setariasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with nematodes of the genus Setaria. This condition is usually seen in cattle and equines and is of little pathogenic significance, although migration of the worm to the eye may lead to blindness.

Top Publications

  1. Shirasaka S, Suzuki M, Endou G, Adachi Y, Taira N. Efficacy of ivermectin against Setaria microfilariae in calves and cerebrospinal setariosis in sheep and goats. J Vet Med Sci. 1994;56:1213-4 pubmed
    ..Therefore, ivermectin was much effective for the eradication of Mf in calves and the prevention of setariosis in sheep and goats...
  2. Tung K, Lai C, Ooi H, Yang C, Wang J. Cerebrospinal setariosis with Setaria marshalli and Setaria digitata infection in cattle. J Vet Med Sci. 2003;65:977-83 pubmed
    ..01 ml and 143/ 0.01 ml, respectively. This is the first report of cerebrospinal setariosis in cattle associated with S. marshalli. ..
  3. Oge S, Oge H, Yildirim A, Kircali F. Setaria equina infection of Turkish equines: estimates of prevalence based on necropsy and the detection of microfilaraemia. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2003;97:403-9 pubmed
    ..Application of Knott's method revealed only two of the three microfilaraemias detected using the combination of filtration and AP staining. The combination may represent a useful technique for the detection of equine microfilaraemia...
  4. Laaksonen S, Kuusela J, Nikander S, Nylund M, Oksanen A. Outbreak of parasitic peritonitis in reindeer in Finland. Vet Rec. 2007;160:835-41 pubmed
    ..There was a significant positive correlation between the worm count and the degree of peritonitis (P<0.001) and a negative correlation between the degree of peritonitis and the thickness of the back fat layer (P=0.015)...
  5. Favia G, Cancrini G, Ferroglio E, Casiraghi M, Ricci I, Rossi L. Molecular assay for the identification of Setaria tundra. Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:139-45 pubmed
    ..Based on these sequences, we were able to design species-specific PCR primers for the precise identification of S. tundra...
  6. Li Z, Yu L. Morphological studies on the larval stages of three species of Setaria and Dirofilaria repens. Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health. 1990;21:95-102 pubmed
    ..The 3 bulbed caudal papillae of the infective larvae are closely arranged, and the anal ratio being less than 2. A key to infective larvae of 8 species of filaria was worked out according to relevant literature and the present study...
  7. Almeida A, Deobhankar K, Bhopale M, Zaman V, Renapurkar D. Scanning electron microscopy of Setaria cervi adult male worms. Int J Parasitol. 1991;21:119-21 pubmed
    ..All other features were indistinguishable from other members of the genus Setaria. ..
  8. Jayasinghe D, Wijesundera W. Differentiation of Setaria digitata and Setaria labiatopapillosa using molecular markers. Vet J. 2003;165:136-42 pubmed
    ..labiatopapillosa separated the two species into two distinct clusters. The polymorphic loci identified by the RAPD-PCR analyses can be studied further to develop species-specific probes/PCR primers for the identification of each species...
  9. Mukhopadhyay S, Ravindran B. Antibodies to diethylcarbamazine potentiate the antifilarial activity of the drug. Parasite Immunol. 1997;19:191-5 pubmed
    ..Since some of the filarial antibodies are known to react with DEC, it is proposed that such antibodies may potentiate the microfilaricidal activity of the drug in vivo...

