Summary: Infection by round worms of the genus TOXOCARA, usually found in wild and domesticated cats and dogs and foxes, except for the larvae, which may produce visceral and ocular larva migrans in man.

Top Publications

  1. Fallah M, Azimi A, Taherkhani H. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in children aged 1-9 years in western Islamic Republic of Iran, 2003. East Mediterr Health J. 2007;13:1073-7 pubmed
    ..3%) and 19 children (3.5%) were categorized as borderline positive; thus together this gave a prevalence of toxocariasis of 8.8%. No significant differences were found in terms of sex, age and residence.
  2. Malla N, Fomda B, Thokar M. Serum cytokine levels in human ascariasis and toxocariasis. Parasitol Res. 2006;98:345-8 pubmed
    ..reports the serum cytokine responses in 38 ascariasis (stool samples positive for Ascaris lumbricoides ova) and toxocariasis (seropositive) patients, 8 ascariasis-positive and toxocariasis-seronegative patients, 22 endemic, normal, ..
  3. Azizi S, Oryan A, Sadjjadi S, Zibaei M. Histopathologic changes and larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected chickens. Parasitol Res. 2007;102:47-52 pubmed
    ..We suggest that chickens could be paratenic hosts, and human infection with T. cati might occur after consumption of raw or undercooked meat of infected chicken with T. cati...
  4. Chiodo P, Basualdo J, Ciarmela L, Pezzani B, Apezteguia M, Minvielle M. Related factors to human toxocariasis in a rural community of Argentina. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2006;101:397-400 pubmed
    The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between toxocariasis frequency and demographic, environmental, sanitary variables, eosinophylia, and other intestinal parasites in a rural population of Argentina...
  5. Aydenizöz Ozkayhan M, Yagci B, Erat S. The investigation of Toxocara canis eggs in coats of different dog breeds as a potential transmission route in human toxocariasis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:94-100 pubmed publisher
    ..determine the prevalence of Toxocara canis eggs on the coats of dogs (a potential etiological factor for human toxocariasis) and to see if there were mainly a dog breed and coat type effects for the presence of eggs on the coat...
  6. Schenker R, Bowman D, Epe C, Cody R, Seewald W, Strehlau G, et al. Efficacy of a milbemycin oxime-praziquantel combination product against adult and immature stages of Toxocara cati in cats and kittens after induced infection. Vet Parasitol. 2007;145:90-3 pubmed
    ..90%. No adverse effects were recorded during either study. It is concluded that the milbemycin oxime-praziquantel tablets that were used are efficacious for the control of T. cati infections in cats. ..
  7. Rogerio A, Sa Nunes A, Albuquerque D, Soares E, Faccioli L. Anti-eosinophilic effect of Lafoensia pacari in toxocariasis. Phytomedicine. 2008;15:348-57 pubmed
    ..Dexamethasone was effective in inhibiting eosinophil migration in all periods studied. We suggest that L. pacari extract can potentially be a natural alternative treatment of eosinophilic diseases...
  8. Noordin R, Smith H, Mohamad S, Maizels R, Fong M. Comparison of IgG-ELISA and IgG4-ELISA for Toxocara serodiagnosis. Acta Trop. 2005;93:57-62 pubmed
    Diagnosis of human toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, normally relies on a combination of the presence of clinical signs and symptoms backed by positive serology...
  9. Teyssot N, Cassoux N, Lehoang P, Bodaghi B. Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis and ocular toxocariasis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2005;139:915-6 pubmed
    To report the association of Fuchs heterochromic cyclitis (FHC) and ocular toxocariasis in a young adult.

More Information

Publications127 found, 100 shown here

  1. Chang S, Lim J, Choi D, Park C, Kwon N, Cho S, et al. Hepatic visceral larva migrans of Toxocara canis: CT and sonographic findings. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2006;187:W622-9 pubmed
    ..canis are multiple, ill-defined, oval or elongated, small, nodular lesions scattered in the liver parenchyma. The presence of hepatic lesions on images was associated with higher peripheral eosinophil count and percentage. ..
  2. Santos S, Lescano S, Castro J, Chieffi P. Larval recovery of Toxocara cati in experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus and analysis of the rat as potential reservoir for this ascarid. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:933-4 pubmed
    ..5% for 24 h at 37 degrees C. Some differences from the known larval distribution of Toxocara canisin the same rodent species were found. ..
