nematode infections

Summary

Summary: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.

Top Publications

  1. Zasada I, Halbrendt J, Kokalis Burelle N, LaMondia J, McKenry M, Noling J. Managing nematodes without methyl bromide. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2010;48:311-28 pubmed publisher
    ..S. high-value crop production systems in a world without methyl bromide. Included are case studies of U.S. high-value crop production systems to demonstrate how nematode management practices other than methyl bromide may be incorporated...
  2. Pato F, Vazquez L, Diez Baños N, Lopez C, Sánchez Andrade R, Fernandez G, et al. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula: assessment of some risk factors. Vet Parasitol. 2013;196:136-42 pubmed publisher
    ..This study reveals that roe deer from the NW of the Iberian Peninsula are widely and intensely infected with gastrointestinal nematodes, which probably affect the health status of these ungulates. ..
  3. Hein W, Pernthaner A, Piedrafita D, Meeusen E. Immune mechanisms of resistance to gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:541-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Recent advances in sheep genomics also offer the potential of gaining further insight into the underlying genetics of resistance to nematode infections.
  4. Epe C, Kaminsky R. New advancement in anthelmintic drugs in veterinary medicine. Trends Parasitol. 2013;29:129-34 pubmed publisher
    Anthelmintic treatment of nematode infections remains the mainstay of worm control in farm and companion animals. However, control is threatened by the occurrence of drug resistant nematodes...
  5. Bertó Moran A, Pacios I, Serrano E, Moreno S, Rouco C. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits. J Wildl Dis. 2013;49:10-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were ..
  6. Roeber F, Jex A, Campbell A, Nielsen R, Anderson G, Stanley K, et al. Establishment of a robotic, high-throughput platform for the specific diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep. Int J Parasitol. 2012;42:1151-8 pubmed publisher
    The accurate diagnosis of strongylid nematode infections is central to investigating their epidemiology and for parasite control...
  7. Knopp S, Steinmann P, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Nematode infections: soil-transmitted helminths and trichinella. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2012;26:341-58 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of growing tourism, travel, and migration, clinicians and specialized travel clinics must remain aware of the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of soil-transmitted helminth and Trichinella infections...
  8. Chiejina S, Behnke J. The unique resistance and resilience of the Nigerian West African Dwarf goat to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:12 pubmed publisher
    ..They have been shown to be trypanotolerant and to resist infections with Haemonchus contortus more effectively than any other known breed of goat...
  9. Sargison N. Pharmaceutical treatments of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep--future of anthelmintic drugs. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:79-84 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focusses on the use of anthelmintic drugs for the control of gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep, emphasising the need to develop sustainable strategies in the face of inevitable parasite ..

More Information

Publications89

  1. Domke A, Chartier C, Gjerde B, Hoglund J, Leine N, Vatn S, et al. Prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and goats in Norway. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:185-93 pubmed publisher
    ..New strategies and recommendations to face the emerging AR situation in Rogaland County in order to limit the spread of resistant nematodes within and into other areas are urgently needed...
  2. Levecke B, Rinaldi L, Charlier J, Maurelli M, Morgoglione M, Vercruysse J, et al. Monitoring drug efficacy against gastrointestinal nematodes when faecal egg counts are low: do the analytic sensitivity and the formula matter?. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:953-7 pubmed publisher
    ..They also point out that the precision of individual-based formulae is affected by the analytic sensitivity...
  3. Wang X, Wang G, Zhang L, Luo R, Wang J, Medina A, et al. [Correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and children's growth]. Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi. 2013;25:268-74 pubmed
    To understand the infection status of soil-transmitted nematodes in southwest China and the correlation between soil-transmitted nematode infections and children's growth.
  4. Jones M, Hunter R, Dobson D, Reymond N, Strehlau G, Kubacki P, et al. European field study of the efficacy and safety of the novel anthelmintic monepantel in sheep. Vet Rec. 2010;167:610-3 pubmed publisher
    ..There were no treatment-related adverse events during the study, which included the use of a range of concomitant treatments...
