spirurida infections

Summary

Summary: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.

Top Publications

  1. Hale D, Blumberg L, Frean J. Case report: gnathostomiasis in two travelers to Zambia. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;68:707-9 pubmed
    ..The patients acquired the infection in western Zambia; this region of Africa appears to be a newly identified risk area for gnathostomiasis in tourists who indulge in eating raw freshwater fish...
  2. Magnis J, Naucke T, Mathis A, Deplazes P, Schnyder M. Local transmission of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in southern Germany. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:715-7 pubmed publisher
    ..callipaeda in large parts of Europe cannot be excluded...
  3. Mylonakis M, Rallis T, Koutinas A, Ververidis H, Fytianou A. A comparison between ethanol-induced chemical ablation and ivermectin plus prednizolone in the treatment of symptomatic esophageal spirocercosis in the dog: a prospective study on 14 natural cases. Vet Parasitol. 2004;120:131-8 pubmed
    ..The combination of ivermectin and prednizolone may be considered an effective treatment in the symptomatic and evidently asymptomatic esophageal spirocercosis of the dog...
  4. Rinas M, Nesnek R, Kinsella J, DeMatteo K. Fatal aortic aneurysm and rupture in a neotropical bush dog (Speothos venaticus) caused by Spirocerca lupi. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:347-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The cause of death was determined to be acute bleeding following the rupture of an aneurysm in the caudal thoracic aorta as a result of the parasite located there. This is the first report of S. lupi in a bush dog...
  5. Iorio R, Slapeta J, Otranto D, Paoletti B, Giangaspero A, Traversa D. Phylogenetic relationships of Habronema microstoma and Habronema muscae (Spirurida: Habronematidae) within the order Spirurida inferred using mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene analysis. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:979-84 pubmed publisher
    ..The phylogenetic and evolutionary implications of Habronema with Filaroidea and Thelazioidea are discussed...
  6. Otranto D, Dutto M. Human thelaziasis, Europe. Emerg Infect Dis. 2008;14:647-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Thelazia callipaeda eyeworm is a nematode transmitted by drosophilid flies to carnivores in Europe. It has also been reported in the Far East in humans. We report T. callipaeda infection in 4 human patients in Italy and France...
  7. Otranto D, Dantas Torres F, Mallia E, DiGeronimo P, Brianti E, Testini G, et al. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wild animals: report of new host species and ecological implications. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:262-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The role the wild fauna plays in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals is also discussed...
  8. Traversa D, Costanzo F, Iorio R, Aroch I, Lavy E. Mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene sequence of Spirocerca lupi (Nematoda, Spirurida): avenues for potential implications. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:263-70 pubmed
    ..Crucial implications for the specific molecular diagnosis of clinical spirocercosis and investigation of the evolution, population genetics, ecology and epidemiology of S. lupi are discussed...
  9. Otranto D, Lia R, Buono V, Traversa D, Giangaspero A. Biology of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) eyeworms in naturally infected definitive hosts. Parasitology. 2004;129:627-33 pubmed
    ..This basic knowledge of the development of T. callipaeda will hopefully help future epidemiological studies to identify the intermediate hosts and define the likely risk for vectors in field conditions...

More Information

Publications92

  1. Dvir E, Kirberger R, Mukorera V, van der Merwe L, Clift S. Clinical differentiation between dogs with benign and malignant spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:80-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, if found together in a specific case, they should increase the index of suspicion for malignancy in a diagnosed spirocercosis case...
  2. Otranto D, Cantacessi C, Mallia E, Lia R. First report of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in wolves in Italy. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:508-11 pubmed
    ..callipaeda was present. The competence of wolves as a definitive host for T. callipaeda is discussed in view of the relevance of wild fauna in maintaining and spreading eyeworm infection in humans and domestic animals...
  3. Bianciardi P, Otranto D. Treatment of dog thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) using a topical formulation of imidacloprid 10% and moxidectin 2.5%. Vet Parasitol. 2005;129:89-93 pubmed
    ..5% is very easy to apply and helps overcome problems linked to the mechanical removal of parasites or to the restraining of the animals for the local instillation of drugs in the eyes...