  3. Chieffi P, Aquino R, Paschoalotti M, Ribeiro M, Nasello A. Muscular strength decrease in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected by Toxocara canis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2009;51:73-5 pubmed
    ..No significative differences in the body weight were noted among the infected and control rats in both occasions. Otherwise, an impairment on the muscular strength was observed in rats infected with T. canis 30 days after inoculation. ..
  4. Taira K, Saitoh Y, Kapel C. Toxocara cati larvae persist and retain high infectivity in muscles of experimentally infected chickens. Vet Parasitol. 2011;180:287-91 pubmed publisher
    ..cati larvae retain infective in the muscles of chickens for half a year. These results highlight the zoonotic potential of poultry meat as a causative agent of human toxocarosis...
  5. Rubinsky Elefant G, da Silva Nunes M, Malafronte R, Muniz P, Ferreira M. Human toxocariasis in rural Brazilian Amazonia: seroprevalence, risk factors, and spatial distribution. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:93-8 pubmed
    ..The obstacles for controlling human toxocariasis in this and other tropical rural settings are discussed.
  6. Taira K, Saeed I, Permin A, Kapel C. Zoonotic risk of Toxocara canis infection through consumption of pig or poultry viscera. Vet Parasitol. 2004;121:115-24 pubmed
    ..canis might easily occur following consumption of raw or undercooked dishes, either fresh or refrigerated, prepared from swine or poultry organs and tissues harbouring T. canis larvae...
  7. Ament C, Young L. Ocular manifestations of helminthic infections: onchocersiasis, cysticercosis, toxocariasis, and diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis. Int Ophthalmol Clin. 2006;46:1-10 pubmed
  8. Brochier B, De Blander H, Hanosset R, Berkvens D, Losson B, Saegerman C. Echinococcus multilocularis and Toxocara canis in urban red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) in Brussels, Belgium. Prev Vet Med. 2007;80:65-73 pubmed
    ..87% (median value of 0%) and 12.7 to 26% (median value of 18.7%), respectively. For T. canis, a significantly higher risk to be a carrier occurs in cubs and a significantly lower risk in adults. ..
  9. Yoon Y, Lee C, Kang Y, Kwon S, Yoon H, Lee J, et al. Impact of toxocariasis in patients with unexplained patchy pulmonary infiltrate in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:40-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Toxocariasis is one of the causes of pulmonary eosinophilic infiltrate that is increasing in Korea...
  10. Baaten G, Sonder G, van Gool T, Kint J, van den Hoek A. Travel-related schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis: the risk of infection and the diagnostic relevance of blood eosinophilia. BMC Infect Dis. 2011;11:84 pubmed publisher prospectively assessed the occurrence of clinical and subclinical schistosomiasis, strongyloidiasis, filariasis, and toxocariasis, and the screening value of eosinophilia in adult short-term travelers to helminth-endemic countries.
  11. Lescano S, Queiroz M, Chieffi P. Larval recovery of Toxocara canis in organs and tissues of experimentally infected Rattus norvegicus. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2004;99:627-8 pubmed
  12. Pecinali N, Gomes R, Amendoeira F, Bastos A, Martins M, Pegado C, et al. Influence of murine Toxocara canis infection on plasma and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid eosinophil numbers and its correlation with cytokine levels. Vet Parasitol. 2005;134:121-30 pubmed
    ..Thus, murine T. canis infection may prove to be useful in understanding the role of cytokines in infection...
  13. Maffrand R, Avila Vazquez M, Princich D, Alasia P. [Congenital ocular toxocariasis in a premature neonate]. An Pediatr (Barc). 2006;64:599-600 pubmed
  14. Gavignet B, Piarroux R, Aubin F, Millon L, Humbert P. Cutaneous manifestations of human toxocariasis. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2008;59:1031-42 pubmed publisher
    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic disease characterized by the presence of larvae of the genus Toxocara in human tissues...
  15. Eberhardt O, Bialek R, Nagele T, Dichgans J. Eosinophilic meningomyelitis in toxocariasis: case report and review of the literature. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 2005;107:432-8 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is a worldwide-occurring parasitic infection leading to tissue damage in various organs due to wandering Toxocara larvae (visceral larva migrans)...
  16. Reinemeyer C, Charles S, Buch J, Settje T, Altreuther G, Cruthers L, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of emodepside plus praziquantel topical solution against ascarid infections (Toxocara cati or Toxascaris leonina) in cats. Parasitol Res. 2005;97 Suppl 1:S41-S50 pubmed publisher
    ..leonina exceeded 93.4%, but regulatory "adequacy of infection" criteria were not met in some studies. No adverse reactions to treatment were noted in cats treated with the emodepside+praziquantel topical solution. ..