  5. Sutherland I, Leathwick D. Anthelmintic resistance in nematode parasites of cattle: a global issue?. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:176-81 pubmed publisher
    ..This review discusses this literature, several issues unique to cattle parasitism and anthelmintics, and how previous research in small ruminants can improve the management of anthelmintic resistance in cattle...
  6. Rufener L, Keiser J, Kaminsky R, Maser P, Nilsson D. Phylogenomics of ligand-gated ion channels predicts monepantel effect. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001091 pubmed publisher
    ..We show how comparative genomics can be applied to predict drug sensitivity when molecular targets of a compound are known or suspected...
  7. Charlier J, Dorny P, Levecke B, Demeler J, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Hoglund J, et al. Serum pepsinogen levels to monitor gastrointestinal nematode infections in cattle revisited. Res Vet Sci. 2011;90:451-6 pubmed publisher
    The serum pepsinogen level is widely accepted as a useful parameter for monitoring gastrointestinal nematode infections in first-season grazing calves...
  8. Demeler J, Küttler U, von Samson Himmelstjerna G. Adaptation and evaluation of three different in vitro tests for the detection of resistance to anthelmintics in gastro intestinal nematodes of cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:61-70 pubmed publisher
    ..001) with an RR of 2 for TBZ. With the standardization of the described tests we report reproducible and reliable in vitro methods for the detection of resistance to IVM (LDT, LMIT and MMT) and TBZ (LDT) for cattle parasitic nematodes...
  9. Domke A, Chartier C, Gjerde B, Leine N, Vatn S, Osterås O, et al. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks. Acta Vet Scand. 2011;53:29 pubmed publisher
    Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production...
  10. Tritten L, Silbereisen A, Keiser J. In vitro and in vivo efficacy of Monepantel (AAD 1566) against laboratory models of human intestinal nematode infections. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011;5:e1457 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present work, we tested the efficacy of the veterinary drug monepantel, a potential drug development candidate compared to standard drugs in vitro and in parasite-rodent models of relevance to human soil-transmitted helminthiases...
  11. Ziegelbauer K, Speich B, Mäusezahl D, Bos R, Keiser J, Utzinger J. Effect of sanitation on soil-transmitted helminth infection: systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med. 2012;9:e1001162 pubmed publisher
    ..However, rapid reinfection of humans occurs after successful deworming, and therefore effective preventive measures are required to achieve public health goals with optimal efficiency and sustainability...
  12. Roeber F, Larsen J, Anderson N, Campbell A, Anderson G, Gasser R, et al. A molecular diagnostic tool to replace larval culture in conventional faecal egg count reduction testing in sheep. PLoS ONE. 2012;7:e37327 pubmed publisher
    The accurate diagnosis of parasitic nematode infections in livestock (including sheep and goats) is central to their effective control and the detection of the anthelmintic resistance...
  13. Di Cesare A, Castagna G, Meloni S, Milillo P, Latrofa S, Otranto D, et al. Canine and feline infections by cardiopulmonary nematodes in central and southern Italy. Parasitol Res. 2011;109 Suppl 1:S87-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Larger surveys are necessary to gain more information on the diffusion of these parasites, especially for C. aerophila and A. vasorum, for which the actual distribution is poorly known...
  14. Sager H, Rolfe P, Strehlau G, Allan B, Kaminsky R, Hosking B. Quarantine treatment of sheep with monepantel--rapidity of fecal egg count reduction. Vet Parasitol. 2010;170:336-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The resistance status of the nematodes did not influence the rapid decline of egg counts after treatment with monepantel...
  15. Brooker S. Estimating the global distribution and disease burden of intestinal nematode infections: adding up the numbers--a review. Int J Parasitol. 2010;40:1137-44 pubmed publisher
    Intestinal nematode infections are among the most common infections of humans in developing countries, but precise estimates of the populations at risk of infection, morbidity and mortality are difficult to derive...