  4. Kok D, Schenker R, Archer N, Horak I, Swart P. The efficacy of milbemycin oxime against pre-adult Spirocerca lupi in experimentally infected dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:111-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As expected, none of the treatment protocols reduced S. lupi related damage within the aorta because the administration of milbemycin oxime only began after the larvae had completed their first stage of migration...
  5. Moore D, McCroddan J, Dekumyoy P, Chiodini P. Gnathostomiasis: an emerging imported disease. Emerg Infect Dis. 2003;9:647-50 pubmed
    ..To highlight this underdiagnosed parasitic infection, we describe a case series of patients with gnathostomiasis who were treated during a 12-month period at the Hospital for Tropical Diseases, London...
  6. Otranto D, Traversa D. Thelazia eyeworm: an original endo- and ecto-parasitic nematode. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:1-4 pubmed
    ..The relationship between eyeworms and their hosts are discussed here, together with recent molecular insights that are instrumental in investigating the biology of Thelazia in their definitive and intermediate hosts...
  7. Wang Z, Hu Y, Shen J, Wang K, Wang H, Jiang B, et al. [Longitudinal investigation and experimental studies on thelaziasis and the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda in Guanghua county of Hubei province]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2003;24:588-90 pubmed
    ..To verify houseflies Musca spp. as the intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda and reveal epidemiological situation of thelaziasis in Hubei province...
  8. Nuchprayoon S, Sanprasert V, Suntravat M, Kraivichian K, Saksirisampant W, Nuchprayoon I. Study of specific IgG subclass antibodies for diagnosis of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Parasitol Res. 2003;91:137-43 pubmed
    ..The ELISA that detected anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG1 antibody could be a reliable laboratory screening test, while anti-G. spinigerum L3 IgG2 antibody could be used to confirm the diagnosis...
  9. Lavy E, Aroch I, Bark H, Markovics A, Aizenberg I, Mazaki Tovi M, et al. Evaluation of doramectin for the treatment of experimental canine spirocercosis. Vet Parasitol. 2002;109:65-73 pubmed
    ..lupi granulomas could still be seen 544 days post-initiation of treatment with doramectin. Multiple subcutaneous injections of doramectin (400 microg/kg) were shown to be effective and safe in the treatment of canine spirocercosis...
  10. Mylonakis M, Koutinas A, Liapi M, Saridomichelakis M, Rallis T. A comparison of the prevalence of Spirocerca lupi in three groups of dogs with different life and hunting styles. J Helminthol. 2001;75:359-61 pubmed
    ..There was no relationship between prevalence and age/sex of dogs. The impact of life and hunting styles on the prevalence of S. lupi in the dog and that of the faecal examination technique, are discussed...
  11. Dvir E, Kirberger R, Malleczek D. Radiographic and computed tomographic changes and clinical presentation of spirocercosis in the dog. Vet Radiol Ultrasound. 2001;42:119-29 pubmed
  12. Gottlieb Y, Markovics A, Klement E, Naor S, Samish M, Aroch I, et al. Characterization of Onthophagus sellatus as the major intermediate host of the dog esophageal worm Spirocerca lupi in Israel. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:378-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant differences were observed between the two different microenvironments and along the year. The highest risk for infection of dogs with the nematode was during the summer, in an irrigated, shady microenvironment...
  13. Miró G, Montoya A, Hernandez L, Dado D, Vázquez M, Benito M, et al. Thelazia callipaeda: infection in dogs: a new parasite for Spain. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:148 pubmed publisher
    ..Italy, France, Germany and Switzerland). In June 2010, the first case of canine thelaziosis was observed in central western Spain (La Vera region, Cáceres) and subsequent epidemiological investigation is reported in the present study...
  14. Ruytoor P, Dean E, Pennant O, Dorchies P, Chermette R, Otranto D, et al. Ocular thelaziosis in dogs, France. Emerg Infect Dis. 2010;16:1943-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Most cases were detected in Dordogne, particularly in 3 counties with numerous strawberry farms, which may favor development of the fruit fly vector. Animal thelaziosis may lead to emergence of human cases...