  17. Kwon N, Oh M, Lee S, Lee B, Choi D. The prevalence and diagnostic value of toxocariasis in unknown eosinophilia. Ann Hematol. 2006;85:233-8 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is one of the causes of eosinophilia in peripheral blood and provokes eosinophilic infiltration in internal organs. Extended studies on the prevalence and clinical characteristics of toxocariasis have been rare...
  18. Finsterer J, Auer H. Neurotoxocarosis. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2007;49:279-87 pubmed
    ..If detected and treated early, the prognosis of neurological manifestations of toxocarosis is favourable...
  19. Roldán W, Espinoza Y. Evaluation of an enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot test for the confirmatory serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:411-8 pubmed
    To improve the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis, a sensitive and specific enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot (EITB-IgG) test was developed and evaluated using Toxocara canislarvae excretory-secretory antigens for detecting anti-..
  20. Holland C, Hamilton C. The significance of cerebral toxocariasis: a model system for exploring the link between brain involvement, behaviour and the immune response. J Exp Biol. 2013;216:78-83 pubmed publisher
    ..Understanding the cerebral host-parasite relationship may shed some light on the cryptic symptoms of human infection where patients often present with other CNS disorders such as epilepsy and mental retardation. ..
  21. Dzbenski T, Hautz W, Bitkowska E. [Experimental toxocariasis in rabbits: immunological markers of ocular infections]. Wiad Parazytol. 2001;47:591-6 pubmed
    ..canis or with an intracarotid injection of the second stage larvae of the parasite in order to develop ocular toxocariasis. Serum and ocular fluid samples were collected from the rabbits after 1, 3 and 6 months after infection and ..
  22. Gesierich A, Herzog S, Grunewald S, Tappe D, Brocker E, Schön M. Eosinophilic folliculitis in a Caucasian patient: association with toxocariasis?. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:1317-21 pubmed
    ..We report the first case of eosinophilic folliculitis associated with toxocariasis in a Caucasian patient...
  23. Cooper P. Toxocara canis infection: an important and neglected environmental risk factor for asthma?. Clin Exp Allergy. 2008;38:551-3 pubmed publisher
  24. Watthanakulpanich D, Smith H, Hobbs G, Whalley A, Billington D. Application of Toxocara canis excretory-secretory antigens and IgG subclass antibodies (IgG1-4) in serodiagnostic assays of human toxocariasis. Acta Trop. 2008;106:90-5 pubmed publisher
    A major problem in the serodiagnosis of human toxocariasis in tropical countries is cross-reaction with antibodies to other helminthic diseases and a lack of sensitivity...
  25. Stensvold C, Skov J, Møller L, Jensen P, Kapel C, Petersen E, et al. Seroprevalence of human toxocariasis in Denmark. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009;16:1372-3 pubmed publisher
    ..4%. This indicates that the seroprevalence of toxocariasis in Denmark is low compared to those in other European countries.
  26. Dattoli V, Freire S, Mendonça L, Santos P, Meyer R, Alcantara Neves N. Toxocara canis infection is associated with eosinophilia and total IgE in blood donors from a large Brazilian centre. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:514-7 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the association between Toxocara canis infection and total IgE levels and eosinophilia in blood donors from a large Brazilian city...
  27. Wisniewska Ligier M, Wozniakowska Gesicka T, Sobolewska Dryjańska J, Markiewicz Jóźwiak A, Wieczorek M. Analysis of the course and treatment of toxocariasis in children-a long-term observation. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:2363-71 pubmed publisher
    b>Toxocariasis is a helminthozoonotic disease caused by ascarid larvae of Toxocara genus: Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. In the reported study, the clinical course of toxocariasis and administered therapy were evaluated in 103 children...
  28. Roldán W, Cavero Y, Espinoza Y, Jimenez S, Gutiérrez C. Human toxocariasis: a seroepidemiological survey in the Amazonian city of Yurimaguas, Peru. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2010;52:37-42 pubmed
    ..and epidemiological questionnaire was used to assess the symptomatology and risk factors associated with human toxocariasis. The overall rate of seropositivity was 35.66%, with a significant high proportion in children (p < 0.001)...
