filariasis transmission indices in an endemic area along the Kenyan Coast. J Vector Borne Dis. 2006;43:77-83 pubmed
    An entomological survey was conducted to determine the relationship between malaria and lymphatic filariasis transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. and An. funestus in two inland villages along the Kenyan coast...
  5. Notarnicola J, Digiani M, López P. Redescriptions of the nematodes Litomosoides patersoni (Mazza, 1928) (Onchocercidae) and Stilestrongylus stilesi Freitas, Lent, and Almeida, 1937 (Heligmonellidae) parasites of Holochilus chacarius (Rodentia, Cricetidae) from Salta, Argentina. J Parasitol. 2010;96:993-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..The present work validates and enlarges the original descriptions of both species and assigns the specimens from L. patersoni, recovered from the type locality and the type host species, as neotypes. ..
  6. Vaishnav K, Patel I. Independent assessment of Mass Drug Administration in filariasis affected Surat city. J Commun Dis. 2006;38:149-54 pubmed
    ..However some gray areas also suggest the scope for further improvements. ..
  7. Shakya S, Singh P, Kushwaha S, Misra Bhattacharya S. Adult Brugia malayi approximately 34 kDa (BMT-5) antigen offers Th1 mediated significant protection against infective larval challenge in Mastomys coucha. Parasitol Int. 2009;58:346-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that approximately 34 kDa (BMT-5) molecules present in the MT fraction of adult B. malayi provided sizeable protection against infective larval challenge by generating a Th1 biased milieu in the host. ..
  8. Rao R, Atkinson L, Ramzy R, Helmy H, Farid H, Bockarie M, et al. A real-time PCR-based assay for detection of Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in blood and mosquitoes. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:826-32 pubmed
    ..We believe that real-time PCR has great potential as a tool for monitoring progress in large-scale filariasis elimination programs.
  9. Metenou S, Dembélé B, Konate S, Dolo H, Coulibaly S, Coulibaly Y, et al. Patent filarial infection modulates malaria-specific type 1 cytokine responses in an IL-10-dependent manner in a filaria/malaria-coinfected population. J Immunol. 2009;183:916-24 pubmed publisher
    ..of filarial infections on malaria-specific immune responses was investigated in Malian villages coendemic for filariasis (Fil) and malaria...

More Information


  1. Hoerauf A. New strategies to combat filariasis. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2006;4:211-22 pubmed
    Two of the major filarial infections, lymphatic filariasis (LF) and onchocerciasis, affect 150 million people, while 1 billion living in endemic areas are at risk of infection...
  2. Ogoma S, Lweitoijera D, Ngonyani H, Furer B, Russell T, Mukabana W, et al. Screening mosquito house entry points as a potential method for integrated control of endophagic filariasis, arbovirus and malaria vectors. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2010;4:e773 pubmed publisher confirms that across Africa, screening eaves protects households against important mosquito vectors of filariasis, Rift Valley Fever and O'Nyong nyong as well as malaria...
  3. Landmann F, Voronin D, Sullivan W, Taylor M. Anti-filarial activity of antibiotic therapy is due to extensive apoptosis after Wolbachia depletion from filarial nematodes. PLoS Pathog. 2011;7:e1002351 pubmed publisher
  4. Dakshinamoorthy G, Munirathinam G, Stoicescu K, Reddy M, Kalyanasundaram R. Large extracellular loop of tetraspanin as a potential vaccine candidate for filariasis. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e77394 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic filariasis affects nearly 120 million people worldwide and mass preventive chemotherapy is currently used as a strategy to control this infection...
  5. Takagi H, Itoh M, Kasai S, Yahathugoda T, Weerasooriya M, Kimura E. Development of loop-mediated isothermal amplification method for detecting Wuchereria bancrofti DNA in human blood and vector mosquitoes. Parasitol Int. 2011;60:493-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The LAMP method was able to detect W. bancrofti DNA in 1000 ?l of blood or in a pool of 60 mosquitoes, indicating its usefulness in detecting/monitoring W. bancrofti infection in humans and vector mosquitoes in endemic areas. ..
  6. Fink D, Fahle G, Fischer S, Fedorko D, Nutman T. Toward molecular parasitologic diagnosis: enhanced diagnostic sensitivity for filarial infections in mobile populations. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:42-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data demonstrate the utility of the molecular diagnosis of filarial infections in mobile populations. ..
