visceral larva migrans

Summary

Summary: A condition produced in man by the prolonged migration of animal nematode larvae in extraintestinal tissues other than skin; characterized by persistent hypereosinophilia, hepatomegaly, and frequently pneumonitis, commonly caused by Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati.

Top Publications

  1. Lambertucci J, Rayes A, Serufo J, Teixeira D, Gerspacher Lara R, Nascimento E, et al. Visceral larva migrans and tropical pyomyositis: a case report. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 1998;40:383-5 pubmed
    ..The immunologic and structural alterations caused by the larvae, in the presence of concomitant bacteremia, would favour seeding of the bacteria and the development of pyomyositis...
  2. El Shazly A, Abdel Baset S, Kamal A, Mohammed K, Sakrs T, Hammad S. Seroprevalence of human toxocariasis (visceral larva migrans). J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2009;39:731-44 pubmed
    ..5-413.3). Multivariate regression analysis showed eosinophilia and contact with soil were the most important predictors of toxocariasis. OD of anti-Toxocara antibodies (ELISA) was significantly positive with eosinophilia level...
  3. Lim J. Toxocariasis of the liver: visceral larva migrans. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33:151-6 pubmed
    ..The lesions move slowly and thus the disease is called as visceral larva migrans. On CT or MR imaging, hepatic lesions are seen as multiple, ill-defined, oval lesions that measure 1.0-1...
  4. Conde Garcia L, Muro Alvarez A, Simon Martin F. Epidemiological studies on toxocariasis and visceral larva migrans in a zone of western Spain. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83:615-20 pubmed
    ..6% in rural areas) than in adults. The statistical significance of the correlations between prevalence and the different factors that affect transmission of the parasite was studied, and its importance at local level is discussed...
  5. Hartleb M, Januszewski K. Severe hepatic involvement in visceral larva migrans. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13:1245-9 pubmed
    ..b>Visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis is rarely taken into account in adult patients with cholestatic syndrome, ..
  6. Inoue K, Inoue Y, Arai T, Nawa Y, Kashiwa Y, Yamamoto S, et al. Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia due to visceral larva migrans. Intern Med. 2002;41:478-82 pubmed
    ..Bronchoalveolar lavage showed 96.4% eosinophils. The diagnosis of visceral larva migrans (VLM) was made based on the positive results in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Toxocara canis ..
  7. Kakihara D, Yoshimitsu K, Ishigami K, Irie H, Aibe H, Tajima T, et al. Liver lesions of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum infection: CT findings. Abdom Imaging. 2004;29:598-602 pubmed
    ..Most were located in periportal (16 of 25) or subcapsular (six of 25) regions. Hepatic nodules due to visceral larva migrans of A...
  8. Muradian V, Gennari S, Glickman L, Pinheiro S. Epidemiological aspects of Visceral Larva Migrans in children living at São Remo Community, São Paulo (SP), Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2005;134:93-7 pubmed
    In preparation for a study of risk factors for Visceral Larva Migrans of children living in São Remo Community, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, fecal samples were collected from 41 dogs younger than one year of age, 338 serum samples from ..
  9. Cianferoni A, Schneider L, Schantz P, Brown D, Fox L. Visceral larva migrans associated with earthworm ingestion: clinical evolution in an adolescent patient. Pediatrics. 2006;117:e336-9 pubmed
    ..This case highlights the clinical evolution of pulmonary visceral larva migrans infection caused by Toxocara spp. associated with a discrete ingestion in an adolescent patient...

More Information

Publications101 found, 100 shown here

  1. Nakamura Uchiyama F, Tokunaga Y, Suzuki A, Akao N, Hiromatsu K, Hitomi S, et al. A case of Ascaris suum visceral larva migrans diagnosed by using A. suum larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigen. Scand J Infect Dis. 2006;38:221-4 pubmed
    ..of Ascaris suum larvae, but not of Toxocara canis larvae, suggesting that she had been suffering from visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by A. suum. Her sickness improved without any treatment...
  2. Morimatsu Y, Akao N, Akiyoshi H, Kawazu T, Okabe Y, Aizawa H. A familial case of visceral larva migrans after ingestion of raw chicken livers: appearance of specific antibody in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the patients. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2006;75:303-6 pubmed
    We report a familial case of visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by Toxocara canis larvae. Patient 1 was a 45-year-old man who presented to our university hospital complaining of mild fever, general fatigue, and headache...