  29. Chen J, Zhou D, Nisbet A, Xu M, Huang S, Li M, et al. Advances in molecular identification, taxonomy, genetic variation and diagnosis of Toxocara spp. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1344-8 pubmed publisher visceral larva migrans (VLMs), ocular larva migrans (OLMs), eosinophilic meningoencephalitis (EME), covert toxocariasis (CT) and neurotoxocariasis, is considered the most prevalent neglected helminthiasis in industrialized ..
  30. Kim Y, Huh S, Chung Y. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis among healthy people with eosinophilia. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:29-32 pubmed publisher
    ..canis ES antigen. Toxocariasis seropositivity is suggested to be the major cause of eosinophilia, since the Toxocara seroprevalence among ..
  31. Fenoy S, Rodero M, Pons E, Aguila C, Cuellar C. Follow-up of antibody avidity in BALB/c mice infected with Toxocara canis. Parasitology. 2008;135:725-33 pubmed publisher
    ..canis proteins in all the cases when the IgM+G and the IgG1 antibodies were investigated. Antibodies of variable avidity were observed in those sera that recognized the group of low molecular weight proteins, between 37 kDa and 25 kDa...
  32. Fernando S, Wickramasinghe V, Kapilananda G, Devasurendra R, Amarasooriya J, Dayaratne H. Epidemiological aspects and risk factors of toxocariasis in a pediatric population in Sri Lanka. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 2007;38:983-90 pubmed
    ..001). This study indicates that dogs contribute significantly to children being seropositive for toxocariasis in Sri Lanka...
  33. Cardillo N, Rosa A, Ribicich M, Lopez C, Sommerfelt I. Experimental infection with Toxocara cati in BALB/c mice, migratory behaviour and pathological changes. Zoonoses Public Health. 2009;56:198-205 pubmed publisher
    ..The migratory pattern of T. cati larvae in BALB/c mice and its tendency to become concentrated in the muscle reinforce the importance of the mouse as a paratenic host for the parasite's cycle in the environment. ..
  34. Deplazes P, Van Knapen F, Schweiger A, Overgaauw P. Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:41-53 pubmed publisher
    ..A close collaboration between veterinary and public health professionals in a 'One Health' concept is required. ..
  35. Kim Y, Moon C, Chang J. Toxocariasis of the optic disc. J Neuroophthalmol. 2013;33:151-2 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosed with ocular toxocariasis, he was treated with systemic corticosteroids and albendazole with improvement in vision and fundus appearance.
  36. Wells D. Public understanding of toxocariasis. Public Health. 2007;121:187-8 pubmed
  37. Choi D, Lim J, Choi D, Paik S, Kim S, Huh S. Toxocariasis and ingestion of raw cow liver in patients with eosinophilia. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:139-43 pubmed publisher
    Ingestion of raw animal liver has been suggested as a possible mode of infection of human toxocariasis. We evaluated the relationship between toxocariasis and the ingestion of raw meat in patients with eosinophilia of unknown etiology...
  38. Bächli H, Minet J, Gratzl O. Cerebral toxocariasis: a possible cause of epileptic seizure in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2004;20:468-72 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is a worldwide human helminthiasis, which is mostly asymptomatic and caused by toxocara canis, a roundworm in dogs. These can cause visceral larva migrans syndrome in humans who ingest contaminated soil...
  39. de Visser L, Rothova A, De Boer J, van Loon A, Kerkhoff F, Canninga Van Dijk M, et al. Diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis by establishing intraocular antibody production. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008;145:369-74 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of Toxocara canis in posterior uveitis of undetermined origin...
  40. Cruz A, Franklin G, Kaplan S. Toxocariasis causing eosinophilic ascites. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:563-4 pubmed publisher
    ..We report the case of a 13-year-old girl with eosinophilic ascites caused by Toxocara, only the second reported case in the literature. The patient had complete symptom resolution after albendazole therapy. ..
  41. Zanandréa L, Oliveira G, Abreu A, Pereira F. Ocular lesions in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) infected with low larval burden of Toxocara canis: observations using indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2008;41:570-4 pubmed
    ..The lesions observed were focal, consisting mainly of hemorrhages with signs of reabsorption or inflammation in different segments of eye, and differing from the granulomatous lesions described in ocular larva migrans in humans...
  42. Dado D, Izquierdo F, Vera O, Montoya A, Mateo M, Fenoy S, et al. Detection of zoonotic intestinal parasites in public parks of Spain. Potential epidemiological role of microsporidia. Zoonoses Public Health. 2012;59:23-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) and microsporidia spores (28%). Microsporidia characterization by amplification of DNA confirmed 10 samples as positive, eight for E. bieneusi and two for E. hellem by PCR. The role of those parasites in the environment are discussed...
