Summary: Infection with nematodes of the genus TRICHURIS, formerly called Trichocephalus.

Top Publications

  1. Bradley J, Jackson J. Immunity, immunoregulation and the ecology of trichuriasis and ascariasis. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:429-41 pubmed
    ..Some possible implications of worm-mediated immunomodulation for the occurrence of bystander infectious diseases in human populations and the management of de-worming programmes are also discussed...
  2. Cliffe L, Humphreys N, Lane T, Potten C, Booth C, Grencis R. Accelerated intestinal epithelial cell turnover: a new mechanism of parasite expulsion. Science. 2005;308:1463-5 pubmed
    ..This host protective mechanism against intestinal pathogens has implications for our wider understanding of the multifunctional role played by intestinal epithelium in mucosal defense...
  3. Rodrigues L, Newcombe P, Cunha S, Alcantara Neves N, Genser B, Cruz A, et al. Early infection with Trichuris trichiura and allergen skin test reactivity in later childhood. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:1769-77 pubmed publisher
    ..Intestinal helminth parasites are prevalent in childhood in developing countries and are associated with a lower prevalence of allergen skin test reactivity and asthma...
  4. Betts J, deSchoolmeester M, Else K. Trichuris muris: CD4+ T cell-mediated protection in reconstituted SCID mice. Parasitology. 2000;121 Pt 6:631-7 pubmed
    ..muris indicating that the mechanism by which CD4-T cells mediate protective immunity is unlikely to involve killing of infected gut epithelial cells...
  5. Vercruysse J, Behnke J, Albonico M, Ame S, Angebault C, Bethony J, et al. Assessment of the anthelmintic efficacy of albendazole in school children in seven countries where soil-transmitted helminths are endemic. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e948 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study, therefore, was to define the efficacy of a single 400 milligram dose of albendazole (ALB) against these three STH using a standardized protocol...
  6. Cruickshank S, deSchoolmeester M, Svensson M, Howell G, Bazakou A, Logunova L, et al. Rapid dendritic cell mobilization to the large intestinal epithelium is associated with resistance to Trichuris muris infection. J Immunol. 2009;182:3055-62 pubmed publisher
    ..Differences in the production of DC chemotactic chemokines by colonic epithelial cells in response to infection in resistant vs susceptible mice may explain the different kinetics of the DC response. ..
  7. Faulkner H, Renauld J, Van Snick J, Grencis R. Interleukin-9 enhances resistance to the intestinal nematode Trichuris muris. Infect Immun. 1998;66:3832-40 pubmed
    ..muris. ..
  8. Koyama K, Tamauchi H, Tomita M, Kitajima T, Ito Y. B-cell activation in the mesenteric lymph nodes of resistant BALB/c mice infected with the murine nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Parasitol Res. 1999;85:194-9 pubmed
    ..muris in resistant BALB/c mice was concomitant with cytokine production and B-cell activation in the MLN of infected mice. These results suggest the involvement of B-cell responses in protective immunity to T. muris infection. ..
  9. Helmby H, Grencis R. Interleukin 1 plays a major role in the development of Th2-mediated immunity. Eur J Immunol. 2004;34:3674-81 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first demonstration of the critical role of IL-1 in regulating Th2 responses during gastrointestinal nematode infection...

More Information

Publications129 found, 100 shown here

  1. Young S, Goodman D, Farag T, Ali S, Khatib M, Khalfan S, et al. Geophagia is not associated with Trichuris or hookworm transmission in Zanzibar, Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:766-72 pubmed
  2. Motomura Y, Khan W, El Sharkawy R, Verma Gandhu M, Grencis R, Collins S. Mechanisms underlying gut dysfunction in a murine model of chronic parasitic infection. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2010;299:G1354-60 pubmed publisher
  3. Traversa D. Are we paying too much attention to cardio-pulmonary nematodes and neglecting old-fashioned worms like Trichuris vulpis?. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:32 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews current knowledge of T. vulpis, together with a discussion of critical points in epidemiology, zoonotic hazard, diagnosis and treatment of canine trichurosis...
  4. Ziegelbauer K, Speich B, Mäusezahl D, Bos R, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001162 pubmed publisher
    ..However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability...
  5. Stephenson L, Holland C, Cooper E. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura. Parasitology. 2000;121 Suppl:S73-95 pubmed
    ..However the goal of control programmes in endemic areas is morbidity reduction, which follows when intensity of infection is significantly reduced. ..