  15. Mazaki Tovi M, Baneth G, Aroch I, Harrus S, Kass P, Ben Ari T, et al. Canine spirocercosis: clinical, diagnostic, pathologic, and epidemiologic characteristics. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:235-50 pubmed
    ..The case-fatality rate decreased toward the end of the study period when improved therapy with avermectins became available...
  16. Chappuis F, Farinelli T, Loutan L. Ivermectin treatment of a traveler who returned from Peru with cutaneous gnathostomiasis. Clin Infect Dis. 2001;33:E17-9 pubmed
    ..This is the first reported case of gnathostomiasis acquired by a human in Peru...
  17. van der Merwe L, Kirberger R, Clift S, Williams M, Keller N, Naidoo V. Spirocerca lupi infection in the dog: a review. Vet J. 2008;176:294-309 pubmed
    ..Doramectin is the current drug of choice, effectively killing adult worms and decreasing egg shedding. Early diagnosis of infection is still a challenge and to date no ideal regimen for prophylaxis has been published...
  18. Berry W. Spirocerca lupi esophageal granulomas in 7 dogs: resolution after treatment with doramectin. J Vet Intern Med. 2000;14:609-12 pubmed
    ..No dog experienced adverse effects to the drug, and all symptomatic dogs have been free of disease for periods ranging from 3 to 4 years...
  19. Hermosilla C, Herrmann B, Bauer C. First case of Thelazia callipaeda infection in a dog in Germany. Vet Rec. 2004;154:568-9 pubmed
  20. Rojas Molina N, Pedraza Sanchez S, Torres Bibiano B, Meza Martinez H, Escobar Gutierrez A. Gnathostomosis, an emerging foodborne zoonotic disease in Acapulco, Mexico. Emerg Infect Dis. 1999;5:264-6 pubmed
    ..Larvae were identified in 26 cases, while in 72, final diagnosis was made on the basis of epidemiologic data, food habits, and positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot results...
  21. Otranto D, Cantacessi C, Testini G, Lia R. Phortica variegata as an intermediate host of Thelazia callipaeda under natural conditions: evidence for pathogen transmission by a male arthropod vector. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1167-73 pubmed
    ..The synchrony between the fly population dynamics and the biology of the nematode in the definitive host provides an interesting model for exploring the co-evolution of Thelazia spp. with their hosts...
  22. Shen J, Gasser R, Chu D, Wang Z, Yuan X, Cantacessi C, et al. Human thelaziosis--a neglected parasitic disease of the eye. J Parasitol. 2006;92:872-5 pubmed
  23. Ferroglio E, Rossi L, Tomio E, Schenker R, Bianciardi P. Therapeutic and prophylactic efficacy of milbemycin oxime (Interceptor) against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally exposed dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:351-3 pubmed publisher
    ..0056). The efficacy of the prophylactic use of a monthly treatment with milbemycin oxime showed 90% efficacy in reducing T. callipaeda infection rate...
  24. Malacrida F, Hegglin D, Bacciarini L, Otranto D, Nageli F, Nägeli C, et al. Emergence of canine ocular Thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in southern Switzerland. Vet Parasitol. 2008;157:321-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Young and small sized dogs were significantly less involved than large animals and over 3 years of age. The results indicate that thelaziosis is endemic in that area...
  25. Otranto D, Ferroglio E, Lia R, Traversa D, Rossi L. Current status and epidemiological observation of Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs, cats and foxes in Italy: a "coincidence" or a parasitic disease of the Old Continent?. Vet Parasitol. 2003;116:315-25 pubmed
    ..callipaeda is also present in other European countries. Speculation as to the origins of this parasitic infestation in Europe and the biology of T. callipaeda and its vector/s is also discussed...
  26. Sohn W, Na B, Yoo J. Two cases of human thelaziasis and brief review of Korean cases. Korean J Parasitol. 2011;49:265-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Most of the cases (94.9%) were conjunctival sac infections and only 2 (5.1%) were intraocular cases. The present 2 HT cases are the first reported cases in Gyeongsangnam-do. Some characteristics of Korean HT cases were analyzed...