  43. De Andrade Lima Coêlho R, De Carvalho L, Perez E, Araki K, Takeuchi T, Ito A, et al. Prevalence of toxocariasis in northeastern Brazil based on serology using recombinant Toxocara canis antigen. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2005;72:103-7 pubmed
    To evaluate the prevalence of toxocariasis in children in Jaboatão dos Guararapes, Pernambuco in northeastern Brazil, 215 serum samples were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a recombinant Toxocara canis ..
  44. Teixeira C, Chieffi P, Lescano S, de Melo Silva E, Fux B, Cury M. Frequency and risk factors for toxocariasis in children from a pediatric outpatient center in southeastern Brazil. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2006;48:251-5 pubmed
    ..Factors such as sex and age, and symptoms like headache, stomach ache, convulsive crises and anemia were not associated with toxocariasis.
  45. Abdi J, Darabi M, Sayehmiri K. Epidemiological situation of toxocariasis in Iran: meta-analysis and systematic review. Pak J Biol Sci. 2012;15:1052-5 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is the clinical terms applied to infection of human with ascarid nematodes in the order Ascaridida, named toxocara canis and toxocara cati. It is transmitted from dog and cat to humans...
  46. Nicoletti A, Bartoloni A, Sofia V, Mantella A, Nsengiyumva G, Frescaline G, et al. Epilepsy and toxocariasis: a case-control study in Burundi. Epilepsia. 2007;48:894-9 pubmed
    A case-control study to assess the relationship between epilepsy and toxocariasis was carried out in the Kiremba population, Burundi...
  47. Maiga Y, Wiertlewski S, Desal H, Marjolet M, Damier P. [Presentation of cerebral toxocariasis with mental confusion in an adult: case report and review of the literature]. Bull Soc Pathol Exot. 2007;100:101-4 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is usually responsible for visceral larva migrans syndroms. Nervous system involvement is a rare complication...
  48. Quet F, Preux P, Nicoletti A. Comment on "Epilepsy and seropositivity rates of Toxocara canis and Toxoplasma gondii". Seizure. 2008;17:296 pubmed
  49. Zibaei M, Sadjjadi S, Uga S. Experimental Toxocara cati infection in gerbils and rats. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:331-3 pubmed publisher
    ..2-3.8% in rats on the same days. These results indicate that Mongolian gerbils and Wistar rats are suitable experimental paratenic hosts for the study of neurological toxocariasis as well as visceral toxocariasis.
  50. NOH Y, Hong S, Yun J, Park H, Oh J, Kim Y, et al. Meningitis by Toxocara canis after ingestion of raw ostrich liver. J Korean Med Sci. 2012;27:1105-8 pubmed publisher
    Recently reports on toxocariasis are increasing by serodiagnosis in Korea. A previously healthy 17-yr-old boy complained of headache, fever, dyspnea, and anorexia...
  51. Fan C, Lan H, Hung C, Chung W, Liao C, Du W, et al. Seroepidemiology of Toxocara canis infection among mountain aboriginal adults in Taiwan. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2004;71:216-21 pubmed
    ..65, P < 0.01), raising dogs (OR = 1.76, P < 0.01), or whose occupation was a laborer (OR = 1.78, P < 0.01) seemed to be more apt to be infected by T. canis than those without such histories and unemployed persons. ..
  52. Figueiredo S, Taddei J, Menezes J, Novo N, Silva E, Cristóvão H, et al. [Clinical-epidemiological study of toxocariasis in a pediatric population]. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2005;81:126-32 pubmed
    The variety of toxocariasis clinic manifestations and its relationship with asthma motivated this study. The aim was to study T...
  53. Fillaux J, Santillan G, Magnaval J, Jensen O, Larrieu E, Sobrino Becaria C. Epidemiology of toxocariasis in a steppe environment: the Patagonia study. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007;76:1144-7 pubmed
    To investigate the epidemiology of human toxocariasis in a steppe environment, a field survey was carried out in three provinces of Argentina's Patagonia (Chubut, Neuquen, and Rio Negro) among 114 rural subjects residing in estancias (..