  16. Roeber F, Jex A, Gasser R. Impact of gastrointestinal parasitic nematodes of sheep, and the role of advanced molecular tools for exploring epidemiology and drug resistance - an Australian perspective. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:153 pubmed publisher
    ..and to emphasize the importance of utilizing advanced molecular tools for the specific diagnosis of nematode infections for refined investigations of parasite epidemiology and drug resistance detection in combination with ..
  17. Roeber F, Jex A, Gasser R. Advances in the diagnosis of key gastrointestinal nematode infections of livestock, with an emphasis on small ruminants. Biotechnol Adv. 2013;31:1135-52 pubmed publisher
    ..The specific and sensitive diagnosis of gastrointestinal nematode infections of livestock underpins effective disease control, which is highly relevant now that anthelmintic resistance ..
  18. Morgan E, Van Dijk J. Climate and the epidemiology of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:8-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Approaches to nematode control must therefore take account not only of parasite biology, but also the forces that shape sheep farming systems and management decisions...
  19. Sweeny J, Robertson I, Ryan U, Jacobson C, Woodgate R. Impacts of naturally acquired protozoa and strongylid nematode infections on growth and faecal attributes in lambs. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:298-308 pubmed publisher
    ..gp60] loci), Giardia duodenalis (glutamate dehydrogenase [gdh] and ?-giardin) and patent strongylid nematode infections (ITS-2 nuclear ribosomal DNA for Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp...
  20. Nikander S, Laaksonen S, Saari S, Oksanen A. The morphology of the filaroid nematode Setaria tundra, the cause of peritonitis in reindeer Rangifer tarandus. J Helminthol. 2007;81:49-55 pubmed
    ..hemionus. Current morphological findings support our earlier studies employing a polymerase chain reaction and confirm the occurrence S. tundra in reindeer in Finland...
  21. Hosking B, Dobson D, Stein P, Kaminsky R, Bapst B, Mosimann D, et al. Dose confirmation studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:251-7 pubmed publisher
    ..No adverse effects related to treatment with monepantel were observed. ..
  22. Knox D. Proteinase inhibitors and helminth parasite infection. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:57-71 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes the information available on nematode-derived proteinase inhibitors and what is known of their putative functions. Their potential as targets for immunological control is also addressed. ..
  23. Rinne S, Rodas E, Galer Unti R, Glickman N, Glickman L. Prevalence and risk factors for protozoan and nematode infections among children in an Ecuadorian highland community. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2005;99:585-92 pubmed
    ..Risk factors for A. lumbricoides included >6 months since antiparasitic treatment and having a fewer number of electrical appliances in the home. This study may have implications for other communities throughout the developing world. ..
  24. Lyndal Murphy M, Rogers D, Ehrlich W, James P, Pepper P. Reduced efficacy of macrocyclic lactone treatments in controlling gastrointestinal nematode infections of weaner dairy calves in subtropical eastern Australia. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:146-50 pubmed publisher
    ..region of eastern Australia to determine if anthelmintic failure contributed to severe gastrointestinal nematode infections observed in weaner calves. Subtropical Cooperia spp...
  25. Iraqi F, Behnke J, Menge D, Lowe A, Teale A, Gibson J, et al. Chromosomal regions controlling resistance to gastro-intestinal nematode infections in mice. Mamm Genome. 2003;14:184-91 pubmed
    ..These may include breeding of resistant or tolerant livestock, development of vaccines, or identification of new anthelmintic drugs. ..
  26. Artis D. New weapons in the war on worms: identification of putative mechanisms of immune-mediated expulsion of gastrointestinal nematodes. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:723-33 pubmed
    Parasitic nematode infections of humans and livestock continue to impose a significant public health and economic burden worldwide...
  27. Amarante A, Susin I, Rocha R, Silva M, Mendes C, Pires A. Resistance of Santa Ines and crossbred ewes to naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infections. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:273-80 pubmed publisher
    ..State, Brazil, to comparatively evaluate the degree of resistance to naturally acquired gastrointestinal nematode infections in sheep of the following genetic groups: purebred Santa Ines (SI), SI crossbred with Dorper (DO x SI), Ile ..