  27. Dorchies P, Chaudieu G, Siméon L, Cazalot G, Cantacessi C, Otranto D. First reports of autochthonous eyeworm infection by Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) in dogs and cat from France. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:294-7 pubmed
    ..callipaeda. So far, the arthropod acting as intermediate host of T. callipaeda eyeworms has not been identified in France although it might be Phortica variegata (Steganinae, Drosophilidae) as recently described in Italy...
  28. Kelly P, Fisher M, Lucas H, Krecek R. Treatment of esophageal spirocercosis with milbemycin oxime. Vet Parasitol. 2008;156:358-60 pubmed publisher
    ..This preliminary data shows milbemycin oxime deserves further evaluation for the treatment of spirocercosis...
  29. Mylonakis M, Rallis T, Koutinas A, Leontides L, Patsikas M, Florou M, et al. Clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with clinical spirocercosis: 39 cases (1996-2004). J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2006;228:1063-7 pubmed
    ..To determine clinical signs and clinicopathologic abnormalities in dogs with naturally occurring clinical spirocercosis...
  30. Otranto D, Lia R, Testini G, Milillo P, Shen J, Wang Z. Musca domestica is not a vector of Thelazia callipaeda in experimental or natural conditions. Med Vet Entomol. 2005;19:135-9 pubmed
    ..domestica collected from Group 3 were negative for T. callipaeda. The results clearly suggest that M. domestica is unlikely to act as a vector of T. callipaeda in southern Europe, in contrast with a single previous report...
  31. Chikweto A, Bhaiyat M, Tiwari K, de Allie C, Sharma R. Spirocercosis in owned and stray dogs in Grenada. Vet Parasitol. 2012;190:613-6 pubmed publisher
    ..lupi and hypertrophic osteopathy. We report spirocercosis for the first time in the dogs from a tropical island of Grenada...
  32. Otranto D, Lia R, Traversa D, Giannetto S. Thelazia callipaeda (Spirurida, Thelaziidae) of carnivores and humans: morphological study by light and scanning electron microscopy. Parassitologia. 2003;45:125-33 pubmed
    ..The morphological characteristics useful for the identification of T. callipaeda are discussed...
  33. Knopf K, Wurtz J, Sures B, Taraschewski H. Impact of low water temperature on the development of Anguillicola crassus in the final host Anguilla anguilla. Dis Aquat Organ. 1998;33:143-9 pubmed
    ..The experimentally obtained results support the hypothesis that the spread of A. crassus in boreal regions, e.g. Northern Europe, is restricted by the natural ambient temperature regimes...
  34. Chermette R, Guillot J, Bussiéras J. Canine ocular thelaziosis in Europe. Vet Rec. 2004;154:248 pubmed
  35. Ranen E, Lavy E, Aizenberg I, Perl S, Harrus S. Spirocercosis-associated esophageal sarcomas in dogs. A retrospective study of 17 cases (1997-2003). Vet Parasitol. 2004;119:209-21 pubmed
    ..Proper surgical treatment could prolong the dogs' lifespan for months, and improve their quality of life...
  36. Lavy E, Harrus S, Mazaki Tovi M, Bark H, Markovics A, Hagag A, et al. Spirocerca lupi in dogs: prophylactic effect of doramectin. Res Vet Sci. 2003;75:217-22 pubmed
    ..This study shows that although doramectin did not entirely prevent canine spirocercosis it reduced the clinical signs associated with infection and delayed and reduced egg output...
  37. Lia R, Traversa D, Agostini A, Otranto D. Field efficacy of moxidectin 1 per cent against Thelazia callipaeda in naturally infected dogs. Vet Rec. 2004;154:143-5 pubmed
  38. Rossi L, Rigano C, Tomio E, Frassetto D, Ferroglio E. Use of sustained-release moxidectin to prevent eyeworm (Thelazia callipaeda) infection in dogs. Vet Rec. 2007;161:820-1 pubmed
  39. Dvir E, Clift S, Williams M. Proposed histological progression of the Spirocerca lupi-induced oesophageal lesion in dogs. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:71-7 pubmed publisher
    ..1.4+/-1.6). These results indicate 2 stages in the non-neoplastic nodules: early inflammation, characterized by fibrocytes and abundant collagen, and a pre-neoplastic stage, characterized by activated fibroblasts and reduced collagen...