  7. Poole C, Tanner N, Zhang Y, Evans T, Carlow C. Diagnosis of brugian filariasis by loop-mediated isothermal amplification. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1948 pubmed publisher
    ..The results indicate that the Brugia Hha I repeat LAMP assay is rapid, sensitive and Brugia-specific with the potential to be developed further as a field tool for diagnosis and mapping of brugian filariasis.
  8. Babu S, Bhat S, Kumar N, Anuradha R, Kumaran P, Gopi P, et al. Attenuation of toll-like receptor expression and function in latent tuberculosis by coexistent filarial infection with restoration following antifilarial chemotherapy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e489 pubmed publisher
    ..Definitive treatment of lymphatic filariasis significantly restores the pro-inflammatory cytokine responses in individuals with latent TB...
  9. Liang J, King J, Ichimori K, Handzel T, Pa au M, Lammie P. Impact of five annual rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on Wuchereria bancrofti infection in American Samoa. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:924-8 pubmed
    ..0001). In 2006, antigenemia prevalence was greater in males (1.5%) than females (0.4%) (P = 0.04). The decline in antigenemia prevalence shows the effectiveness of MDA and changes made in social mobilization and drug distribution...
  10. Notarnicola J, Navone G. A new species of Litomosoides Chandler, 1931 (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from the long-nosed hocicudo Oxymycterus nasutus Waterhouse (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in Uruguay. Syst Parasitol. 2009;73:87-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, a new analysis is needed to include the recently described Argentinean species for a better understanding of the diversification of this genus...
  11. Ramzy R, El Setouhy M, Helmy H, Ahmed E, Abd Elaziz K, Farid H, et al. Effect of yearly mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Egypt: a comprehensive assessment. Lancet. 2006;367:992-9 pubmed
    Egypt was one of the first countries to implement a national programme to eliminate lymphatic filariasis based on WHO's strategy of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) with diethylcarbamazine and albendazole (target ..
  12. Gaur R, Dixit S, Sahoo M, Khanna M, Singh S, Murthy P. Anti-filarial activity of novel formulations of albendazole against experimental brugian filariasis. Parasitology. 2007;134:537-44 pubmed
    ..In the jird - B. malayi model, ALB-1 and ALB-4 showed marginal sterilizing efficacy whereas pure ALB or Zentel were ineffective. In conclusion the anti-filarial efficacy of ALB-1 was found to be superior to pure-ALB or Zentel. ..
  13. Jiraamonnimit C, Wongkamchai S, Boitano J, Nochot H, Loymek S, Chujun S, et al. A cohort study on anti-filarial IgG4 and its assessment in good and uncertain MDA-compliant subjects in brugian filariasis endemic areas in southern Thailand. J Helminthol. 2009;83:351-60 pubmed publisher
    ..The IgG4 assay is a sensitive and cost-effective surveillance tool for the early detection of brugian infections that is not contingent on nocturnal blood collections. ..
  14. Uttah E. Prevalence of endemic Bancroftian filariasis in the high altitude region of south-eastern Nigeria. J Vector Borne Dis. 2011;48:78-84 pubmed
  15. Sunish I, Rajendran R, Paramasivan R, Dhananjeyan K, Tyagi B. Wolbachia endobacteria in a natural population of Culex quinquefasciatus from filariasis endemic villages of south India and its phylogenetic implication. Trop Biomed. 2011;28:569-76 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of Wolbachia endobacteria in a natural population of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus was determined by the polymerase chain reaction method...
  16. Notarnicola J, Ruíz F, Gardner S. Litomosoides (Nemata: Filarioidea) of bats from Bolivia with records for three known species and the description of a new species. J Parasitol. 2010;96:775-82 pubmed publisher
    ..All 4 species of nematodes, including the new species, were found in sympatry at Chijchijpa, a locality in the Yungas of Bolivia. ..
  17. Fairlie Clarke K, Lamb T, Langhorne J, Graham A, Allen J. Antibody isotype analysis of malaria-nematode co-infection: problems and solutions associated with cross-reactivity. BMC Immunol. 2010;11:6 pubmed publisher
    ..The potential for cross-reactive antibodies to influence disease outcome is also discussed...
  18. Junpee A, Tencomnao T, Sanprasert V, Nuchprayoon S. Association between Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) polymorphisms and asymptomatic bancroftian filariasis. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:807-16 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic filariasis is mainly caused by the filarial nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi...