  3. Enko K, Tada T, Ohgo K, Nagase S, Nakamura K, Ohta K, et al. Fulminant eosinophilic myocarditis associated with visceral larva migrans caused by Toxocara canis infection. Circ J. 2009;73:1344-8 pubmed
    ..After starting high-dose corticosteroids, the ejection fraction dramatically improved, the eosinophilia decreased and the patient made a full recovery...
  4. Bowman D. Diagnostic morphology of four larval ascaridoid nematodes that may cause visceral larva migrans: Toxascaris leonina, Baylisascaris procyonis, Lagochilascaris sprenti, and Hexametra leidyi. J Parasitol. 1987;73:1198-215 pubmed
    ..These 4 larvae are differentiated from other described species of ascaridoid larvae that may cause visceral larva migrans, and keys have been devised to aid in the making of a diagnosis.
  5. Helwigh A, Lind P, Nansen P. Visceral larva migrans: migratory pattern of Toxocara canis in pigs. Int J Parasitol. 1999;29:559-65 pubmed
    ..i. The pig is a useful non-primate model for human visceral larva migrans, since T. canis migrate well and induce a strong immunological response in the pig...
  6. Azuma K, Yashiro N, Kinoshita T, Yoshigi J, Ihara N. Hepatic involvement of visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis: a case report--CT and MR findings. Radiat Med. 2002;20:89-92 pubmed
    Imaging findings of hepatic lesions of visceral larva migrans are reported. A 44-year-old man presented with chills, eruptions, marked leukocytosis (31,400/microlitter), and eosinophilia (eosinophil, 72%)...
  7. Sakakibara A, Baba K, Niwa S, Yagi T, Wakayama H, Yoshida K, et al. Visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum which presented with eosinophilic pneumonia and multiple intra-hepatic lesions with severe eosinophil infiltration--outbreak in a Japanese area other than Kyushu. Intern Med. 2002;41:574-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum was diagnosed...
  8. Abe K, Shimokawa H, Kubota T, Nawa Y, Takeshita A. Myocarditis associated with visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis. Intern Med. 2002;41:706-8 pubmed
    ..Since the antibody titer against Toxocara canis was high, we diagnosed that he had visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis associated with myocarditis and eosinophilia...
  9. Okada F, Ono A, Ando Y, Yotsumoto S, Yotsumoto S, Tanoue S, et al. Pulmonary computed tomography findings of visceral larva migrans caused by Ascaris suum. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 2007;31:402-8 pubmed
    To retrospectively evaluate the computed tomography (CT) findings of pulmonary involvement in patients with visceral larva migrans caused by Ascaris suum.
  10. Wickramasinghe S, Yatawara L, Nagataki M, Takamoto M, Watanabe Y, Rajapakse R, et al. Development of a highly sensitive IgG-ELISA based on recombinant arginine kinase of Toxocara canis for serodiagnosis of visceral larva migrans in the murine model. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:853-8 pubmed publisher
    ..However, it is necessary to evaluate the specificity of this recombinant antigen with similar geohelminth infections...
  11. Lee I, Kim S, Oh D, Kim H, Kim K, Jeon P, et al. MRI findings of spinal visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis. Eur J Radiol. 2010;75:236-40 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of this study is to investigate the MRI findings of visceral larva migrans (VLS) of Toxocara canis in spinal cord.
  12. Perteguer M, Cuellar C, Guillen J, Aguila C, Fenoy S, Chivato T, et al. Cross-reactivity between Anisakis simplex sensitization and visceral larva migrans by Toxocara canis. Acta Trop. 2003;89:85-9 pubmed
    ..diagnosed with recidivous acute urticaria (RAU) caused by Anisakis simplex and 26 patients diagnosed with visceral larva migrans (VLM) caused by Toxocara canis were studied employing commercial diagnostic kits and "in house" ..
  13. Fan C, Su K. Cross-reactions with Ascaris suum antigens of sera from mice infected with A. suum, Toxocara canis, and Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Parasitol Int. 2004;53:263-71 pubmed
    ..as well as adult somatic antigen (AsAA) which were thought to be possibly helpful in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans (VLM) due to A. suum infection were investigated in the present study...
  14. Kinceková J, Reiterová K, Dubinsky P. Larval toxocariasis and its clinical manifestation in childhood in the Slovak Republic. J Helminthol. 1999;73:323-8 pubmed
    ..Analyses of laboratory indices and of clinical manifestations will contribute to the accuracy of diagnosis and effectiveness of treatment of this disease. ..