  54. Roddie G, Stafford P, Holland C, Wolfe A. Contamination of dog hair with eggs of Toxocara canis. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:85-93 pubmed publisher
    ..These studies show that stray dogs, particularly puppies, potentially harbour considerable numbers of eggs on their hair, at densities far higher than those reported in the soil or the general environment...
  55. Mohamad S, Azmi N, Noordin R. Development and evaluation of a sensitive and specific assay for diagnosis of human toxocariasis by use of three recombinant antigens (TES-26, TES-30USM, and TES-120). J Clin Microbiol. 2009;47:1712-7 pubmed publisher
    Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serologic tests that use Toxocara excretory-secretory (TES) antigen to detect immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the larvae...
  56. Lee J, Kim B, Lee S, Jeung Y, Oh M, Park M, et al. Toxocariasis might be an important cause of atopic myelitis in Korea. J Korean Med Sci. 2009;24:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    Atopic myelitis is defined as myelitis with atopic diasthesis but the cause is still unknown. Toxocariasis is one of the common causes of hyperIgEaemia that may lead to neurologic manifestations...
  57. Akao N, Ohta N. Toxocariasis in Japan. Parasitol Int. 2007;56:87-93 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis has long been considered a parasitic disease affecting pet owners and children who often play in sandboxes at public parks...
  58. Anibal F, Rogerio A, Malheiro A, Machado E, Martins Filho O, Andrade M, et al. Impact of MK886 on eosinophil counts and phenotypic features in toxocariasis. Scand J Immunol. 2007;65:344-52 pubmed
    Experimental toxocariasis was used as a model of eosinophil migration. Mice inoculated with 200 Toxocara canis eggs were treated with the leukotriene inhibitor MK886 (1 mg/kg/day)...
  59. Jin Y, Shen C, Huh S, Sohn W, Choi M, Hong S. Serodiagnosis of toxocariasis by ELISA using crude antigen of Toxocara canis larvae. Korean J Parasitol. 2013;51:433-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Toxocariasis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by larvae of ascarid nematodes of dogs or cats, Toxocara canis or T. cati. Diagnosis of human toxocariasis currently relies on serology that uses T...
  60. Kanafani Z, Skoury A, Araj G, El Khoury M, Sawaya R, Atweh S, et al. Seroprevalence of toxocariasis in Lebanon: a pilot study. Parasitology. 2006;132:635-9 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is a common helminthic infection that has a worldwide distribution. However, data from Lebanon about the prevalence of this infection are non-existent...
  61. Lim J. Toxocariasis of the liver: visceral larva migrans. Abdom Imaging. 2008;33:151-6 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is caused by dog ascarid, Toxocara canis, forming eosinophilic inflammation such as eosinophilic abscess or granuloma in the liver and lungs. The lesions move slowly and thus the disease is called as visceral larva migrans...
  62. Keller M, Pavia A, Byington C. Possible intrafamilial transmission of Toxocara causing eosinophilic meningitis in an infant. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2008;27:849-50 pubmed publisher
    Human toxocariasis can result from the inadvertent ingestion of embryonated eggs of Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati from environmental sources such as dirt, sand, or foods carrying contaminated soil...
  63. Ota K, Dimaras H, Heon E, Babyn P, Yau Y, Read S, et al. Toxocariasis mimicking liver, lung, and spinal cord metastases from retinoblastoma. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:252-4 pubmed publisher
    ..High Toxocara antibody titers, eosinophilia, and elevated IgE levels supported a diagnosis of toxocariasis, rather than retinoblastoma metastasis...
  64. Smith H, Holland C, Taylor M, Magnaval J, Schantz P, Maizels R. How common is human toxocariasis? Towards standardizing our knowledge. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:182-8 pubmed publisher
    Our understanding of the global impact and cost of human toxocariasis is poor because there is insufficient clinical awareness and no clear repository for the efficacy of clinical, laboratory and treatment interventions...
  65. Sviben M, Cavlek T, Missoni E, Galinović G. Seroprevalence of Toxocara canis infection among asymptomatic children with eosinophilia in Croatia. J Helminthol. 2009;83:369-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results showed a high seroprevalence rate of T. canis infection among children with eosinophilia. It is important that testing for toxocariasis should be included in a differential diagnosis of eosinophilia, especially in children.
  66. Morais F, Maciel A, Arantes T, Muccioli C, Allemann N. [Ultrasonographic findings in ocular toxocariasis]. Arq Bras Oftalmol. 2012;75:43-7 pubmed
    To evaluate ophthalmic ultrasound findings in the three presentation forms of ocular toxocariasis (peripheral or posterior pole granulomas and chronic endophthalmitis), in patients with confirmed diagnosis of ocular toxocariasis.