  19. Babayan S, Attout T, Harris A, Taylor M, Le Goff L, Vuong P, et al. Vaccination against filarial nematodes with irradiated larvae provides long-term protection against the third larval stage but not against subsequent life cycle stages. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:903-14 pubmed
    Sustainable control of human filariasis would benefit enormously from the development of an effective vaccine. The ability to vaccinate experimental animals, with reductions in worm burden of over 70%, suggests this aim is possible...
  20. Babu S, Blauvelt C, Kumaraswami V, Nutman T. Cutting edge: diminished T cell TLR expression and function modulates the immune response in human filarial infection. J Immunol. 2006;176:3885-9 pubmed
    Patent lymphatic filariasis is characterized by profound Ag-specific T cell hyporesponsiveness with impaired IFN-gamma and IL-2 production...
  21. Anand S, Murugan V, Prabhu P, Anandharaman V, Reddy M, Kaliraj P. Comparison of immunogenicity, protective efficacy of single and cocktail DNA vaccine of Brugia malayi abundant larval transcript (ALT-2) and thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX) in mice. Acta Trop. 2008;107:106-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together, these data suggest that the combination of two or more antigens maybe an effective vaccine development strategy to improve protection and immunogenicity against human lymphatic filariasis.
  22. Regu K, Rajendran R, Ali M, Koya S, Dhariwal A, Lal S. Decline of brugian filariasis in Cherthala taluk, Alappuzha district, Kerala. J Commun Dis. 2005;37:209-18 pubmed
    ..uniformis and Culex quinquefasciatus were prevalent throughout. Complete disappearance of brugian filariasis from this taluk is a distinct possibility. The reasons for the drastic decline are discussed.
  23. Bockarie M, Tavul L, Ibam I, Kastens W, Hazlett F, Tisch D, et al. Efficacy of single-dose diethylcarbamazine compared with diethylcarbamazine combined with albendazole against Wuchereria bancrofti infection in Papua New Guinea. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:62-6 pubmed
  24. Rwegoshora R, Simonsen P, Meyrowitsch D, Malecela Lazaro M, Michael E, Pedersen E. Bancroftian filariasis: house-to-house variation in the vectors and transmission -- and the relationship to human infection -- in an endemic community of coastal Tanzania. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:51-60 pubmed
    ..exposure between households, and the lack of immediate relationship between transmission and detectable human infection at household level, should be taken into account when considering the transmission pattern of lymphatic filariasis.
  25. Taylor M, Van Der Werf N, Harris A, Graham A, Bain O, Allen J, et al. Early recruitment of natural CD4+ Foxp3+ Treg cells by infective larvae determines the outcome of filarial infection. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:192-206 pubmed publisher
    ..Using a permissive murine model of filariasis, Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of inbred mice, we demonstrate rapid recruitment and increased in vivo ..
  26. Koyadun S, Bhumiratana A. Surveillance of imported bancroftian filariasis after two-year multiple-dose diethylcarbamazine treatment. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2005;36:822-31 pubmed
    Myanmar migrants are at increased risk for nocturnally periodic Wuchereria bancrofti causing imported bancroftian filariasis. They have a significant influence on the effectiveness of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) mass treatment at the ..
  27. Chambers E, McClintock S, Avery M, King J, Bradley M, Schmaedick M, et al. Xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis infections in mosquitoes from American Samoa: trapping considerations and a comparison of polymerase chain reaction assays with dissection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:774-81 pubmed
    ..testing of mosquitoes collected using the BG-Sentinel traps represents a promising alternative to landing catches for assessing the transmission of filariasis in areas where Ae. polynesiensis and related species are the primary vectors.
  28. Lambdin B, Schmaedick M, McClintock S, Roberts J, Gurr N, Marcos K, et al. Dry season production of filariasis and dengue vectors in American Samoa and comparison with wet season production. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;81:1013-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The high productivity for Ae. polynesiensis and Ae. aegypti pupae during the wet and dry seasons suggests that dengue and lymphatic filariasis transmission can occur throughout the year, consistent with the reporting of dengue cases.
  29. Morales Hojas R. Molecular systematics of filarial parasites, with an emphasis on groups of medical and veterinary importance, and its relevance for epidemiology. Infect Genet Evol. 2009;9:748-59 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the human diseases caused by members of this group of nematodes are river blindness and lymphatic filariasis, which afflict millions of people in the tropics...