  6. Johnston C, Bradley J, Behnke J, Matthews K, Else K. Isolates of Trichuris muris elicit different adaptive immune responses in their murine host. Parasite Immunol. 2005;27:69-78 pubmed
    ..However, in the slower-responding host, isolate-derived factors may play a role in shaping the quality of the adaptive immune response, thus influencing parasite survival. ..
  7. Faulkner H, Turner J, Kamgno J, Pion S, Boussinesq M, Bradley J. Age- and infection intensity-dependent cytokine and antibody production in human trichuriasis: the importance of IgE. J Infect Dis. 2002;185:665-72 pubmed
    ..008), and positively with host age (P =.010). These findings suggest a mixed cytokine response in trichuriasis and an IgE-associated level of protection.
  8. Liu G, Wang Y, Xu M, Zhou D, Ye Y, Li J, et al. Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of two whipworms Trichuris ovis and Trichuris discolor (Nematoda: Trichuridae). Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1635-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The availability of the complete mtDNA sequences of T. ovis and T. discolor provides novel genetic markers for studying the population genetics, diagnostics and molecular epidemiology of T. ovis and T. discolor...
  9. deSchoolmeester M, Martinez Pomares L, Gordon S, Else K. The mannose receptor binds Trichuris muris excretory/secretory proteins but is not essential for protective immunity. Immunology. 2009;126:246-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This work suggests that, despite binding components of T. muris E/S, the MR is not critically involved in the generation of the immune response to this parasite...
  10. Wu S, Li R, Li W, Beshah E, Dawson H, Urban J. Worm burden-dependent disruption of the porcine colon microbiota by Trichuris suis infection. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e35470 pubmed publisher
    ..Our findings provided insight into the dynamics of the proximal colon microbiota in pigs in response to T. suis infection. ..
  11. Wilson E, Zaph C, Mohrs M, Welcher A, Siu J, Artis D, et al. B7RP-1-ICOS interactions are required for optimal infection-induced expansion of CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. J Immunol. 2006;177:2365-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these data are consistent with a model in which ICOS is not involved in dictating polarity of the Th response but rather regulates the expansion of these subsets. ..
  12. Wilson M, Ramalingam T, Rivollier A, Shenderov K, Mentink Kane M, Madala S, et al. Colitis and intestinal inflammation in IL10-/- mice results from IL-13Rα2-mediated attenuation of IL-13 activity. Gastroenterology. 2011;140:254-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Reagents that block the IL-13 decoy receptor IL-13Rα2 might be developed for inflammatory bowel disease associated with increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-17. ..
  13. Hasnain S, Thornton D, Grencis R. Changes in the mucosal barrier during acute and chronic Trichuris muris infection. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..This study readdresses the changes within the mucosal barrier, in particular in the cell surface and secreted mucins during acute and chronic nematode infection. ..
  14. Blackwell N, Else K. A comparison of local and peripheral parasite-specific antibody production in different strains of mice infected with Trichuris muris. Parasite Immunol. 2002;24:203-11 pubmed
    ..These results show that B cell responses are tightly regulated locally in both resistant and susceptible strains of mice infected with T. muris. ..
  15. Klementowicz J, Travis M, Grencis R. Trichuris muris: a model of gastrointestinal parasite infection. Semin Immunopathol. 2012;34:815-28 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review, we give a comprehensive overview of experimental work conducted on the T. muris infection model, focusing on important findings and the most recent reports on the role of the immune system in parasite expulsion. ..
  16. Artis D, Shapira S, Mason N, Speirs K, Goldschmidt M, Caamano J, et al. Differential requirement for NF-kappa B family members in control of helminth infection and intestinal inflammation. J Immunol. 2002;169:4481-7 pubmed
    ..muris and the control of infection-induced intestinal inflammation...
  17. Saathoff E, Olsen A, Kvalsvig J, Geissler P. Geophagy and its association with geohelminth infection in rural schoolchildren from northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:485-90 pubmed
    ..lumbricoides reinfection. In contrast, differences in prevalence of T. trichiura and hookworm infection between groups with different soil preference were small...