  15. Graeff Teixeira C, Morassutti A, Kazacos K. Update on Baylisascariasis, a Highly Pathogenic Zoonotic Infection. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2016;29:375-99 pubmed publisher
    ..migrans [NLM]) but also causes ocular disease (OLM; diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis [DUSN]), visceral larva migrans (VLM), and covert/asymptomatic infections. B...
  16. Schneider R, Auer H. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome. Parasitol Res. 2016;115:1213-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, ..
  17. Sakai K, Hirasawa Y, Hashimoto A. [A case of toxocariasis with eosinophil-rich pleural effusion]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2002;40:494-8 pubmed
    ..We report a rare case of toxocariasis with thoracic and pleural involvement without transient pulmonary infiltrates. ..
  18. Sarimehmetoglu H, Burgu A, Aycicek H, Gonenc B, Tanyuksel M, Kara M. Application of western blotting procedure for the immunodiagnosis of visceral larva migrans in mice by using excretory/secretory antigens. Dtsch Tierarztl Wochenschr. 2001;108:390-2 pubmed
    ..with excretory/secretory antigens from Toxocara canis larvae was developed for immunodiagnosis of visceral larva migrans in mice...
  19. Tokojima M, Ashitani J, Nakazato M. [A case of eosinophilic pneumonia caused by visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2004;78:1036-40 pubmed
    ..The patient was successfully treated with Alvendazol. This is a rare case of Ascaris suum infection causing eosinophilic pneumonia. ..
  20. Chitkara R, Krishna G. Parasitic pulmonary eosinophilia. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2006;27:171-84 pubmed
    ..Löffler's syndrome, visceral larva migrans, and tropical pulmonary eosinophilia are the most common infections that cause pulmonary eosinophilia...
  21. Iddawela D, Ehambaram K, Bandara P. Prevalence of Toxocara antibodies among patients clinically suspected to have ocular toxocariasis: A retrospective descriptive study in Sri Lanka. BMC Ophthalmol. 2017;17:50 pubmed publisher
    ..The typical clinical syndromes of toxocariasis in humans are ocular larva migrans (OLM) and visceral larva migrans (VLM). The most commonly affected sites of OLM are the peripheral retina and/or vitreous humor...
  22. Faccioli L, Vargaftig B, Medeiros A, Malheiros A. Cytokines in the modulation of eosinophilia. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 1997;92 Suppl 2:109-14 pubmed
    ..migration and in the maintenance of eosinophilia in blood, bone marrow, lung and peritoneal cavity, in a visceral larva migrans syndrome model using guinea-pigs infected with Toxocara canis...
  23. Soogarun S, Suwansaksri J, Wiwanitkit V. Pineapple juice for digestion of swamp eel viscera for harvesting infective-stage larva of Gnathostoma spp. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2004;35:267-9 pubmed
    ..05). Thus, pineapple juice is another enzyme of choice for recovering Gnathostoma spinigerum third-stage larvae. ..
  24. Mitamura M, Fukuoka M, Haruta Y, Koarada S, Tada Y, Nagasawa K. [A case of visceral larva migrans due to Toxocara canis showing varied manifestations]. Kansenshogaku Zasshi. 2007;81:305-8 pubmed
    ..A multiple dot-ELISA assay of her serum showed that she had visceral larva migrans caused by Ascaris suum or Toxocara canis...
  25. Alcantara Neves N, dos Santos A, Mendonça L, Figueiredo C, Pontes de Carvalho L. An improved method to obtain antigen-excreting Toxocara canis larvae. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:349-51 pubmed publisher
    Toxocara canis is a dog helminth which causes visceral larva migrans (VLM) when infecting humans as a larva. The infection is demonstrated by detecting IgG antibodies against excretory-secretory larval antigens (ESLA) in serum by ELISA...
  26. Bächli H, Minet J, Gratzl O. Cerebral toxocariasis: a possible cause of epileptic seizure in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004;20:468-72 pubmed
    ..These can cause visceral larva migrans syndrome in humans who ingest contaminated soil...
  27. Yoshikawa M, Nishiofuku M, Moriya K, Ouji Y, Ishizaka S, Kasahara K, et al. A familial case of visceral toxocariasis due to consumption of raw bovine liver. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:525-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The patients responded well to treatment with albendazole. Ingestion of raw liver from paratenic animals is considered to be a common transmission route of human toxocariasis, especially in adults. ..