  30. Furtado A, Do Carmo E, Giese E, Vallinoto A, Lanfredi R, Santos J. Detection of dog filariasis in Marajo Island, Brazil by classical and molecular methods. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:1509-15 pubmed publisher
    Canine filariasis in domestic and wild dogs, foxes, and wolves is caused by several species of filarids...
  31. Notarnicola J. Description of adult and fourth-stage larva of Litomosoides navonae n. sp. (Nematoda: Onchocercidae), a parasite of five species of sigmodontine rodents from northeastern Argentina. Syst Parasitol. 2005;62:171-83 pubmed
    ..New regions, such as southern Brazil and northern Argentina, need to be studied in order to clarify these alternatives...
  32. Jambulingam P, Sadanandane C, Boopathi Doss P, Subramanian S, Zaim M. Field evaluation of an insect growth regulator, pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR against Culex quinquefasciatus, the vector of Bancroftian filariasis in Pondicherry, India. Acta Trop. 2008;107:20-4 pubmed publisher
    ..5% GR has a relatively longer residual effect than the other IGRs the operational cost could be minimized. Pyriproxyfen 0.5% GR could be one of the choices in the chemical control strategy in Integrated Vector Control Programmes...
  33. Dixit S, Gaur R, Sahoo M, Joseph S, Murthy P, Murthy P. Protection against L3 induced Brugia malayi infection in Mastomys coucha pre-immunized with BmAFII fraction of the filarial adult worm. Vaccine. 2006;24:5824-31 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, immunization with BmAFII suppresses establishment of L3-induced infection in M. coucha by stimulating proinflammatory responses to L3...
  34. Murthy P, Dixit S, Gaur R, Kumar R, Sahoo M, Shakya N, et al. Influence of Brugia malayi life stages and BmAFII fraction on experimental Leishmania donovani infection in hamsters. Acta Trop. 2008;106:81-9 pubmed publisher
    ..donovani infection in hamsters and this is associated with upregulation of NO and lymphocyte proliferative responses indicating that Th1 response might be responsible for this...
  35. Genchi C, Kramer L, Sassera D, Bandi C. Wolbachia and its implications for the immunopathology of filariasis. Endocr Metab Immune Disord Drug Targets. 2012;12:53-6 pubmed
  36. Kushwaha S, Singh P, Shahab M, Pathak M, Bhattacharya S. In vitro silencing of Brugia malayi trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase impairs embryogenesis and in vivo development of infective larvae in jirds. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1770 pubmed publisher
    ..Trehalose-6-phosphate phosphatase (TPP) is one of the enzymes of trehalose biosynthesis that has not been reported in mammals. Silencing of tpp gene in Caenorhabditis elegans revealed an indispensable functional role of TPP in nematodes...
  37. Gunawardena S, Ismail M, Bradley M, Karunaweera N. Factors influencing drug compliance in the mass drug administration programme against filariasis in the Western province of Sri Lanka. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:445-53 pubmed
    ..done to determine factors influencing drug compliance in the mass drug administration (MDA) programme against filariasis in selected urban and rural populations within the Western province of Sri Lanka...
  38. Schwab A, Churcher T, Schwab A, Basáñez M, Prichard R. An analysis of the population genetics of potential multi-drug resistance in Wuchereria bancrofti due to combination chemotherapy. Parasitology. 2007;134:1025-40 pubmed
    ..ivermectin (IVM) or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) are administered under the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis (GPELF)...
  39. Haas M, Barus V, Benedikt V, Literak I. Microfilariae in birds in the Czech Republic, including a note on adult nematodes Eufilaria delicata in a song thrush Turdus philomelos. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:645-55 pubmed publisher
    ..mavis. Seven adult nematodes E. delicata were found in a subcutaneous cyst on the heel joint in one T. philomelos, which is the first record of adult E. delicata nematodes in birds in the Czech Republic...
  40. Hübner M, Torrero M, Mitre E. Type 2 immune-inducing helminth vaccination maintains protective efficacy in the setting of repeated parasite exposures. Vaccine. 2010;28:1746-57 pubmed publisher
    ..These results demonstrate that vaccines which induce type 2 immune responses can maintain their efficacy in the setting of repeated parasite exposures...