  18. Luoba A, Wenzel Geissler P, Estambale B, Ouma J, Alusala D, Ayah R, et al. Earth-eating and reinfection with intestinal helminths among pregnant and lactating women in western Kenya. Trop Med Int Health. 2005;10:220-7 pubmed
    ..trichiura, although these results were less unequivocal. These findings call for increased emphasis, in antenatal care, on the potential risks of earth-eating, and for deworming of women after delivery...
  19. Hepworth M, Grencis R. Disruption of Th2 immunity results in a gender-specific expansion of IL-13 producing accessory NK cells during helminth infection. J Immunol. 2009;183:3906-14 pubmed publisher
  20. Figueiredo C, Barreto M, Rodrigues L, Cooper P, Silva N, Amorim L, et al. Chronic intestinal helminth infections are associated with immune hyporesponsiveness and induction of a regulatory network. Infect Immun. 2010;78:3160-7 pubmed publisher
  21. Else K, deSchoolmeester M. Immunity to Trichuris muris in the laboratory mouse. J Helminthol. 2003;77:95-8 pubmed
    ..This unique model thus presents an opportunity to examine the immune events underlying both resistance to infection and persistent infection within the same host species, and in some cases, the same host strain...
  22. Knopp S, Mgeni A, Khamis I, Steinmann P, Stothard J, Rollinson D, et al. Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths in the era of preventive chemotherapy: effect of multiple stool sampling and use of different diagnostic techniques. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e331 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, we focused on schoolchildren on Unguja Island, Zanzibar, an area where anthelminthic drugs have been repeatedly administered over the past decade...
  23. Svensson M, Russell K, Mack M, Else K. CD4+ T-cell localization to the large intestinal mucosa during Trichuris muris infection is mediated by G alpha i-coupled receptors but is CCR6- and CXCR3-independent. Immunology. 2010;129:257-67 pubmed publisher
    ..CCR6 and CXCR3 were however dispensable for this process because neutralization of CCR6 and CXCR3 did not prevent CD4(+) CD62L(low) cell migration to the large intestinal mucosa during T. muris infection...
  24. Svensson M, Bell L, Little M, deSchoolmeester M, Locksley R, Else K. Accumulation of eosinophils in intestine-draining mesenteric lymph nodes occurs after Trichuris muris infection. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:1-11 pubmed publisher
    ..muris-infected BALB/c mice but are dispensable for worm expulsion and generation of Th2 responses, suggesting a distinct or subtle role of MLN eosinophils in the immune response to T. muris infection. ..
  25. Hong S, Lim H, Kim D, Kim S. A case of gastroenteritis associated with gastric trichuriasis. J Korean Med Sci. 2003;18:429-32 pubmed
    A rare human case of gastroenteritis and eosinophilic ascites associated with gastric trichuriasis is described. The patient was a 32-yr-old woman who was working in a farm near Pohang, Korea...
  26. Cutillas C, de Rojas M, Ariza C, Ubeda J, Guevara D. Molecular identification of Trichuris vulpis and Trichuris suis isolated from different hosts. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:383-9 pubmed
    ..8S-ITS2 sequence data of Trichuris ovis, Trichuris leporis, Trichuris muris, Trichuris arvicolae, and Trichuris skrjabini was carried out. A common homology zone was detected in the ITS1 sequence of all species of trichurids. ..
  27. Humphreys N, Grencis R. Effects of ageing on the immunoregulation of parasitic infection. Infect Immun. 2002;70:5148-57 pubmed
    ..Together these data suggest that changes in cytokine phenotype, particularly CD4 cells, contribute to the observed age-associated switch from T. muris resistance to susceptibility...
  28. Levison S, McLaughlin J, Zeef L, Fisher P, Grencis R, Pennock J. Colonic transcriptional profiling in resistance and susceptibility to trichuriasis: phenotyping a chronic colitis and lessons for iatrogenic helminthosis. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2010;16:2065-79 pubmed publisher
    ..However, these data urge caution in untargeted therapeutic helminth use until risk/benefit in susceptible individuals is more fully understood. ..
  29. Dunn J, Columbus S, Aldeen W, Davis M, Carroll K. Trichuris vulpis recovered from a patient with chronic diarrhea and five dogs. J Clin Microbiol. 2002;40:2703-4 pubmed
    ..Morphologically, T. vulpis ova resemble those of the human whipworm (T. trichiura) but are nearly twice their size. ..