  28. Ardiles A, Chanqueo L, Reyes V, Araya L. [Toxocariasis in an adult manifested as hypereosinophilic syndrome with predominant neurological involvement. Clinical case]. Rev Med Chil. 2001;129:780-5 pubmed
    ..Toxocariasis is an uncommon parasitic disease in adults. There is a variant, called visceral larva migrans, that can involve different organs, and among those, the central nervous system...
  29. Macarie S, Calugaru M, Kaucsar E, Binţinţan R. [Toxocara canis central chorioretinitis]. Oftalmologia. 2005;49:22-4 pubmed
    ..This issue presents the case of a patient which presents monolateral chorioretinitis caused by Toxocara canis. ..
  30. Jeske J, Bednarek M, Cielecka B, Majda Stanisławska E. [Toxocarosis in the Lód? region over the years 1996-2000]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:395-8 pubmed
    ..The "major" form of toxocarosis was found in the country residents, young people, and patients over 60 years old. ..
  31. Suh L, Sweeney D, Jun A. A 33-year-old man with a white pupil. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:1043-4, 1081-2 pubmed
  32. Norhaida A, Suharni M, Liza Sharmini A, Tuda J, Rahmah N. rTES-30USM: cloning via assembly PCR, expression, and evaluation of usefulness in the detection of toxocariasis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2008;102:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..7% (64/115). The high sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the new IgG(4)-ELISA should make the assay a good choice for use in tropical countries and any other area where potentially cross-reactive helminthic infections are common. ..
  33. Logar J, Soba B, Kraut A, Stirn Kranjc B. Seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies among patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis in Slovenia. Korean J Parasitol. 2004;42:137-40 pubmed
    ..05. A high rate of Toxocara seropositivity in ocular patients should alert the ophthalmologists in Slovenia to include toxocariasis in the differential diagnosis of eye diseases more frequently...
  34. Yoshikawa M, Ouji Y, Nishiofuku M, Moriya K, Kasahara K, Mikasa K, et al. Visceral toxocariasis from regular consumption of raw cow liver. Intern Med. 2008;47:1289-90 pubmed
  35. Yoshida S, Matsui M, Wang H, Oeda T, Sasaki T, Komure O, et al. [A case of myeloradiculitis as a complication of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2004;44:198-202 pubmed
    ..Ascaris suum in both serum and the CSF, confirming the diagnosis of chronic myeloradiculitis due to visceral larva migrans. The patient was first treated with a single course of a daily 600-mg dose of oral albendazole for 4 weeks,..
  36. Akao N, Ohta N. Toxocariasis in Japan. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:87-93 pubmed
    ..In this article, we will describe the critical characteristic features of toxocariasis alongside the contributions of Japanese researchers to a better understanding of the disease...
  37. Kaur J, Gupta A, Wadhwa N. Hepatic Visceral Larva Migrans Causing Hepatic Venous Thrombosis and Prolonged Fever. Indian Pediatr. 2017;54:882-884 pubmed
    b>Visceral larva migrans may present with systemic symptoms such as fever, hepatomegaly, pneumonitis or ocular symptoms. A 7-year-old girl with fever, pain abdomen and persistent eosinophilia...
  38. Magnaval J, Glickman L, Dorchies P, Morassin B. Highlights of human toxocariasis. Korean J Parasitol. 2001;39:1-11 pubmed
    ..The clinical spectrum of the disease comprises four syndromes, namely visceral larva migrans, ocular larva migrans, and the more recently recognized "common" (in adults) and "covert&..
  39. Auer H, Aspöck H. [Nosology and epidemiology of human toxocarosis--the recent situation in Austria]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2004;116 Suppl 4:7-18 pubmed
    ..but may also infest humans, causing a great variety of symptoms and sometimes also severe diseases: the visceral larva migrans syndrome, the ocular larva migrans syndrome, covert toxocarosis, common toxocarosis, neurological ..
  40. Niedworok M, Płaneta Małecka I. [Clinical course of toxocarosis in children]. Wiad Parazytol. 2004;50:461-4 pubmed
    ..Toxocarosis diagnosis is difficult because its clinical symptoms are differentiated and not characteristic, what requires broadening of differential diagnosis concerning numerous entities. ..
  41. Demirci C, Gargili A, Kandil A, Cetinkaya H, Uyaner I, Boynuegri B, et al. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase in murine visceral larva migrans: effects on lung and liver damage. Chin J Physiol. 2006;49:326-34 pubmed
    ..canis infection cause direct host damages and it is strongly related to the oxidative stress. We propose that larval NO can also be effective in larval migration, but it needs further investigation on distribution of NO in larvae. ..