  40. Moravec F, Simkova A, Pecínková M, Ondračková M. Morphology of Philometroides barbi (Nematoda: Philometridae), a rare tissue parasite of the Mediterranean barbel Barbus meridionalis (Osteichthyes). Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;69:265-8 pubmed
    ..These features distinctly distinguish P. barbi from Philometroides cyprini and other congeners parasitizing European fishes...
  41. Asmatullah K, Bilqees F, Kakar J. Rhabdochona kharani sp. n. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the fish Labeo gedrosicus Zugmayer, 1912 from Garruk, District Kharan, Balochistan, Pakistan. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2006;30:62-7 pubmed
  42. Cremonte F, Digiani M, Bala L, Navone G. Tetrameres (Tetrameres) megaphasmidiata n. sp. (Nematoda: Tetrameridae), a parasite of the two-banded plover, Charadrius falklandicus, and white-rumped sandpiper, Calidris fuscicollis, from Patagonia, Argentina. J Parasitol. 2001;87:148-51 pubmed
    ..This report is the first record of a species of Tetrameres in C. falklandicus and C. fuscicollis...
  43. Ferrer E, Aznar F, Balbuena J, Kostadinova A, Raga J, Moravec F. A new cystidicolid nematode from Mullus surmuletus (Perciformes: Mullidae) from the western Mediterranean. J Parasitol. 2005;91:335-44 pubmed
    ..The new species also shows substantial morphological differences compared with the 3 species, Ascarophis mullusi, Ascarophis upenei, and Ascarophis parupenei, previously described from mullid hosts. ..
  44. Moravec F, Ali A. Additional observations on Philometra spp. (Nematoda: Philometridae) in marine fishes off Iraq, with the description of two new species. Syst Parasitol. 2014;87:259-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Philometra brachiri is the first species of this genus described from a fish belonging to the family Soleidae. The findings of P. piscaria and P. otolithi in Iraqi marine waters represent new geographical records. ..
  45. Moravec F, Magi M, Macchioni F. Redescription of the gonad-infecting nematode Philometra saltatrix Ramachandran, 1973 (Philometridae) based on specimens from the type host Pomatomus saltatrix (L.) (Osteichthyes) from the Tuscan Sea, Italy. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2008;55:219-23 pubmed
    ..This is the first record of P. saltatrix, a species originally described from the West Atlantic, from the Tuscan Sea and the second one in the Mediterranean region. ..
  46. Kall S, Fagerholm H, Sarvala J. Pathogenicity of the gill artery worm Philometra obturans (Nematoda) in northern pike (Esox lucius) in southwest Finland. J Parasitol. 2004;90:177-81 pubmed
    ..05). The results show that infection with this nematode has a detrimental effect on the host when combined with environmental or physiological stress and may result in host mortality...
  47. Bleier T, Hetzel U, Bauer C, Behlert O, Burkhardt E. Gongylonema pulchrum infection and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in a vari (Lemur macaco variegata; Kehr 1792). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2005;36:342-5 pubmed
    ..In addition, numerous intraepithelial nematodes (G. pulchrum) were observed in the entire esophagus. Results suggest a relation between infection with G. pulchrum and development of an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma...
  48. Moravec F, Pachanawan A, Kamchoo K. Rhabdochona (Rhabdochona) hypsibarbi n. sp. (Nematoda: Rhabdochonidae) from the freshwater cyprinid fish Hypsibarbus wetmorei (Smith) in northeast Thailand. J Parasitol. 2013;99:297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..Rhabdochona hypsibarbi is the fourth nominal species of Rhabdochona Railliet, 1916 reported from fishes in Thailand and the second species of the nominotypical subgenus found in this country...
  49. Dvir E, Clift S. Evaluation of selected growth factor expression in canine spirocercosis (Spirocerca lupi)-associated non-neoplastic nodules and sarcomas. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:257-66 pubmed publisher
    ..Further investigation is warranted to establish whether FGF, VEGF or PDGF play a role in the pathogenesis of the malignant transformation in canine spirocercosis or are they simply integral to angiogenesis induction?..