  30. deSchoolmeester M, Else K. Cytokine and chemokine responses underlying acute and chronic Trichuris muris infection. Int Rev Immunol. 2002;21:439-67 pubmed
    ..Effector cells have to be recruited locally to the site of infection in order to culminate in worm expulsion, which brings new key players into our model, including chemokines. ..
  31. Hayes K, Bancroft A, Goldrick M, Portsmouth C, Roberts I, Grencis R. Exploitation of the intestinal microflora by the parasitic nematode Trichuris muris. Science. 2010;328:1391-4 pubmed publisher
  32. Liu G, Gasser R, Su A, Nejsum P, Peng L, Lin R, et al. Clear genetic distinctiveness between human- and pig-derived Trichuris based on analyses of mitochondrial datasets. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1539 pubmed publisher
    The whipworm, Trichuris trichiura, causes trichuriasis in ?600 million people worldwide, mainly in developing countries. Whipworms also infect other animal hosts, including pigs (T. suis), dogs (T...
  33. Tchuem Tchuente L, Behnke J, Gilbert F, Southgate V, Vercruysse J. Polyparasitism with Schistosoma haematobium and soil-transmitted helminth infections among school children in Loum, Cameroon. Trop Med Int Health. 2003;8:975-86 pubmed
    ..haematobium and A. lumbricoides (sex- and age-dependent) but quantitative associations between these two species, as well as between S. haematobium and T. trichiura, were not convincing...
  34. Kornaś S, Nowosad B, Skalska M. [The evaluation of Trichuris vulpis infection of stray dogs in Kraków area]. Wiad Parazytol. 2002;48:401-6 pubmed
    ..A coprologic examination carried out between January and November 1999-2000 showed the prevalence of infection from 6.8% to 15.1% and EPG from 88 to 913. ..
  35. Koyama K. NK1.1+ cell depletion in vivo fails to prevent protection against infection with the murine nematode parasite Trichuris muris. Parasite Immunol. 2002;24:527-33 pubmed
    ..BR mice. These observations suggest that NK1.1+ cells and NKT cells are not involved in the induction of Th2 responses and protective immunity to T. muris infection...
  36. Do T, Mølbak K, Phung D, Dalsgaard A. Helminth infections among people using wastewater and human excreta in peri-urban agriculture and aquaculture in Hanoi, Vietnam. Trop Med Int Health. 2007;12 Suppl 2:82-90 pubmed
    ..To assess the prevalence of helminth infections and their associated risks in a community using both wastewater and human excreta in agriculture and aquaculture...
  37. Reina Ortiz M, Schreiber F, Benitez S, Broncano N, Chico M, Vaca M, et al. Effects of chronic ascariasis and trichuriasis on cytokine production and gene expression in human blood: a cross-sectional study. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1157 pubmed publisher
  38. Cutillas C, Oliveros R, de Rojas M, Guevara D. Determination of Trichuris skrjabini by sequencing of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 segment of the ribosomal DNA: comparative molecular study of different species of trichurids. J Parasitol. 2004;90:648-52 pubmed
    ..ovis, T. leporis, T. muris, and T. arvicolae suggested that the combined use of sequence data from both spacers would be useful in the molecular characterization of trichurid parasites. ..
  39. Artis D, Humphreys N, Bancroft A, Rothwell N, Potten C, Grencis R. Tumor necrosis factor alpha is a critical component of interleukin 13-mediated protective T helper cell type 2 responses during helminth infection. J Exp Med. 1999;190:953-62 pubmed
    ..These results provide the first demonstration of the role of TNF-alpha in regulating Th2 cytokine-mediated responses at mucosal sites, and have implications for the design of rational therapies against helminth infection and allergy. ..
  40. D Elia R, Behnke J, Bradley J, Else K. Regulatory T cells: a role in the control of helminth-driven intestinal pathology and worm survival. J Immunol. 2009;182:2340-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, our data reveal a subversion of this damage-limiting response by the S isolate to facilitate its own survival. ..
  41. Olsen A, Nawiri J, Friis H. The impact of iron supplementation on reinfection with intestinal helminths and Schistosoma mansoni in western Kenya. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94:493-9 pubmed
    ..The findings suggest that iron supplementation has a role to play in helminth control programmes and that intraluminal factors may contribute to the regulation of some helminth infections. ..
  42. Mahmoud L. Scanning electron microscopy of Trichuris trichura. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2002;32:469-74 pubmed
    ..Spines are compact proximally, reduced in number on the middle part and lacking distally. SEM of the cloacal part showed paracloacal papillae. ..