  42. Petithory J. [Visceral and cutaneous larva migrans]. Rev Prat. 2007;57:1977-83 pubmed
    The syndrome of visceral larva migrans was described for the first time in 1952 by Beaver. He demonstrated that the presence of nematodes larvae, particularly in the liver, were those of Toxocara canis and T. cati...
  43. Hamir A, Snyder D, Lichtenfels J. Cerebral larva migrans in a raccoon (Procyon lotor). Vet Pathol. 1999;36:618-20 pubmed
    ..Multifocal eosinophilic granulomas indicative of neural and visceral larva migrans were observed...
  44. Pawłowski Z, Mizgajska H. [Toxocariasis in Poznan region, Poland, in years 1990-2000]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2002;56:559-65 pubmed
    ..Considering the risk of ocular toxocariasis in non-intensive invasions one course of treatment with albendazole is suggested in every case of infection, even asymptomatic...
  45. Overgaauw P, van Knapen F. [Negligible risk of visceral or ocular larva migrans from petting a dog]. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd. 2004;148:1600-3 pubmed
    ..The risk to man of acquiring the infection by stroking a dog is therefore considered to be extremely limited. ..
  46. Martín U, Machuca P, Demonte M, Contini L. [Analysis of children with a presumptive diagnosis of toxocariasis in Santa Fe, Argentina]. Medicina (B Aires). 2008;68:353-7 pubmed
    ..53). According to these results, prevention, early diagnosis and opportune treatment for toxocariasis should be considered as priority health activities in this region. ..
  47. Bertelmann E, Velhagen K, Pleyer U, Hartmann C. [Ocular toxocariasis. Diagnostic and therapeutic options]. Ophthalmologe. 2003;100:950-4 pubmed
    ..Well-timed vitrectomy is a suitable therapy for vitreo-retinal complications in ocular toxocariasis to improve prognosis and to confirm the diagnosis. ..
  48. Kimmig P, Regnath T, Hassler D. [Toxocariasis: larva migrans visceralis]. Dtsch Med Wochenschr. 2004;129:2701-2 pubmed
  49. Sakai S, Shida Y, Takahashi N, Yabuuchi H, Soeda H, Okafuji T, et al. Pulmonary lesions associated with visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum or Toxocara canis: imaging of six cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;186:1697-702 pubmed
    ..was to evaluate chest radiographic and CT findings of patients with pulmonary lesions associated with visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum or Toxocara canis...
  50. Sayar D, Mazilis A, Kassem E, Klein A. [Toxocariasis as a cause of hypereosinophilia]. Harefuah. 2009;148:14-6, 89 pubmed
    ..The authors found that toxocara was the cause of hypereosinophilia. After appropriate treatment the number of eosinophils decreases, presenting a measurement of the parasite activity. ..
  51. Bachmeyer C, Lamarque G, Morariu R, Molina T, Bouree P, Delmer A. Visceral larva migrans mimicking lymphoma. Chest. 2003;123:1296-7 pubmed
    We report a case of visceral larva migrans in an adult with fever, night sweats, weight loss, hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion, and eosinophilia-mimicking lymphoma...
  52. Pizzi D, Maffrand R, De Lisa I, Pizzi H, Plaza Ontiveros R. [Larva migrans syndrome or ocular toxocariasis]. Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba. 2001;58:99-104 pubmed
    ..The authors determine the needs of taking into account this parasitosis; above all in children and with the antecedent of contact with pets...
  53. Iddawela R, Rajapakse R, Perera N, Agatsuma T. Characterization of a Toxocara canis species-specific excretory-secretory antigen (TcES-57) and development of a double sandwich ELISA for diagnosis of visceral larva migrans. Korean J Parasitol. 2007;45:19-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, ELISA based on TcES-57 antigen was proven to be an effective tool in the diagnosis of toxocariasis and studies on the role of T. canis in the epidemiology of human toxocariasis...
  54. Martínez Barbabosa I, Quiroz M, González L, Cárdenas E, Edubiel A, Juárez J, et al. Prevalence of anti-T. canis antibodies in stray dogs in Mexico City. Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:270-6 pubmed publisher
    Toxocara canis is a common intestinal helminth found in dogs. In humans, it is a cause of Visceral Larva Migrans (VLM), a zoonosis rarely studied in Mexico...