  28. Hosking B, Stein P, Mosimann D, Seewald W, Strehlau G, Kaminsky R. Dose determination studies for monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative, against fourth stage gastro-intestinal nematode larvae infecting sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2008;157:72-80 pubmed publisher
    ..It was concluded that 2.5 mg/kg would be a suitable minimum dose rate for a commercial product. No adverse events related to treatment with monepantel were detected. ..
  29. Waller P. Global perspectives on nematode parasite control in ruminant livestock: the need to adopt alternatives to chemotherapy, with emphasis on biological control. Anim Health Res Rev. 2003;4:35-43 pubmed
    ..This review focuses on these issues and provides an overview of the possible ways in which the biological control of nematode parasites could be employed in grazing ruminant livestock systems worldwide. ..
  30. Schwensow N, Fietz J, Dausmann K, Sommer S. Neutral versus adaptive genetic variation in parasite resistance: importance of major histocompatibility complex supertypes in a free-ranging primate. Heredity (Edinb). 2007;99:265-77 pubmed
    ..specific MHC supertype (supertype 1) that was linked to infected individuals, a higher number of different nematode infections and high intensity of infection per individual...
  31. Waller P, Schwan O, Ljungström B, Rydzik A, Yeates G. Evaluation of biological control of sheep parasites using Duddingtonia flagrans under commercial farming conditions on the island of Gotland, Sweden. Vet Parasitol. 2004;126:299-315 pubmed
    ..Both farmer co-operators were encouraged with these results and consider that biological control of nematode parasites in their flocks, using D. flagrans, is of practical value. ..
  32. Albonico M, Bickle Q, Haji H, Ramsan M, Khatib K, Montresor A, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of pyrantel-oxantel for the treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2002;96:685-90 pubmed
    ..in September-October 2000 to evaluate alternative single-dose drugs for regular treatment of intestinal nematode infections. Both mebendazole and pyrantel-oxantel were very effective in eliminating Ascaris lumbricoides infection, ..
  33. Tariq K, Chishti M, Ahmad F. Gastro-intestinal nematode infections in goats relative to season, host sex and age from the Kashmir valley, India. J Helminthol. 2010;84:93-7 pubmed publisher
  34. Hosking B, Kaminsky R, Sager H, Rolfe P, Seewald W. A pooled analysis of the efficacy of monepantel, an amino-acetonitrile derivative against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:529-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Monepantel is highly effective when administered to sheep at 2.5 mg/kg, and its introduction as a new anthelmintic for sheep is timely, given the problems with anthelmintic resistance that the world's sheep farmers are now experiencing. ..
  35. Hoste H, Torres Acosta J, Aguilar Caballero A. Nutrition-parasite interactions in goats: is immunoregulation involved in the control of gastrointestinal nematodes?. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:79-88 pubmed publisher
  36. Jackson J, Turner J, Kamal M, Wright V, Bickle Q, Else K, et al. Gastrointestinal nematode infection is associated with variation in innate immune responsiveness. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:487-92 pubmed
    ..These results are consistent with the possibility that GI nematodes modulate innate responses and may indicate a potential mechanism for interactions between GI nematodiasis and important bystander pathogens...
  37. Coles G, Jackson F, Pomroy W, Prichard R, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Silvestre A, et al. The detection of anthelmintic resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:167-85 pubmed
    ..Except for treatment and slaughter trials there are no validated tests for fasciolicide resistance or for the detection of resistance in cestodes. ..
  38. Stepek G, Buttle D, Duce I, Behnke J. Human gastrointestinal nematode infections: are new control methods required?. Int J Exp Pathol. 2006;87:325-41 pubmed
    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections affect 50% of the human population worldwide, and cause great morbidity as well as hundreds of thousands of deaths...
  39. Stear M, Doligalska M, Donskow Schmelter K. Alternatives to anthelmintics for the control of nematodes in livestock. Parasitology. 2007;134:139-51 pubmed
    ..Selective breeding is effective and inexpensive but requires a high level of expertise. The most appropriate method or set of methods to minimize the adverse consequences of nematode infection may vary among farms. ..