  41. Erickson S, Thomsen E, Keven J, Vincent N, Koimbu G, Siba P, et al. Mosquito-parasite interactions can shape filariasis transmission dynamics and impact elimination programs. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2433 pubmed publisher
    The relationship between mosquito vectors and lymphatic filariasis (LF) parasites can result in a range of transmission outcomes...
  42. Lipner E, Gopi P, Subramani R, Kolappan C, Sadacharam K, Kumaran P, et al. Coincident filarial, intestinal helminth, and mycobacterial infection: helminths fail to influence tuberculin reactivity, but BCG influences hookworm prevalence. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;74:841-7 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that preceding helminth infection does not influence significantly the delayed-type hypersensitivity response to tuberculin...
  43. Cui F, Tan Y, Qiao C. Filariasis vector in China: insecticide resistance and population structure of mosquito Culex pipiens complex. Pest Manag Sci. 2007;63:453-8 pubmed
    ..28, P < 10(-4)), and genetic exchange was slightly restricted by distance isolation (P = 0.018)...
  44. Loke P, Gallagher I, Nair M, Zang X, Brombacher F, Mohrs M, et al. Alternative activation is an innate response to injury that requires CD4+ T cells to be sustained during chronic infection. J Immunol. 2007;179:3926-36 pubmed
    ..However, analogous to classical activation by microbial pathogens, Th2 cells are required for maintenance and full activation during the ongoing response to metazoan parasites...
  45. Mylonas K, Nair M, Prieto Lafuente L, Paape D, Allen J. Alternatively activated macrophages elicited by helminth infection can be reprogrammed to enable microbial killing. J Immunol. 2009;182:3084-94 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the adaptation to antimicrobial function did not extend to key regulatory pathways, such as IL-12 production, which remained unaltered...
  46. Dash Y, Ramesh M, Kalyanasundaram R, Munirathinam G, Shultz L, Rajan T. Granuloma formation around filarial larvae triggered by host responses to an excretory/secretory antigen. Infect Immun. 2011;79:838-45 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data reinforce the work of others and also provide a possible mechanism by which immune responses to BmALT-2 may provide host protection...
  47. Laaksonen S, Solismaa M, Orro T, Kuusela J, Saari S, Kortet R, et al. Setaria tundra microfilariae in reindeer and other cervids in Finland. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:257-65 pubmed publisher
    ..Captive reindeer were smf positive over the year. The prepatent period of S. tundra was estimated to be about 4 months, and the life span at least 14 months. This parasite likely has an important impact on boreal ecosystems...
  48. Metenou S, Dembele B, Konate S, Dolo H, Coulibaly Y, Diallo A, et al. Filarial infection suppresses malaria-specific multifunctional Th1 and Th17 responses in malaria and filarial coinfections. J Immunol. 2011;186:4725-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, among malaria-infected individuals, concomitant filarial infection diminishes dramatically the frequencies of malaria-specific Th1 and Th17 T cells, and alters the quality and magnitude of malaria-specific T cell responses. ..
  49. Chandy A, Thakur A, Singh M, Manigauha A. A review of neglected tropical diseases: filariasis. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2011;4:581-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Filariasis is result of parasitic infection caused by three specific kinds of round worm. Lymphatic filariasis is found in under developed region of South America, Central Africa, pacific and Caribbian...
  50. Bouchery T, Lefoulon E, Karadjian G, Nieguitsila A, Martin C. The symbiotic role of Wolbachia in Onchocercidae and its impact on filariasis. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2013;19:131-40 pubmed publisher
    ..g. lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis...
  51. Morris C, Evans H, Larsen S, Mitre E. A comprehensive, model-based review of vaccine and repeat infection trials for filariasis. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2013;26:381-421 pubmed publisher
    ..Since the 1940s, researchers have conducted vaccine trials in 27 different animal models of filariasis. Although no vaccine trial in a permissive model of filariasis has provided sterilizing immunity, great strides ..
  52. Supali T, Djuardi Y, Bradley M, Noordin R, Ruckert P, Fischer P. Impact of six rounds of mass drug administration on Brugian filariasis and soil-transmitted helminth infections in eastern Indonesia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2586 pubmed publisher
    ..The absence of an animal reservoir, the inefficient transmission by Anopheles mosquitoes and the high sensitivity to DEC/albendazole treatment make this species a prime candidate for elimination by mass drug administration (MDA)...