  55. Sasmal N, Acharya S, Laha R. Larval migration of Toxocara canis in piglets and transfer of larvae from infected porcine tissue to mice. J Helminthol. 2008;82:245-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Visceral larva migrans (VLM), caused by Toxocara canis larvae in humans, animals and birds, is now well documented throughout the world...
  56. Khodasevich L, Leont ev V, Ladygina A, Monastyrev K. [Visceral toxocariasis]. Arkh Patol. 1998;60:54-5 pubmed
    ..Pulmonary bleeding was a course of death. Differential diagnosis between toxocariasis and askaridosis is given...
  57. Gonzalez M, Ibanez O, Balcarce N, Nanfito G, Kozubsky L, Radman N, et al. [Toxocariasis with liver involvement]. Acta Gastroenterol Latinoam. 2000;30:187-90 pubmed
    ..Toxocariasis is a common parasitosis in our setting. It must be regarded as the first diagnosis when confronted with eosinophilic leukocytosis and abnormal liver findings by ultrasound...
  58. Hübner J, Uhlíková M, Leissová M. [Diagnosis of the early phase of larval toxocariasis using IgG avidity]. Epidemiol Mikrobiol Imunol. 2001;50:67-70 pubmed
    ..In the group of 1,376 patients only 5.09% low avidities were found. It means that predominantly patients in the chronic stage of infection attend examination...
  59. Miyake T, Ikoma H, Hoshima M, Yamane E, Hasegawa H, Arizono N. Case of acute ileus caused by a spirurina larva. Pathol Int. 2004;54:730-3 pubmed
    ..Hence, this indicates that even if the ingestion of raw firefly squids is uncertain, spirurina infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of acute ileus or eosinophilic enteritis...
  60. Chorazy M, Richardson D. A survey of environmental contamination with ascarid ova, Wallingford, Connecticut. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2005;5:33-9 pubmed
    ..In an effort to raise awareness and to better understand the risk of acquiring visceral larva migrans in south central Connecticut, this environmental survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of ..
  61. Sato H, Une Y, Kawakami S, Saito E, Kamiya H, Akao N, et al. Fatal Baylisascaris larva migrans in a colony of Japanese macaques kept by a safari-style zoo in Japan. J Parasitol. 2005;91:716-9 pubmed
    ..This sporadic outbreak is the second record of Baylisascaris larva migrans in animals in Japan...
  62. Fan C, Liao C, Kao T, Li M, Du W, Su K. Sero-epidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among aboriginal schoolchildren in the mountainous areas of north-eastern Taiwan. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:593-600 pubmed
    ..79; CI = 1.23-11.69; P = 0.02) or playing in soil (OR = 3.00; CI = 1.10-8.16; P = 0.03) appeared at increased risk of seropositivity...
  63. Umehara F, Ookatsu H, Hayashi D, Uchida A, Douchi Y, Kawabata H, et al. MRI studies of spinal visceral larva migrans syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2006;249:7-12 pubmed
    We report serial MR findings in four patients with myelitis caused by visceral larva migrans syndrome due to Toxocara canis or Ascaris suum infection...
  64. Dzbenski T, Hautz W, Bitkowska E. [Experimental toxocariasis in rabbits: immunological markers of ocular infections]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:591-6 pubmed
    ..None of the infected animals showed the signs of ocular involvement, however, toxocaral IgG antibodies and circulating parasite antigen were present in the anterior chamber fluid samples...
  65. Arimura Y, Mukae H, Yanagi S, Sano A, Matsumoto K, Ihiboshi H, et al. [Two cases of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum showing a migratory nodular shadow]. Nihon Kokyuki Gakkai Zasshi. 2001;39:716-20 pubmed
    The number of cases of visceral larva migrans caused by the pig ascarid, Ascaris suum has recently been increasing. We have encountered two cases of visceral larva migrans due to A...