  40. Ranganathan S, Menon R, Gasser R. Advanced in silico analysis of expressed sequence tag (EST) data for parasitic nematodes of major socio-economic importance--fundamental insights toward biotechnological outcomes. Biotechnol Adv. 2009;27:439-48 pubmed publisher
  41. Van den Enden E. Pharmacotherapy of helminth infection. Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2009;10:435-51 pubmed
    ..In the first decade of the 21st century, worm infections are still very common, especially--but not exclusively--in the developing world...
  42. Moro K, Yamada T, Tanabe M, Takeuchi T, Ikawa T, Kawamoto H, et al. Innate production of T(H)2 cytokines by adipose tissue-associated c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) lymphoid cells. Nature. 2010;463:540-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, FALC Lin(-)c-Kit(+)Sca-1(+) cells are T(H)2-type innate lymphocytes, and we propose that these cells be called 'natural helper cells'. ..
  43. Ng ang a C, Maingi N, Kanyari P, Munyua W. Development, survival and availability of gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep on pastures in a semi-arid area of Kajiado District of Kenya. Vet Res Commun. 2004;28:491-501 pubmed
    ..This indicated that the point is an important source of infection for sheep, especially during the dry season when other pastures are non-infective. ..
  44. Zhao A, Urban J, Morimoto M, Elfrey J, Madden K, Finkelman F, et al. Contribution of 5-HT2A receptor in nematode infection-induced murine intestinal smooth muscle hypercontractility. Gastroenterology. 2006;131:568-78 pubmed
    ..Serotonin (5-HT) is involved in the physiologic regulation of gut function. The present study investigated the contribution of 5-HT and its receptors in nematode-induced intestinal smooth muscle hypercontractility...
  45. French A, Knight P, Smith W, Brown J, Craig N, Pate J, et al. Up-regulation of intelectin in sheep after infection with Teladorsagia circumcincta. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:467-75 pubmed
    ..Intelectins are mucus-associated proteins that have been shown to be up-regulated in gastrointestinal nematode infections in rodents and in human asthma...
  46. Good B, Hanrahan J, Crowley B, Mulcahy G. Texel sheep are more resistant to natural nematode challenge than Suffolk sheep based on faecal egg count and nematode burden. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:317-27 pubmed
    ..A breed difference in resistance to GI parasites was also observed in older ewes. In both breeds, an age effect on the FEC was observed with younger ewes having greater FEC than older ewes. ..
  47. Sager H, Hosking B, Bapst B, Stein P, Vanhoff K, Kaminsky R. Efficacy of the amino-acetonitrile derivative, monepantel, against experimental and natural adult stage gastro-intestinal nematode infections in sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159:49-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Monepantel was well tolerated by the treated sheep, with no treatment related adverse events documented...
  48. von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Harder A, Sangster N, Coles G. Efficacy of two cyclooctadepsipeptides, PF1022A and emodepside, against anthelmintic-resistant nematodes in sheep and cattle. Parasitology. 2005;130:343-7 pubmed
    ..Both, PF1022A and emodepside were found to be fully effective against these parasite populations. These findings confirm that this new class of compounds acts by a different mode of action compared to the above-mentioned anthelmintics...
  49. Suarez V, Cristel S, Busetti M. Epidemiology and effects of gastrointestinal nematode infection on milk productions of dairy ewes. Parasite. 2009;16:141-7 pubmed
    ..041) MPL than those of UG. The present study showed that dairy sheep were negatively affected by worms, even when exposed to short periods of high acute nematode (mainly Haemonchus contortus) infection...
  50. Kaminsky R, Mosimann D, Sager H, Stein P, Hosking B. Determination of the effective dose rate for monepantel (AAD 1566) against adult gastro-intestinal nematodes in sheep. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:443-6 pubmed publisher
    ..2% against nine other nematode species including Haemonchus contortus, Teladorsagia circumcincta, Trichostrongylus spp. and Nematodirus spp. It was concluded that 2.5mg/kg would be a suitable dose rate for a commercial product...