  53. Hassan M, Sanad M, el Karamany I, Abdel Tawab M, Shalaby M, el Dairouty A, et al. Detection of DNA of W. bancrofti in blood samples by QC-PCR-ELISA-based. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2005;35:963-70 pubmed
    ..The assay was evaluated on field samples from persons living in areas endemic for filariasis. Examination of night blood of 113 individuals for the presence of microfilaria by filtration revealed 44 ..
  54. Rao N, Mahapatra S, Pattnayak S, Pattnaik K. Intravitreal live adult Brugian filariasis. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:76-8 pubmed
    ..Here we report a case of live intravitreal adult Brugian filaria, where the parasite was successfully removed by pars plana vitrectomy. Identification of the worm was done by light microscopy and confirmed by immuno chromatographic test...
  55. Ghedin E, Wang S, Spiro D, Caler E, Zhao Q, Crabtree J, et al. Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi. Science. 2007;317:1756-60 pubmed
    ..malayi to niches in its human and vector hosts and insights into the molecular basis of a mutualistic relationship with its Wolbachia endosymbiont. These findings offer a foundation for rational drug design...
  56. Baliga M, Ramanathan A, Uppal N. Oral filariasis--a case report. Br J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2010;48:143-4 pubmed publisher
    Filarial worms are nematodes that dwell in the subcutaneous tissues and lymphatics of human hosts. In India, filariasis is predominantly caused by a species of nematode called Wuchereria bancrofti...
  57. Turner J, Langley R, Johnston K, Gentil K, Ford L, Wu B, et al. Wolbachia lipoprotein stimulates innate and adaptive immunity through Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 to induce disease manifestations of filariasis. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:22364-78 pubmed publisher
    Wolbachia endosymbiotic bacteria have been implicated in the inflammatory pathogenesis of filariasis. Inflammation induced by Brugia malayi female worm extract (BMFE) is dependent on Toll-like receptors 2 and 6 (TLR2/6) with only a ..
  58. Martin C, Gavotte L. The bacteria Wolbachia in filariae, a biological Russian dolls' system: new trends in antifilarial treatments. Parasite. 2010;17:79-89 pubmed
    ..Potential directions for future research are also discussed...
  59. Babayan S, Allen J, Taylor D. Future prospects and challenges of vaccines against filariasis. Parasite Immunol. 2012;34:243-53 pubmed publisher
    ..against filarial parasites including onchocerciasis (river blindness, Onchocerca volvulus) and lymphatic filariasis (Wuchereria bancrofti or Brugia malayi) is founded on evidence from both humans and animal models for the ..
  60. Bag S, Tawari N, Sharma R, Goswami K, Reddy M, Degani M. In vitro biological evaluation of biguanides and dihydrotriazines against Brugia malayi and folate reversal studies. Acta Trop. 2010;113:48-51 pubmed publisher
    ..metazoan species; hence the present work was designed to evaluate the efficacy of DHFR inhibitors against filariasis, one of the major neglected tropical diseases...
  61. Czajka C, Becker N, Poppert S, Jöst H, Schmidt Chanasit J, Kruger A. Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status...
  62. Otranto D, Brianti E, Dantas Torres F, Weigl S, Latrofa M, Gaglio G, et al. Morphological and molecular data on the dermal microfilariae of a species of Cercopithifilaria from a dog in Sicily. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:221-9 pubmed publisher
  63. Ziewer S, Hübner M, Dubben B, Hoffmann W, Bain O, Martin C, et al. Immunization with L. sigmodontis microfilariae reduces peripheral microfilaraemia after challenge infection by inhibition of filarial embryogenesis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1558 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic filariasis and onchocerciasis are two chronic diseases mediated by parasitic filarial worms causing long term disability and massive socioeconomic problems...
  64. Kumar A, Yadav V, Katoch K, Sachan P. Filariasis in Ghatampur Tahsil of Kanpur Nagar District: indications of high endemicity locus. J Commun Dis. 2006;38:155-9 pubmed
    ..Of the females with lymphatic disease, 25.6% acute disease, 62.8% edema including elephantiasis and 11.6% had mastitis. The study indicates that area is endemic for filariasis and needs control programmes.