  66. Forstl M, Buchta V, Psohlavec J, Cermak P, Cermakova Z, Urban J, et al. [Diagnostics of larval toxocariasis]. Klin Mikrobiol Infekc Lek. 2004;10:181-5 pubmed
  67. Musso C, Castelo J, Tsanaclis A, Pereira F. Visceral larva migrans granulomas in liver and central nervous system of children who died of bacterial or viral meningitis. Clin Neuropathol. 2006;25:288-90 pubmed
  68. Matsuki Y, Fujii T, Nakamura Uchiyama F, Hiromatsu K, Nawa Y, Hayashi T, et al. Toxocariasis presenting with multiple effusions in the pericardial space, thoracic cavity, and Morrison's pouch. Intern Med. 2007;46:913-4 pubmed
  69. Moiyadi A, Mahadevan A, Anandh B, Shivashankar R, Chickabasavaiah Y, Shankar S. Visceral larva migrans presenting as multiple intracranial and intraspinal abscesses. Neuropathology. 2007;27:371-4 pubmed
    ..describe a 38-year-old man who presented with multiple intracranial and intramedullary abscesses caused by visceral larva migrans. Neurohelminthiasis as a cause of multiple abscesses, though rare, should be entertained as a differential ..
  70. Avcioglu H, Burgu A. Seasonal prevalence of Toxocara ova in soil samples from public parks in Ankara, Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008;8:345-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results indicate that the public parks in surveyed areas may be a source of toxocariasis. Effective preventive measures should be established...
  71. Lim Y, Kim J, Oh S, Jeon S, Koh H, Lee Y. Pulmonary toxocariasis masquerading as metastatic tumor nodules in a child with osteosarcoma. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2009;53:1343-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Peripheral eosinophilia was also noted. When a more thorough history revealed frequent intake of raw cow liver, we diagnosed pulmonary toxocariasis by ELISA for specific serum IgG antibody...
  72. Sturchler D, Schubarth P, Gualzata M, Gottstein B, Oettli A. Thiabendazole vs. albendazole in treatment of toxocariasis: a clinical trial. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1989;83:473-8 pubmed
    ..5% and six patients (32%) were clinically cured. We recommend albendazole for treatment of visceral and ocular larva migrans with a minimum dose of 10 mg kg-1 daily for five days...
  73. Łapinski T, Miegoć H, Prokopowicz D, Kowalczuk Kot A. [Exposure to toxocariasis and tularemia among workers at Bia?owieza National Park]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2000;54:367-74 pubmed
    ..The workers of the Bia?owieza Sanctuary are not exposed to Toxocara canis infection more than the remaining population of Bia?owieza and the population in the Kruklanka village in a region far from Bia?owieza...
  74. Sigg Farner C, Schulthess H, Sturchler D. [Eosinophilia, diarrhea]. Praxis (Bern 1994). 2003;92:554-7 pubmed
    ..Antibodies to filariae and Toxocara are demonstrated in the serum. Following treatment with albendazole 400 mg daily for 14 days the patient makes a full recovery, and the final diagnosis is active Toxocara canis infection...
  75. Hayashi E, Akao N, Fujita K. Evidence for the involvement of the optic nerve as a migration route for larvae in ocular toxocariasis of Mongolian gerbils. J Helminthol. 2003;77:311-5 pubmed
  76. Perteguer M, Aguila C, Fenoy S, Guillen J, Cuellar C. Cross-reactivity induced by Anisakis simplex and Toxocara canis in mice. J Helminthol. 2003;77:331-4 pubmed
    ..canis eggs were compared with those obtained by testing sera from mice infected with one A. simplex L3, an increase in cross-reactions was observed using the C57BL/10 strain...
  77. Osoegawa M. [Diagnosis and treatment of CNS parasite infection with special reference to parasitic myelitis]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2004;44:961-4 pubmed
    The occurrence of visceral larva migrans due to Ascaris suum (A. suum) and Toxocara canis (T. canis) has occasionally been reported in Japan, although parenchymatous involvement of the CNS is extremely rare in A. suum/T...
  78. Kabaalioglu A, Ceken K, Alimoglu E, Saba R, Apaydin A. Hepatic toxocariasis: US, CT and MRI findings. Ultraschall Med. 2005;26:329-32 pubmed
    b>Visceral larva migrans (VLM) most commonly occurs as a febrile disease of childhood particularly affecting children between 1 and 7 years of age...
  79. Inan M, Sakru N, Vatansever U, Bilgi S. Visceral larva migrans presenting as acute abdomen in a child. J Pediatr Surg. 2006;41:e7-9 pubmed
    An unusual presentation of visceral larva migrans observed in a patient is reported...
  80. Kira J. [Parasitic myelitis]. Nihon Naika Gakkai Zasshi. 2006;95:1255-9 pubmed
  81. Hanley C, Simmons H, Wallace R, Clyde V. Visceral and presumptive neural baylisascariasis in an orangutan (Pongo pygmaeus). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2006;37:553-7 pubmed
    ..This case report of Baylisascaris procyonis confirms the presentation for the first time in an ape and documents the difficulty in antemortem diagnosis of neural larval migrans...