  43. Jackson J, Turner J, Rentoul L, Faulkner H, Behnke J, Hoyle M, et al. T helper cell type 2 responsiveness predicts future susceptibility to gastrointestinal nematodes in humans. J Infect Dis. 2004;190:1804-11 pubmed
    ..The apparent plasticity of age-specific cytokine response-worm abundance relationships between different populations is also discussed...
  44. Belo S, Rompão H, Goncalves L, Grácio M. Prevalence, behavioural and social factors associated with Schistosoma intercalatum and geohelminth infections in São Tomé and Principe. Parassitologia. 2005;47:227-31 pubmed
    ..examination revealed an increase of schistosome infections and a persisting high endemicity for ascariasis and trichuriasis. Infection rates were 36.2% for S. intercalatum and 70.8%, 68.5% and 4...
  45. Bancroft A, Hayes K, Grencis R. Life on the edge: the balance between macrofauna, microflora and host immunity. Trends Parasitol. 2012;28:93-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The interdependence on one another of all three factors is such that when the balance is perturbed it must be realigned or the consequences may be detrimental to the mammalian host...
  46. Speich B, Ame S, Ali S, Alles R, Hattendorf J, Utzinger J, et al. Efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide, albendazole, and nitazoxanide-albendazole against Trichuris trichiura infection: a randomized controlled trial. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1685 pubmed publisher
    ..The currently used anthelmintic drugs, in single oral application, have low efficacy against Trichuris trichiura infection, and hence novel anthelmintic drugs are needed. Nitazoxanide has been suggested as potential drug candidate...
  47. Owyang A, Zaph C, Wilson E, Guild K, McClanahan T, Miller H, et al. Interleukin 25 regulates type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity and limits chronic inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract. J Exp Med. 2006;203:843-9 pubmed
    ..Therefore, IL-25 is not only a critical mediator of type 2 immunity, but is also required for the regulation of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract...
  48. Goodman D, Haji H, Bickle Q, Stoltzfus R, Tielsch J, Ramsan M, et al. A comparison of methods for detecting the eggs of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm in infant stool, and the epidemiology of infection in Zanzibari infants. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:725-31 pubmed
    ..4%, while at 10 and 11 months of age the mean prevalence was 43.4%. Village prevalence varied from 3.6% to 43.8%. Infant geohelminth infection can occur at a high prevalence, and what method is best depends on research specifics...
  49. Pullan R, Brooker S. The global limits and population at risk of soil-transmitted helminth infections in 2010. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:81 pubmed publisher
    ..These limits provide the most contemporary, plausible representation of the extent of STH risk globally, and provide an essential basis for estimating the global disease burden due to STH infection. ..
  50. Hayes K, Bancroft A, Grencis R. The role of TNF-alpha in Trichuris muris infection I: influence of TNF-alpha receptor usage, gender and IL-13. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:575-82 pubmed
    ..i.) and male mice harbouring chronic infections. Further, this gender difference can be reversed with recombinant IL-13 (rIL-13) in male gene-deficient mice or IL-13R2.Fc treatment in female gene-deficient mice. ..
  51. Humphreys N, Xu D, Hepworth M, Liew F, Grencis R. IL-33, a potent inducer of adaptive immunity to intestinal nematodes. J Immunol. 2008;180:2443-9 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ability of IL-33 to induce Th2 responses has functional relevance in the context of intestinal helminth infection, particularly during the initiation of the response. ..
  52. Schopf L, Hoffmann K, Cheever A, Urban J, Wynn T. IL-10 is critical for host resistance and survival during gastrointestinal helminth infection. J Immunol. 2002;168:2383-92 pubmed
    ..Overall, these studies reveal a critical role for IL-10 in the polarization of Th2 responses, development of resistance during T. muris infection, and maintenance of barrier function in the colon. ..
  53. Diawara A, Drake L, Suswillo R, Kihara J, Bundy D, Scott M, et al. Assays to detect beta-tubulin codon 200 polymorphism in Trichuris trichiura and Ascaris lumbricoides. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009;3:e397 pubmed publisher
    ..We have developed pyrosequencer assays for codon 200 (TTC or TAC) in A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura to screen for this single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)...