  51. Denwood M, Stear M, Matthews L, Reid S, Toft N, Innocent G. The distribution of the pathogenic nematode Nematodirus battus in lambs is zero-inflated. Parasitology. 2008;135:1225-35 pubmed publisher
    ..battus counts were indeed zero-inflated. Estimating the extent of zero-inflation is important for effective statistical analysis and for the accurate identification of genetically resistant animals...
  52. Albonico M, Mathema P, Montresor A, Khakurel B, Reggi V, Pandey S, et al. Comparative study of the quality and efficacy of originator and generic albendazole for mass treatment of soil-transmitted nematode infections in Nepal. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:454-60 pubmed
    ..This study shows that the cost effectiveness of drugs used in mass deworming campaigns should not be inferred on the basis of a single quality testing parameter...
  53. Grønvold J, Wolstrup J, Larsen M, Gillespie A, Giacomazzi F. Interspecific competition between the nematode-trapping fungus, Duddingtonia flagrans, and selected microorganisms and the effect of spore concentration on the efficacy of nematode trapping. J Helminthol. 2004;78:41-6 pubmed
    ..Increasing chlamydospore doses of D. flagrans in faecal cultures resulted in higher nematode mortality. Thus, no evidence of interspecific or intraspecific competition was observed. The consequences of these findings are discussed...
  54. von Samson Himmelstjerna G. Molecular diagnosis of anthelmintic resistance. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:99-107 pubmed
    ..It is argued that a prerequisite for future molecular diagnosis will be tests providing reliable and exact quantification of resistance related alleles in DNA extracted from representative pools of parasites...
  55. Yue C, Coles G, Blake N. Multiresistant nematodes on a Devon farm. Vet Rec. 2003;153:604 pubmed
  56. Sissay M, Uggla A, Waller P. Epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep in a semi-arid region of eastern Ethiopia. Vet Parasitol. 2007;143:311-21 pubmed
    A study on the epidemiology and seasonal dynamics of gastrointestinal nematode infections of sheep was carried out in a semi-arid region of eastern Ethiopia for 2.5 years (May 2003 to September 2005)...
  57. Kaplan R. Drug resistance in nematodes of veterinary importance: a status report. Trends Parasitol. 2004;20:477-81 pubmed
    ..There is an urgent need to develop both novel non-chemical approaches for parasite control and molecular assays capable of detecting resistant worms...
  58. Moraes L, Cancio J, Cairncross S. Impact of drainage and sewerage on intestinal nematode infections in poor urban areas in Salvador, Brazil. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2004;98:197-204 pubmed
    ..The results suggest that sewerage and drainage can have a significant effect on intestinal nematode infections, by reducing transmission occurring in the public domain.
  59. Stepek G, Buttle D, Duce I, Lowe A, Behnke J. Assessment of the anthelmintic effect of natural plant cysteine proteinases against the gastrointestinal nematode, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, in vitro. Parasitology. 2005;130:203-11 pubmed
    ..The efficacy and mode of action make plant cysteine proteinases potential candidates for a novel class of anthelmintics urgently required for the treatment of humans and domestic livestock...
  60. Axtner J, Sommer S. Gene duplication, allelic diversity, selection processes and adaptive value of MHC class II DRB genes of the bank vole, Clethrionomys glareolus. Immunogenetics. 2007;59:417-26 pubmed
  61. Albonico M, Bickle Q, Ramsan M, Montresor A, Savioli L, Taylor M. Efficacy of mebendazole and levamisole alone or in combination against intestinal nematode infections after repeated targeted mebendazole treatment in Zanzibar. Bull World Health Organ. 2003;81:343-52 pubmed
  62. de Veer M, Kemp J, Meeusen E. The innate host defence against nematode parasites. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:1-9 pubmed
  63. Ezeamama A, Friedman J, Olveda R, Acosta L, Kurtis J, Mor V, et al. Functional significance of low-intensity polyparasite helminth infections in anemia. J Infect Dis. 2005;192:2160-70 pubmed
    ..We wanted to quantify the impact that polyparasite infections, including multiple concurrent low-intensity infections, have on anemia...