  50. Morris T, Avenant Oldewage A, Lamberth S, Reed C. Shark parasites as bio-indicators of metals in two South African embayments. Mar Pollut Bull. 2016;104:221-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These results show the usefulness of marine endoparasites as early warning indicators of heavy metal pollution. ..
  51. Nath R, Narain K, Saikia L, Pujari B, Thakuria B, Mahanta J. Ocular thelaziasis in Assam: a report of two cases. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2008;51:146-8 pubmed
    ..They were identified as thelazia species. These two cases have been reported due to their rarity in India and elsewhere...
  52. Ikadai H, Fujii T, Nagai T, Yoshioka K, Nagasao J, Kudo N, et al. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against Gnathostoma nipponicum. J Parasitol. 2003;89:180-3 pubmed
    ..nipponicum and sera infected with Trichnella sp. or not infected. These results provide a rationale for evaluating esophageal proteins for the development of diagnostic methods for detecting G. nipponicum or Gnathostoma sp. infections...
  53. Appleby E, Gibbons L, Georgiou K. Distortion of the gizzard in Cyprus pigeons (Columba livia) associated with Hadjelia truncata infestation. Vet Rec. 1995;136:561-4 pubmed
    ..The morphology of the parasite and the associated lesions are described and illustrated and the pathogenesis of the condition is discussed...
  54. González Solís D, Moravec F, Paredes V. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1132-5 pubmed publisher
    ..freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China). ..
  55. Umberger C, de Buron I, Roumillat W, McElroy E. Effects of a muscle-infecting parasitic nematode on the locomotor performance of their fish host. J Fish Biol. 2013;82:1250-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The decrease in swimming velocity observed in smaller infected fish may be sufficient in rendering them more vulnerable to predation and environmental stressors. ..
  56. Dvir E, Perl S, Loeb E, Shklar Hirsch S, Chai O, Mazaki Tovi M, et al. Spinal intramedullary aberrant Spirocerca lupi migration in 3 dogs. J Vet Intern Med. 2007;21:860-4 pubmed
  57. Dvir E, Schoeman J, Clift S, McNeilly T, Mellanby R. Immunohistochemical characterization of lymphocyte and myeloid cell infiltrates in spirocercosis-induced oesophageal nodules. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:545-53 pubmed publisher
    ..The triggering factor(s) driving the malignant transformation of the spirocercosis-associated chronic inflammatory nodule warrants further investigation. ..
  58. Rigby M, Adamson M, Deardorff T. Camallanus carangis Olsen, 1954 (Nematoda: Camallanidae) reported from French Polynesia and Hawai'i with a redescription of the species. J Parasitol. 1998;84:158-62 pubmed
    ..Additionally, the genus Oncophora may need to be redefined to accommodate Camallanus aotea Slankis and Korotaeva, 1974, which bears more resemblance to Oncophora than Camallanus...
  59. Hoberg E, Brooks D, Molina Ureña H, Erbe E. Echinocephalus janzeni n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in Himantura pacifica (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Mexico, with historical biogeographic analysis of the genus. J Parasitol. 1998;84:571-81 pubmed
    ..daileyi is the sister species of E. diazi + E. janzeni. Historical biogeographic analysis of hosts and parasites provides support for origins in the Pacific rather than the Atlantic for the potamotrygonid stingrays...
  60. Soares C, Ramalho Sousa S, Anastácio S, Goreti Matias M, Marqués I, Mascarenhas S, et al. Feline thelaziosis caused by Thelazia callipaeda in Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:528-31 pubmed publisher
    ..callipaeda haplotype 1. Additionally to these findings, a recent description of thelaziosis in the northern region of Portugal suggests that T. callipaeda has successfully established in Portugal. ..
  61. Moravec F, Manoharan J. Gonad-infecting philometrids (Nematoda: Philometridae) including four new species from marine fishes off the eastern coast of India. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2013;60:105-22 pubmed
    ..Philometra rajani Mukherjee, 1963 is considered a species inquirenda. ..