  54. Ismail M, Jayakody R. Efficacy of albendazole and its combinations with ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura infections in Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1999;93:501-4 pubmed
    ..This observation prompted the present study, on the efficacy of these combinations against trichuriasis. The drug regimens tested were albendazole (400 mg) alone, albendazole (400 mg) with ivermectin (200 micrograms/..
  55. Helmby H, Takeda K, Akira S, Grencis R. Interleukin (IL)-18 promotes the development of chronic gastrointestinal helminth infection by downregulating IL-13. J Exp Med. 2001;194:355-64 pubmed
    ..muris infection but rather as a direct regulator of Th2 cytokines. These results provide the first demonstration of the critical role of IL-18 in regulating Th cell responses during gastrointestinal nematode infection. ..
  56. Williams Blangero S, Vandeberg J, Subedi J, Jha B, Dyer T, Blangero J. Two quantitative trait loci influence whipworm (Trichuris trichiura) infection in a Nepalese population. J Infect Dis. 2008;197:1198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The results of this first genome scan for T. trichiura egg counts provides new information on the determinants of genetic predisposition to whipworm infection. ..
  57. Ezeamama A, McGarvey S, Acosta L, Zierler S, Manalo D, Wu H, et al. The synergistic effect of concomitant schistosomiasis, hookworm, and trichuris infections on children's anemia burden. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008;2:e245 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate the degree of synergism between helminth species in their combined effects on anemia...
  58. Clements A, Deville M, Ndayishimiye O, Brooker S, Fenwick A. Spatial co-distribution of neglected tropical diseases in the east African great lakes region: revisiting the justification for integrated control. Trop Med Int Health. 2010;15:198-207 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, integration of schistosomiasis with STH control is only indicated in limited foci in East Africa. ..
  59. Shin J, Gardiner G, Deitel W, Kandel G. Does whipworm increase the pathogenicity of Campylobacter jejuni? A clinical correlate of an experimental observation. Can J Gastroenterol. 2004;18:175-7 pubmed
    ..The potential of T suis to potentiate C jejuni in humans deserves further study...
  60. Saenz S, Siracusa M, Perrigoue J, Spencer S, Urban J, Tocker J, et al. IL25 elicits a multipotent progenitor cell population that promotes T(H)2 cytokine responses. Nature. 2010;464:1362-6 pubmed publisher
  61. Knopp S, Speich B, Hattendorf J, Rinaldi L, Mohammed K, Khamis I, et al. Diagnostic accuracy of Kato-Katz and FLOTAC for assessing anthelmintic drug efficacy. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1036 pubmed publisher
    ..We compared the diagnostic accuracy of the Kato-Katz and FLOTAC techniques in the frame of a drug efficacy trial...
  62. de Silva N, Pathmeswaran A, Fernando S, Weerasinghe C, Selvaratnam R, Padmasiri E, et al. Impact of mass chemotherapy for the control of filariasis on geohelminth infections in Sri Lanka. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:421-5 pubmed
  63. Humphreys N, Worthington J, Little M, Rice E, Grencis R. The role of CD8+ cells in the establishment and maintenance of a Trichuris muris infection. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:187-96 pubmed
    ..muris infection; however, these cells are dispensable for both the early and late phases of this response, but do appear to play a role in the regulation of certain cytokines and caecal eosinophilia...
  64. Artis D. New weapons in the war on worms: identification of putative mechanisms of immune-mediated expulsion of gastrointestinal nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:723-33 pubmed
    ..Harnessing these discoveries, coupled with identifying what the targets of these responses are within parasitic nematodes, offers promise in the design of a new generation of anti-parasitic drugs and vaccines...
  65. Zaph C, Rook K, Goldschmidt M, Mohrs M, Scott P, Artis D. Persistence and function of central and effector memory CD4+ T cells following infection with a gastrointestinal helminth. J Immunol. 2006;177:511-8 pubmed
    ..Taken together, these studies show that distinct subsets of memory CD4+ T cells develop after infection with Trichuris, persist in the GALT, and mediate protective immunity to rechallenge...
  66. Perrigoue J, Saenz S, Siracusa M, Allenspach E, Taylor B, Giacomin P, et al. MHC class II-dependent basophil-CD4+ T cell interactions promote T(H)2 cytokine-dependent immunity. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:697-705 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our studies suggest that major histocompatibility complex class II-dependent interactions between basophils and CD4+ T cells promote T helper type 2 cytokine responses and immunity to helminth infection...