  65. Jaoko W, Simonsen P, Meyrowitsch D, Estambale B, Malecela Lazaro M, Michael E. Filarial-specific antibody response in East African bancroftian filariasis: effects of host infection, clinical disease, and filarial endemicity. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:97-107 pubmed
    ..clinical disease, and transmission intensity on the patterns of specific antibody responses in Bancroftian filariasis was assessed by analyzing specific IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, and IgE profiles among adults from two communities ..
  66. Bazi T, Finan R, Zourob D, Sabbagh A, Nasnas R, Zreik T. Filariasis infection is a probable cause of implantation failure in in vitro fertilization cycles. Fertil Steril. 2006;85:1822.e13-5 pubmed
    ..To describe a parasitic infection that probably affected the implantation of good-quality embryos in an in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle...
  67. Malhotra I, Mungai P, Wamachi A, Tisch D, Kioko J, Ouma J, et al. Prenatal T cell immunity to Wuchereria bancrofti and its effect on filarial immunity and infection susceptibility during childhood. J Infect Dis. 2006;193:1005-13 pubmed
    Antenatal immune experience with Wuchereria bancrofti due to maternal filariasis may influence susceptibility to infection...
  68. Babu S, Bhat S, Kumar N, Jayantasri S, Rukmani S, Kumaran P, et al. Human type 1 and 17 responses in latent tuberculosis are modulated by coincident filarial infection through cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed death-1. J Infect Dis. 2009;200:288-98 pubmed publisher
  69. Murthy P, Joseph S, Murthy P. Plant products in the treatment and control of filariasis and other helminth infections and assay systems for antifilarial/anthelmintic activity. Planta Med. 2011;77:647-61 pubmed publisher
    Lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, loaisis, and other helminth infections cause serious health problems especially in resource-limited tropical and subtropical developing countries of the world, and more than 2 billion people are ..
  70. Sahoo M, Sisodia B, Dixit S, Joseph S, Gaur R, Verma S, et al. Immunization with inflammatory proteome of Brugia malayi adult worm induces a Th1/Th2-immune response and confers protection against the filarial infection. Vaccine. 2009;27:4263-71 pubmed publisher
    ..The findings suggest that F6 protects the host from the parasite via Th1/Th2 type responses and thus holds promise for development as a vaccine...
  71. Otranto D, Dantas Torres F, Cebeci Z, Yeniad B, Buyukbabani N, Boral O, et al. Human ocular filariasis: further evidence on the zoonotic role of Onchocerca lupi. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:84 pubmed publisher
    ..lupi infesting human eyes in two patients from Turkey (case 1) and Tunisia (case 2). The importance of obtaining a correct sample collection and preparation of nematodes infesting human eyes is highlighted...
  72. Martin C, Bain O, Jouvenet N, Raharimanga V, Robert V, Rousset D. First report of Litomosa spp. (Nematoda: Filarioidea) from Malagasy bats; review of the genus and relationships between species. Parasite. 2006;13:3-10 pubmed
    ..have two conical points. Relationships among Litomosa species appear to be dependent upon both the chiropteran host groups and the geographical region...
  73. Pfarr K, Hoerauf A. Antibiotics which target the Wolbachia endosymbionts of filarial parasites: a new strategy for control of filariasis and amelioration of pathology. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2006;6:203-10 pubmed
    ..Recent research shows that depleting Wolbachia will also lessen pathology, and lessen adverse reactions to traditional antifilarial drugs...
  74. Simonsen P, Onapa A, Asio S. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa. Acta Trop. 2011;120 Suppl 1:S109-20 pubmed publisher
  75. Dittrich A, Erbacher A, Specht S, Diesner F, Krokowski M, Avagyan A, et al. Helminth infection with Litomosoides sigmodontis induces regulatory T cells and inhibits allergic sensitization, airway inflammation, and hyperreactivity in a murine asthma model. J Immunol. 2008;180:1792-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our data support the epidemiological evidence and enhance the immunological understanding concerning the impact of helminth infections on atopic diseases thus providing new insights for the development of future studies...
  76. Palumbo E. Filariasis: diagnosis, treatment and prevention. Acta Biomed. 2008;79:106-9 pubmed
    Lymphatic filariasis caused by the mosquitoborne, lymphatic-dwelling nematodes Wuchereria bancrofti and Brigia malayi is still a common tropical parasitic disease and 120 million people are affected in the world, of which two-third in ..