More Information

Publications84

  1. Batra S, Chatterjee R, Srivastava V. Antioxidant system of Litomosoides carinii and Setaria cervi: effect of a macrofilaricidal agent. Vet Parasitol. 1992;43:93-103 pubmed
    ..carinii and S. cervi. The compound, therefore, appears to render the filariids prone to H2O2 toxicity leading to penultimate damage. ..
  2. Nabie R, Spotin A, Rouhani S. Subconjunctival setariasis due to Setaria equina infection; a case report and a literature review. Parasitol Int. 2017;66:930-932 pubmed publisher
    A rare case of human subconjunctival setariasis due to Setaria equina infection is reported herein. A 15-years old girl was referred with a 24h history of edema and redness in her left eye...
  3. Laaksonen S, Oksanen A, Orro T, Norberg H, Nieminen M, Sukura A. Efficacy of different treatment regimes against setariosis (Setaria tundra, Nematoda: Filarioidea) and associated peritonitis in reindeer. Acta Vet Scand. 2008;50:49 pubmed publisher
    ..tundra and further economical losses. A research programme was swiftly initiated to study S. tundra and its impact on the health and wellbeing of reindeer...
  4. el Azazy O, Ahmed Y. Patent infection with Setaria digitata in goats in Saudi Arabia. Vet Parasitol. 1999;82:161-6 pubmed
    ..No lesions due to S. digitata were found in the visceral organs and brains of the infected goats. This is the first record of patent infection with S. digitata in goats...
  5. Sharma V, Tekwani B, Saxena J, Gupta S, Katiyar J, Chatterjee R, et al. Polyamine metabolism in some helminth parasites. Exp Parasitol. 1991;72:15-23 pubmed
    ..The absence of polyamine biosynthesizing enzymes in helminth parasites suggests their dependence on hosts for uptake and interconversion of polyamines, providing a potential target for chemotherapy...
  6. Raj R, Puranam R, Kurup C, Ramasarma T. Oxidative activities in mitochondria-like particles from Setaria digitata, a filarial parasite. Biochem J. 1988;256:559-64 pubmed
  7. Agarwal A, Shukla O, Tekwani B. Characterization of Ca(2+)-ATPase of Setaria cervi (Nematoda: Filarioidea): effect of phenothiazines and anthelmintics. Int J Biochem. 1992;24:1447-52 pubmed
    ..7. Studies indicate Ca(2+)-ATPase of S. cervi as a potential chemotherapeutic target. ..
  8. Jameela Banu M, Kalyani R, Nellaiappan K. Some properties of beta-D-galactosidase from the adult filarial nematode Setaria digitata. Vet Parasitol. 1990;36:27-36 pubmed
    ..Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that the enzyme exists as single form. The medicinal plants and the drug filarin effectively inhibit the enzyme. The significance of these results are discussed in relation to chemotherapy. ..
  9. Czajka C, Becker N, Poppert S, Jöst H, Schmidt Chanasit J, Kruger A. Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:14 pubmed publisher
    ..However, anticipated changes in the course of global warming and globalization may alter their status...
  10. Vijayanathan L, Raj R. Changes in the level of biogenic amines in experimentally infected and DEC treated proxy host mice. J Commun Dis. 1992;24:37-41 pubmed
    ..When DEC, the drug of choice was administered to the infected mice, serotonine level was enhanced while the histamine level was decreased. The results were similar in normal mice which were given DEC. ..
  11. Tung K, Cheng F, Lai C, Wang K, Wang J, Lee W. Demonstration of vector competence of Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) for Setaria digitata. Vet Parasitol. 2004;123:279-84 pubmed
    ..digitata. This mosquito might therefore be responsible, at least in part, for the prevalence of cattle lumbar paralysis in Taiwan. This is the first report of C. quinquefasciatu demonstrating its vector competence for S. digitata. ..
  12. Thilagavathy A, Prabha B, Raj R. Excretory secretory antigens of filarial parasite Setaria digitata. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:291-2 pubmed
    ..The egg showed fluorescence mainly in the space between embryo and egg membrane (amniotic fluid). The amniotic fluid was highly antigenic and appears to be the most important source of ES material released by the filarial parasites. ..
  13. Cancrini G, Pietrobelli M, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Tampieri M. Mosquitoes as vectors of Setaria labiatopapillosa. Int J Parasitol. 1997;27:1061-4 pubmed
    ..labiatopapillosa transmission, but their scarce presence reduces their epidemiological relevance. The other species identified showed a complete refractoriness to the infection. The risks for veterinary and medical health are discussed. ..
  14. Dissanayake S, Chandana A. An egg surface antigen of Setaria digitata (filariae) shed on development to microfilariae. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 1988;82:616-20 pubmed
    ..digitata eggs and immature microfilariae, and with mature microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria repens, but not with the surface antigens of mature microfilariae of S. digitata. ..