  67. Macpherson C. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:999-1008 pubmed publisher
    b>Toxocariasis, caused by infection with larvae of Toxocara canis, and to a lesser extent by Toxocara cati and other ascaridoid species, manifests in humans in a range of clinical syndromes...
  68. Marchioro A, Colli C, Ferreira E, Tiyo R, Mattia S, de Souza W, et al. Identification of public areas with potential toxocariasis transmission risk using geographical information systems. Acta Parasitol. 2013;58:328-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Geographic information system (GIS) or Health geography is a geographical identification of the spatial variation of contagion disease and zoonosis risk in certain conditions...
  69. Fan C, Lin Y, Hung C, Chang S, Su K. Enhanced inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and nitrotyrosine accumulation in experimental granulomatous hepatitis caused by Toxocara canis in mice. Parasite Immunol. 2004;26:273-81 pubmed
    ..593, P = 0.021) in the trial. Our present results indicate a potential therapeutic strategy for treatment of GH caused by other nematodes through manipulation of iNOS expression...
  70. Gorgulu A, Albayrak B, Gorgulu E, Tural O. Postoperative cerebral abscess formation caused by Toxocara canis in a meningioma cavity. J Neurooncol. 2006;77:325-6 pubmed
  71. Stewart J, Cubillan L, Cunningham E. Prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis. Retina. 2005;25:1005-13 pubmed
    To describe the prevalence, clinical features, and causes of vision loss among patients with ocular toxocariasis seen at a uveitis referral center.
  72. Hamilton C, Stafford P, Pinelli E, Holland C. A murine model for cerebral toxocariasis: characterization of host susceptibility and behaviour. Parasitology. 2006;132:791-801 pubmed
    ..The percentage of total recovered larvae in each organ may be a better representation of larval distribution. Our model system may provide insights into the impact of chronic geohelminth infection on cognitive development...
  73. Mori K, Ohta K, Murata T. Vasoproliferative tumors of the retina secondary to ocular toxocariasis. Can J Ophthalmol. 2007;42:758-9 pubmed
  74. Winkler A, Blocher J, Auer H, Gotwald T, Matuja W, Schmutzhard E. Anticysticercal and antitoxocaral antibodies in people with epilepsy in rural Tanzania. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2008;102:1032-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In our study anticysticercal antibodies in both serum and CSF were associated with active NCC in PWE, whereas there was no relationship between antitoxocaral antibodies and epilepsy...
  75. Garcia H, Modi M. Helminthic parasites and seizures. Epilepsia. 2008;49 Suppl 6:25-32 pubmed publisher
    ..Nonetheless, knowledge about the helminthic disorders, the life cycle of their causative agents, and their clinical manifestations and diagnostic features are important in order to recognize them...
  76. Congdon P, Lloyd P. Toxocara infection in the United States: the relevance of poverty, geography and demography as risk factors, and implications for estimating county prevalence. Int J Public Health. 2011;56:15-24 pubmed publisher
    ..To estimate Toxocara infection rates by age, gender and ethnicity for US counties using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES)...
  77. Kim Y, Huh S. Prevalence of Toxocara canis, Toxascaris leonina and Dirofilaria immitis in dogs in Chuncheon, Korea (2004). Korean J Parasitol. 2005;43:65-7 pubmed
    ..2%). Considering previously reported seropositive rates of T. canis excretory-secretory antigen, i.e., 5% in the adult population in Korea, the possibility of toxocariasis caused by T. leonina should be reevaluated.
  78. Lopez M, Martin G, Chamorro M, Mario Alonso J. [Toxocariasis in children from a subtropical region]. Medicina (B Aires). 2005;65:226-30 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is present worldwide but people living in areas with sanitary deficiencies are considered at the highest risk of infection, particularly children...
  79. Nicoletti A, Sofia V, Mantella A, Vitale G, Contrafatto D, Sorbello V, et al. Epilepsy and toxocariasis: a case-control study in Italy. Epilepsia. 2008;49:594-9 pubmed
    To assess the relationship between epilepsy and toxocariasis in adult subjects by means of a case-control study in Catania, Italy.