  77. Baaten G, Sonder G, van Gool T, Kint J, van den Hoek A. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:84 pubmed publisher
    This study prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic ..
  78. Hübner M, Stocker J, Mitre E. Inhibition of type 1 diabetes in filaria-infected non-obese diabetic mice is associated with a T helper type 2 shift and induction of FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Immunology. 2009;127:512-22 pubmed publisher
    ..This protection is associated with a Th2 shift, as demonstrated by cytokine and antibody production, and with an increase in CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells...
  79. Weil G, Kastens W, Susapu M, Laney S, Williams S, King C, et al. The impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration with diethylcarbamazine plus albendazole on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e344 pubmed publisher
    This study employed various monitoring methods to assess the impact of repeated rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) on bancroftian filariasis in Papua New Guinea, which has the largest filariasis problem in the Pacific region.
  80. Hartmann W, Marsland B, Otto B, Urny J, Fleischer B, Korten S. A novel and divergent role of granzyme A and B in resistance to helminth infection. J Immunol. 2011;186:2472-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This suggests a novel and divergent role for gzms in helminth infection, with gzmA contributing to resistance and gzmB promoting susceptibility...
  81. Debrah A, Mand S, Marfo Debrekyei Y, Batsa L, Pfarr K, Lawson B, et al. Reduction in levels of plasma vascular endothelial growth factor-A and improvement in hydrocele patients by targeting endosymbiotic Wolbachia sp. in Wuchereria bancrofti with doxycycline. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:956-63 pubmed
    ..This finding preceded the reduction of the stage of hydrocele. A six-week regimen of doxycycline treatment against filariasis showed amelioration of pathologic conditions of hydrocele patients with active infection.
  82. Michalski M, Griffiths K, Williams S, Kaplan R, Moorhead A. The NIH-NIAID Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1261 pubmed publisher
    ..This centralized resource (The Filariasis Research Reagent Resource Center, or FR3) translated into cost savings to both NIH-NIAID and to principal ..
  83. Thanchomnang T, Intapan P, Lulitanond V, Choochote W, Manjai A, Prasongdee T, et al. Rapid detection of Brugia malayi in mosquito vectors using a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;78:509-13 pubmed
    ..malayi in mosquitoes, allows high throughput, and can be performed on small samples. This method has the potential for endemic area mapping or monitoring effect of brugian filariasis mass treatment programs.
  84. Sahu B, Mohanty M, Sahoo P, Satapathy A, Ravindran B. Protective immunity in human filariasis: a role for parasite-specific IgA responses. J Infect Dis. 2008;198:434-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Ig) G, IgE, and IgM isotypes have been correlated with acquired immunity in the literature, but the status of filaria-specific IgA and its role in human filariasis has not been addressed. The present study attempts to fill this lacuna.
  85. Bain O, Otranto D, Diniz D, Dos Santos J, de Oliveira N, Frota de Almeida I, et al. Human intraocular filariasis caused by Pelecitus sp. nematode, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:867-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This nematode belonged to the genus Pelecitus but was distinct from the 16 known species in this genus. Similarities with Pelecitus spp. from neotropical birds suggested an avian origin for this species...
  86. Turner J, Mand S, Debrah A, Muehlfeld J, Pfarr K, McGarry H, et al. A randomized, double-blind clinical trial of a 3-week course of doxycycline plus albendazole and ivermectin for the treatment of Wuchereria bancrofti infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;42:1081-9 pubmed
    Eight- and 6-week courses of doxycycline are superior to standard treatment of bancroftian filariasis. Standard treatment (albendazole plus ivermectin) is associated with adverse reactions. We assessed whether a shorter (i...
  87. Molyneux D. Filaria control and elimination: diagnostic, monitoring and surveillance needs. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2009;103:338-41 pubmed publisher
    ..assessment (REA) for onchocerciasis, immunochromatographic test (ICT)-based mapping for lymphatic filariasis (LF), and Rapid Assessment Procedure for Loiasis (RAPLOA) for Loa, to reduce the risk of serious adverse events ..
  88. Aswathy S, Beteena K, Leelamoni K. Mass drug administration against filariasis in India: perceptions and practices in a rural community in Kerala. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2009;103:617-24 pubmed publisher
    ..annual rounds of mass drug administration (MDA) based on diethylcarbamazine and albendazole are used to control filariasis, which is a major public-health problem...