  62. Moravec F, Harris E. Structure of the female cephalic end and cuticular ornamentations of Buckleyella buckleyi Rasheed, 1963 (Nematoda: Philometridae), as revealed by SEM. J Parasitol. 2010;96:666-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Based on some of these features, Buckleyella Rasheed, 1963 distinctly differs from the recently established, related genus Caranginema Moravec, Montoya-Mendoza and Salgado-Maldonado, 2008. ..
  63. Sangchan A, Sawanyawisuth K, Intapan P, Mahakkanukrauh A. Outward migration of Gnathostoma spinigerum in interferon alpha treated hepatitis C patient. Parasitol Int. 2006;55:31-2 pubmed
    ..She was continually treated and had sustained both virological and biochemical responses to HCV treatment. This case demonstrates that the outward migration of G. spinigerum may be stimulated by the injection of Peg-IFN alpha-2b...
  64. Ando K, Tsunemori M, Akahane H, Tesana S, Hasegawa H, Chinzei Y. Comparative study on DNA sequences of ribosomal DNA and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 of mitochondrial DNA among five species of gnathostomes. J Helminthol. 2006;80:7-13 pubmed
    ..The nucleotide sequences of each region of ITS2 and partial MCO1 regions were different among the five species. Therefore, these two regions can be used as genetic markers for identification of worms. ..
  65. Herman J, Wall E, van Tulleken C, Godfrey Faussett P, Bailey R, Chiodini P. Gnathostomiasis acquired by British tourists in Botswana. Emerg Infect Dis. 2009;15:594-7 pubmed publisher
    ..However, gnathostomiasis was recently found in British tourists who had visited Botswana. Consequently, travel to Africa should now be considered a risk factor for gnathostomiasis...
  66. Maia C, Catarino A, Almeida B, Ramos C, Campino L, Cardoso L. Emergence of Thelazia callipaeda Infection in Dogs and Cats from East-Central Portugal. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2016;63:416-21 pubmed publisher
    ..This emergent zoonosis should be included by veterinarians, physicians and ophthalmologists in the differential diagnosis of ocular manifestations in their patients, particularly in areas where T. callipaeda is endemic. ..
  67. Diaz J, Fonteneau F, Panisse G, Cremonte F, Navone G. Redescription of Ingliseria cirrohamata (Linstow, 1888) (Nematoda: Acuariidae), including new hosts and geographical records. J Parasitol. 2009;95:396-402 pubmed publisher
    ..This constitutes the first record of this nematode in South America and provides the first study of the genus by scanning electron microscopy. ..
  68. Du Toit C, Scholtz C, Hyman W. Prevalence of the dog nematode Spirocerca lupi in populations of its intermediate dung beetle host in the Tshwane (Pretoria) Metropole, South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2008;75:315-21 pubmed
    ..5% of the dung beetles dissected were infected, while the prevalence of S. lupi in dung beetles in the rural area was 2.3%. All the dung beetles that were infected with this nematode showed a preference for omnivore (pig and dog) dung. ..
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    ..Following Dentirumai philippinensis Quiazon et Moravec, 2013 and Philometra robusta Moravec, Möller et Heeger, 1992, this is the third philometrid species and the first gonad-infecting philometrid from the Philippine archipelago. ..
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    ..Our review of Physalopteroides removes all subspecies designations; Physalopteroides minor Caballero, 1969 n. comb is proposed...
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    ..5 cm, 11-13 cm). Although the paratenic hosts may acquire infections year round, the results suggest that ruffe become infected mainly during the cold season and that the host's feeding ecology determines the final course of infection...
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    ..Both diagnostic bands are a helpful diagnostic tool for neuro gnathostomiasis and show good diagnostic properties...
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    ..Zoo veterinarians should be aware of this disease in kept mammals, and should consider in the case of primates, monthly or bimonthly prophylactic anthelmintic treatment...
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    ..However, these species are suggested as being of limited potential value for calibrating a molecular clock...
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    ..callipaeda by amplification and sequencing of partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Oral treatment with mebendazole 20mg/kg (Telmin(®)) was effective in curing the infection. ..