  80. Clinton R, CARABIN H, Little S. Emerging zoonoses in the southern United States: toxocariasis, bovine tuberculosis and southern tick-associated rash illness. Am J Med Sci. 2010;340:187-93 pubmed publisher
    ..This review focuses on 3 emerging zoonoses, namely toxocariasis, bovine tuberculosis and southern tick-associated rash illness, and demonstrates that these infections may be ..
  81. Walsh M. Toxocara infection and diminished lung function in a nationally representative sample from the United States population. Int J Parasitol. 2011;41:243-7 pubmed publisher
  82. Kolbeková P, Vetvicka D, Svoboda J, Skirnisson K, Leissová M, Syrucek M, et al. Toxocara canis larvae reinfecting BALB/c mice exhibit accelerated speed of migration to the host CNS. Parasitol Res. 2011;109:1267-78 pubmed publisher
    ..In ELISA for IgG antibodies, an increase in the avidity index of around 50% was detected 1 month PPI; higher-avidity antibodies were also detected in sera of reinfected animals...
  83. Logar J, Soba B, Kraut A, Stirn Kranjc B. Seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies among patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis in Slovenia. Korean J Parasitol. 2004;42:137-40 pubmed
    Ocular toxocariasis named also ocular larva migrans is caused by larvae of the roundworm Toxocara spp. The purpose of this study was to find out the seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies in patients suspected of ocular toxocariasis...
  84. Traub R, Robertson I, Irwin P, Mencke N, Thompson R. Canine gastrointestinal parasitic zoonoses in India. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:42-8 pubmed
  85. Kuk S, Ozel E, Oguzturk H, Kirkil G, Kaplan M. Seroprevalence of Toxocara antibodies in patients with adult asthma. South Med J. 2006;99:719-22 pubmed
    b>Toxocariasis is a common worldwide infection. Asthma, considered to be one of the most common chronic diseases, is a serious global health problem. Toxocara may be a possible etiologic agent of asthma...
  86. Elefant G, Shimizu S, Sanchez M, Jacob C, Ferreira A. A serological follow-up of toxocariasis patients after chemotherapy based on the detection of IgG, IgA, and IgE antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. J Clin Lab Anal. 2006;20:164-72 pubmed
    A serological follow-up study was carried out on 27 children (1-12 years old) with visceral and/or ocular toxocariasis, after treatment with thiabendazole. A total of 159 serum samples were collected in a period ranging from 22-116 months...
  87. Basualdo J, Sparo M, Chiodo P, Ciarmela M, Minvielle M. Oral treatment with a potential probiotic (Enterococcus faecalis CECT 7121) appears to reduce the parasite burden of mice infected with Toxocara canis. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2007;101:559-62 pubmed
  88. Hamilton C, Brandes S, Holland C, Pinelli E. Cytokine expression in the brains of Toxocara canis-infected mice. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..i., and was more pronounced in BALB/c-infected mice. These results have implications for the role of these cytokines and iNOS in the cerebral establishment of T. canis, and in the cerebral pathology reported during infection...
  89. Othman A, El Shourbagy S, Soliman R. Kinetics of Foxp3-expressing regulatory cells in experimental Toxocara canis infection. Exp Parasitol. 2011;127:454-9 pubmed publisher
    ..These results suggest a potential role of Foxp3-expressing regulatory cells in the evolution of the immunopathological events during infection by T. canis...
  90. de Avila L, Conceição F, Telmo P, Dutra G, de los Santos D, Martins L, et al. Saccharomyces boulardii reduces infection intensity of mice with toxocariasis. Vet Parasitol. 2012;187:337-40 pubmed publisher
    ..In this study, the effect of Saccharomyces boulardii on the intensity of infection of mice with toxocariasis was evaluated. The animals were fed with a diet supplemented with S...
  91. Sariego I, Kanobana K, Rojas L, Speybroeck N, Polman K, Núñez F. Toxocariasis in Cuba: a literature review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2012;6:e1382 pubmed publisher
    Human toxocariasis (HT) is a zoonotic disease caused by infection with the larval stage of Toxocara canis, the intestinal roundworm of dogs...
  92. Choi D, Lim J, Choi D, Lee K, Paik S, Kim S, et al. Transmission of Toxocara canis via ingestion of raw cow liver: a cross-sectional study in healthy adults. Korean J Parasitol. 2012;50:23-7 pubmed publisher
    ..analysis showed that a recent ingestion of raw cow liver and keeping dogs were related to an increased risk of toxocariasis (odds ratios, 4.4 and 3.7; and 95% confidence intervals, 1.9-10.2 and 1.2-11.6, respectively)...