  67. Hepworth M, Hardman M, Grencis R. The role of sex hormones in the development of Th2 immunity in a gender-biased model of Trichuris muris infection. Eur J Immunol. 2010;40:406-16 pubmed publisher
  68. Denes A, Humphreys N, Lane T, Grencis R, Rothwell N. Chronic systemic infection exacerbates ischemic brain damage via a CCL5 (regulated on activation, normal T-cell expressed and secreted)-mediated proinflammatory response in mice. J Neurosci. 2010;30:10086-95 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results suggest that chronic infection exacerbates ischemic brain damage via a RANTES-mediated systemic inflammatory response, which leads to delayed resolution of inflammation and augmented microvascular injury in the brain...
  69. Bowcutt R, Bell L, Little M, Wilson J, Booth C, Murray P, et al. Arginase-1-expressing macrophages are dispensable for resistance to infection with the gastrointestinal helminth Trichuris muris. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:411-20 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data demonstrate that, unlike other gastrointestinal helminths, Arg1 expression in AAMs is not essential for resistance to T. muris in effective resolution of helminth-induced inflammation...
  70. Namwanje H, Kabatereine N, Olsen A. Efficacy of single and double doses of albendazole and mebendazole alone and in combination in the treatment of Trichuris trichiura in school-age children in Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2011;105:586-90 pubmed publisher
    ..90, P<0.00005). All the tested regimens of ALB and MBZ had low cure rates against T. trichiura in Uganda, but both combination treatments showed satisfactory egg reduction rates 3 weeks after treatment...
  71. Bundy D, Cooper E. The evidence for predisposition to trichuriasis in humans: comparison of institutional and community studies. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 1988;82:251-6 pubmed
  72. Bancroft A, Artis D, Donaldson D, Sypek J, Grencis R. Gastrointestinal nematode expulsion in IL-4 knockout mice is IL-13 dependent. Eur J Immunol. 2000;30:2083-91 pubmed
    ..muris from the gut. Moreover, the present data highlight the functional importance of gender and background strain in interpretation of studies using gene-targeted animals...
  73. Olsen A, Samuelsen H, Onyango Ouma W. A study of risk factors for intestinal helminth infections using epidemiological and anthropological approaches. J Biosoc Sci. 2001;33:569-84 pubmed
  74. Legesse M, Erko B, Medhin G. Comparative efficacy of albendazole and three brands of mebendazole in the treatment of ascariasis and trichuriasis. East Afr Med J. 2004;81:134-8 pubmed
  75. Hayes K, Bancroft A, Grencis R. Immune-mediated regulation of chronic intestinal nematode infection. Immunol Rev. 2004;201:75-88 pubmed
  76. Shapiro A, Tukahebwa E, Kasten J, Clarke S, Magnussen P, Olsen A, et al. Epidemiology of helminth infections and their relationship to clinical malaria in southwest Uganda. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005;99:18-24 pubmed
    ..The association between helminth infection and clinical malaria was investigated in two villages and no evidence for an association was observed between the presence of infection or heavy infection and risk of malaria...
  77. Mansfield L, Gauthier D. Lymphoglandular complexes are important colonic sites for immunoglobulin A induction against Campylobacter jejuni in a swine disease model. Comp Med. 2004;54:514-23 pubmed
    ..jejuni staining, and appreciable increase in overall follicle size and size and number of GCs committed to IgA production. LGCs are present in humans and other mammals and are important in other enteric infections...
  78. Summers R, Elliott D, Urban J, Thompson R, Weinstock J. Trichuris suis therapy in Crohn's disease. Gut. 2005;54:87-90 pubmed
    ..Helminths diminish immune responsiveness in naturally colonised humans and reduce inflammation in experimental colitis. Thus exposure to helminths may help prevent or even ameliorate Crohn's disease...
  79. Hayes K, Bancroft A, Grencis R. The role of TNF-alpha in Trichuris muris infection II: global enhancement of ongoing Th1 or Th2 responses. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:583-94 pubmed
    ..muris. Thus, this data demonstrates that TNF-alpha acts to enhance an ongoing immune response but is not necessary for a strong protective Th2 response...
  80. Keiser J, Utzinger J. Efficacy of current drugs against soil-transmitted helminth infections: systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA. 2008;299:1937-48 pubmed publisher
    ..Preventive chemotherapy is the mainstay of control, but only 4 drugs are available: albendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel pamoate...