  64. Ojeda Robertos N, Torres Acosta J, Ayala Burgos A, Aguilar Caballero A, Cob Galera L, Mendoza de Gives P. A technique for the quantification of Duddingtonia flagrans chlamydospores in sheep faeces. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:339-43 pubmed publisher
    ..This could be used to evaluate the efficacy of D. flagrans for the control of gastrointestinal nematode larvae in sheep faeces...
  65. Colditz I. Six costs of immunity to gastrointestinal nematode infections. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:63-70 pubmed publisher
  66. Charlier J, Hoglund J, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Dorny P, Vercruysse J. Gastrointestinal nematode infections in adult dairy cattle: impact on production, diagnosis and control. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:70-9 pubmed publisher
    ..GI-nematode infections can be monitored based on Ostertagia ostertagi-specific antibody measurement, which provides information on ..
  67. Kaminsky R, Gauvry N, Schorderet Weber S, Skripsky T, Bouvier J, Wenger A, et al. Identification of the amino-acetonitrile derivative monepantel (AAD 1566) as a new anthelmintic drug development candidate. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:931-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings, complemented by the good tolerability and low toxicity to mammals, suggest that AAD 1566, monepantel, would be a suitable anthelmintic drug development candidate...
  68. Morgan E, Tomlinson A, Hunter S, Nichols T, Roberts E, Fox M, et al. Angiostrongylus vasorum and Eucoleus aerophilus in foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Great Britain. Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:48-57 pubmed publisher
    ..aerophilus in the south and east. No specimens of the heartworm Dirofilaria immitis were found, giving an upper 95% confidence interval for prevalence of 0.84%...
  69. Stear M, Bishop S, Henderson N, Scott I. A key mechanism of pathogenesis in sheep infected with the nematode Teladorsagia circumcincta. Anim Health Res Rev. 2003;4:45-52 pubmed
    ..The severity of the infection depends upon the extent of concurrent infection, the nutritional status of the host and genetically controlled variation in the ability to mount protective immune responses...
  70. Sréter T, Széll Z, Marucci G, Pozio E, Varga I. Extraintestinal nematode infections of red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Hungary. Vet Parasitol. 2003;115:329-34 pubmed
    ..The overall prevalence of nematode infections of the respiratory tract was 76%...
  71. Kaminsky R. Drug resistance in nematodes: a paper tiger or a real problem?. Curr Opin Infect Dis. 2003;16:559-64 pubmed
    ..The mechanisms underlying anthelmintic resistance, the possible reasons for the development of anthelmintic resistance, and recommendations to minimize the further development of anthelmintic resistance in humans will be addressed...
  72. Crawford A, Paterson K, Dodds K, Diez Tascon C, Williamson P, Roberts Thomson M, et al. Discovery of quantitative trait loci for resistance to parasitic nematode infection in sheep: I. Analysis of outcross pedigrees. BMC Genomics. 2006;7:178 pubmed
    ..This study was undertaken to identify regions of the genome, quantitative trait loci (QTL) that contain genes affecting resistance to parasitic nematodes...
  73. Madden K, Yeung K, Zhao A, Gause W, Finkelman F, Katona I, et al. Enteric nematodes induce stereotypic STAT6-dependent alterations in intestinal epithelial cell function. J Immunol. 2004;172:5616-21 pubmed
    ..These modified responses are dependent on STAT6 and are the result of both direct effects and indirect effects mediated through enteric nerves...
  74. Fraser D, Hunt P, Skinner R, Coles G. Survey of parasite control on sheep farms in south-west England. Vet Rec. 2006;158:55-7 pubmed
  75. Forbes A, Huckle C, Gibb M. Impact of eprinomectin on grazing behaviour and performance in dairy cattle with sub-clinical gastrointestinal nematode infections under continuous stocking management. Vet Parasitol. 2004;125:353-64 pubmed
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