  82. Akdemir C. Visceral larva migrans among children in Kütahya (Turkey) and an evaluation of playgrounds for T. canis eggs. Turk J Pediatr. 2010;52:158-62 pubmed
    ..of infected larvae in playground sandboxes, and to obtain a view of the general situation regarding visceral larva migrans (VLM) in the city. The blood sera of 119 children (54 girls, 65 boys) were tested for T...
  83. Oficjalska Młyńczak J, Duda A, Muzyka Woźniak M, Zając Pytrus H, Marek J. [Pars plana vitrectomy in treatment of ocular toxocariasis complications--case report]. Klin Oczna. 2001;103:225-7 pubmed
    ..After a few weeks the patient returned with central retinal detachment and macular hole. After the second vitrectomy with use of silicon oil we obtained reattachment of the retina but without functional improvement...
  84. Altcheh J, Nallar M, Conca M, Biancardi M, Freilij H. [Toxocariasis: clinical and laboratory features in 54 patients]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2003;58:425-31 pubmed
    ..To describe the clinical and laboratory findings in children with toxocariasis...
  85. Anderson A, Fordham L, Bula M, Blatt J. Visceral larval migrans masquerading as metastatic disease in a toddler with Wilms tumor. Pediatr Radiol. 2006;36:265-7 pubmed
    ..This case illustrates that toxocariasis should be considered as a rare differential diagnostic possibility for multiple liver lesions and multifocal peripheral pulmonary opacities in young children with Wilms tumor...
  86. Kazek B, Jamroz E, Mandera M, Bierzynska Macyszyn G, Kluczewska E, Marszał E. The cerebral form of toxocarosis in a seven-year-old patient. Folia Neuropathol. 2006;44:72-6 pubmed
    ..Toxocarosis is a consequence of human infection by Toxocara canis larvae. There are symptomatic (visceral, ocular) and asymptomatic courses of toxocarosis. The cerebral form is very rare...
  87. Gawor J, Borecka A. The contamination of the environment with Toxocara eggs in Mazowieckie voivodship as a risk of toxocarosis in children. Wiad Parazytol. 2004;50:237-41 pubmed
    ..6% and 11.9%, respectively), while in urban areas it was 0.9%. These results confirmed that soil contamination might be recognized as a very important factor in the epidemiology of human toxocarosis...
  88. Musso C, Castelo J, Tsanaclis A, Pereira F. Prevalence of Toxocara-induced liver granulomas, detected by immunohistochemistry, in a series of autopsies at a Children's Reference Hospital in Vitoria, ES, Brazil. Virchows Arch. 2007;450:411-7 pubmed
    The aim of this investigation was to study the frequency of visceral larva migrans (VLM) granulomas in autopsies at a Children's Reference Hospital in Vitoria, ES Brazil, where anti-Toxocara antibodies are frequently detected in the serum ..
  89. Georgiou C, Efstathiades Y, Dimitriou N, Theophanous M, Voros D. An unusual case of Toxocara canis of the ascending colon. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007;19:1149-53 pubmed
    ..The mass was found to be expanding into the surrounding fat tissue and into the regional lymph notes. Surprisingly, histological examination of the mass revealed visceral larva migrans, owing to ascaris Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati.
  90. Devera R, Blanco Y, Hernández H, Simoes D. [Toxocara spp. and other helminths in squares and parks of Ciudad Bolívar, Bolivar State (Venezuela)]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2008;26:23-6 pubmed
    b>Visceral larva migrans, a syndrome observed in humans, is caused by larva of parasitic helminths, such as Toxocara spp., which usually infect dogs and cats...
  91. Gawor J, Borecka A, Dobosz S, Marczynska M, Zarnowska Prymek H, Trzebicka A, et al. [Toxocariasis in children--difficult clinical problem]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62:407-13 pubmed
    ..Presented data show the need for educational programs which should be implemented for prevention of Toxocara infection in children...
  92. Borecka A, Gawor J, Niedworok M, Sordyl B. [Occurrence of Toxocara spp. eggs in household environment of children with diagnosed toxocariasis in ?ód? voivodeship]. Wiad Parazytol. 2010;56:141-4 pubmed
    ..4%) and urban areas (23.3%). The presence of Toxocara eggs in households enlarges the risk of re-infection for children with diagnosed toxocariasis, especially in rural areas where the high level of contamination was detected...