  81. D Elia R, Else K. In vitro antigen presenting cell-derived IL-10 and IL-6 correlate with Trichuris muris isolate-specific survival. Parasite Immunol. 2009;31:123-31 pubmed publisher
  82. Bell L, Else K. Regulation of colonic epithelial cell turnover by IDO contributes to the innate susceptibility of SCID mice to Trichuris muris infection. Parasite Immunol. 2011;33:244-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We identify the goblet cell as a novel source of IDO and present data revealing a new role for IDO in the regulation of epithelial cell turnover post-infectious challenge...
  83. Robles M. New species of Trichuris (Nematoda:Trichuridae) from Akodon montensis, Thomas, 1913, of the Paranaense Forest in Argentina. J Parasitol. 2011;97:319-27 pubmed publisher
    ..It is suggested that this number represents but a small fraction of Trichuris spp. that occur in sigmodontine rodents, and that additional survey of this group should yield additional species...
  84. Nissen S, Al Jubury A, Hansen T, Olsen A, Christensen H, Thamsborg S, et al. Genetic analysis of Trichuris suis and Trichuris trichiura recovered from humans and pigs in a sympatric setting in Uganda. Vet Parasitol. 2012;188:68-77 pubmed publisher
    ..suis takes place. Further studies on sympatric Trichuris populations are highly warranted in order to explore transmission dynamics and unravel the zoonotic potential of T. suis...
  85. Richard M, Grencis R, Humphreys N, Renauld J, Van Snick J. Anti-IL-9 vaccination prevents worm expulsion and blood eosinophilia in Trichuris muris-infected mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000;97:767-72 pubmed
    ..Taken together, the present data demonstrate the potency of our strategy to antagonize IL-9 in vivo and shows that this cytokine plays a major role in resistance against T. muris infection...
  86. Bennett A, Guyatt H. Reducing intestinal nematode infection: efficacy of albendazole and mebendazole. Parasitol Today. 2000;16:71-4 pubmed
  87. Turner J, Faulkner H, Kamgno J, Else K, Boussinesq M, Bradley J. A comparison of cellular and humoral immune responses to trichuroid derived antigens in human trichuriasis. Parasite Immunol. 2002;24:83-93 pubmed
    ..Our findings suggest that T. muris preparations could be used as an alternative to T. trichiura proteins as a source of antigens in ex vivo cultures and that ES products stimulate a distinct immune response compared to somatic antigens...
  88. Albonico M, Bickle Q, Haji H, Ramsan M, Khatib K, Montresor A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel for the treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:685-90 pubmed
  89. Traub R, Robertson I, Irwin P, Mencke N, Andrew Thompson R. The prevalence, intensities and risk factors associated with geohelminth infection in tea-growing communities of Assam, India. Trop Med Int Health. 2004;9:688-701 pubmed
    ..To determine the prevalence, intensity and associated risk factors for infection with Ascaris, hookworms and Trichuris in three tea-growing communities in Assam, India...
  90. Artis D, Wang M, Keilbaugh S, He W, Brenes M, Swain G, et al. RELMbeta/FIZZ2 is a goblet cell-specific immune-effector molecule in the gastrointestinal tract. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004;101:13596-600 pubmed
    ..Together, these results suggest that intestinal goblet cell-derived RELMbeta may be a novel Th2 cytokine-induced immune-effector molecule in resistance to GI nematode infection...
  91. Quihui Cota L, Valencia M, Crompton D, Phillips S, Hagan P, Diaz Camacho S, et al. Prevalence and intensity of intestinal parasitic infections in relation to nutritional status in Mexican schoolchildren. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:653-9 pubmed
    ..trichiura infection (eggs per gram) and nutritional status. Intestinal parasitic infections may be regarded as main risk factors associated with poor nutritional status in Mexican schoolchildren...
  92. Summers R, Elliott D, Urban J, Thompson R, Weinstock J. Trichuris suis therapy for active ulcerative colitis: a randomized controlled trial. Gastroenterology. 2005;128:825-32 pubmed
    ..In animal models, helminths prevent or improve colitis by the induction of regulatory T cells and modulatory cytokines. This study determined the efficacy and safety of the helminth Trichuris suis in therapy of ulcerative colitis...