  15. Subhachalat P, Shirasaka S, Nakajima H, Adachi Y. Setaria digitata in cattle of Thailand identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J Vet Med Sci. 1999;61:443-5 pubmed
    ..digitata. In point of the distribution pattern of the proteins ranging from 73 to 64 kDa revealed by 2D-PAGE, there were no differences between Thai and Japanese S. digitata, and between male and female worms of the species...
  16. Mishra V, Parveen N, Singhal K, Khan N. Antifilarial activity of Azadirachta indica on cattle filarial parasite Setaria cervi. Fitoterapia. 2005;76:54-61 pubmed
    ..The inhibition was concentration related. Alcohol and aqueous extracts had almost similar lethal effect on the microfilariae of S. cervi, the LC50 being 15 and 18 ng/ml, respectively...
  17. Wijesundera W, Chandrasekharan N, Karunanayake E. A sensitive polymerase chain reaction based assay for the detection of Setaria digitata: the causative organism of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses. Vet Parasitol. 1999;81:225-33 pubmed
  18. Sivan V, Kaleysa Raj R. Quinone analogue irrecoverably paralyses the filarial parasites in vitro. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999;256:81-3 pubmed
    ..A drug at the level of the quinone-centered energy generating system, perhaps an analogue of quinone like Q0, can inactivate the filarial parasites and may prove to be an effective drug to control filariasis...
  19. Banu M, Nellaiappan K, Dhandayuthapani S. Lactate dehydrogenase from adult Setaria digitata (Nematoda: Onchocercidae). Vet Parasitol. 1989;32:311-23 pubmed
    ..The mobility of the 700 X g supernatant fraction in the gel was less than that of the 10,000 X g supernatant...
  20. Singh R, Saxena J, Ghatak S, Shukla O, Wittich R, Walter R. Polyamine metabolism in Setaria cervi, the bovine filarial worm. Parasitol Res. 1989;75:311-5 pubmed
  21. Mathew N, Misra Bhattacharya S, Perumal V, Muthuswamy K. Antifilarial lead molecules isolated from Trachyspermum ammi. Molecules. 2008;13:2156-68 pubmed
    ..malayi in Mastomys coucha, showing macrofilaricidal activity and female worm sterility in vivo against B. malayi. The findings thus provide a new lead for development of a macrofilaricidal drug from natural products...
  22. Singh N, Wadhawan M, Tiwari S, Kumar R, Rathaur S. Inhibition of Setaria cervi protein tyrosine phosphatases by Phenylarsine oxide: A proteomic and biochemical study. Acta Trop. 2016;159:20-8 pubmed publisher
    ..PAO, thus disturbs the overall homeostasis of the filarial parasite by inhibiting PTPs. Thereby suggesting that these molecules could be used as a good chemotherapeutic target for lymphatic filariasis. ..
  23. Hussain H, Shukla O, Ghatak S, Kaushal N. Enzymes of PEP-succinate pathway in Setaria cervi and effect of anthelmintic drugs. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:871-5 pubmed
    ..Diethylcarbamazine and levamisole, however, were found to be more or less ineffective at lower concentrations against all the enzymes of this pathway...
  24. Banu M, Dhandayuthapani S, Nellaiappan K. Intermediary carbohydrate metabolism in the adult filarial worm Setaria digitata. Int J Parasitol. 1991;21:795-9 pubmed
    ..The significance of these results with respect to the metabolic capabilities of the worm are discussed...
  25. Mohanty M, Satapathy A, Sahoo P, Ravindran B. Human bancroftian filariasis - a role for antibodies to parasite carbohydrates. Clin Exp Immunol. 2001;124:54-61 pubmed
    ..Elevated levels of IgG2 and IgG3 antibodies to Fil.Cho in individuals free of filarial infection indicate a possible role for carbohydrate antigens in induction of protective immunity in human filariasis...
  26. Watermeyer R, Boomker J, Putterill J. Studies on the genus Setaria Viborg, 1795 in South Africa. III. Setaria thwaitei Mönnig, 1933. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2004;71:107-11 pubmed
    ..Scanning electron microscopy of the anterior and posterior regions of the female worms confirmed S. thwaitei as a valid species...
  27. Panaitescu D, Preda A, Bain O, Vasile Bugarin A. Four cases of human filariosis due to Setaria labiatopapillosa found in Bucharest, Romania. Roum Arch Microbiol Immunol. 1999;58:203-7 pubmed
    ..The treatment was surgical (excision) and DEC 1 mg/kg body weight. The vector insect cannot be specified. We stress that to our knowledge these are the first reported cases of human infection with Setaria labiatopapillosa...
  28. Muthian G, Pradeep C, Sargapradeep K, Kaleysaraj R, Bright J. Setaria digitata secreted filarial lipids modulate IL-12 signaling through JAK-STAT pathway leading to the development of Th1 response. Exp Parasitol. 2006;114:193-203 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that the SFL modulates Th1 immune response by blocking IL-12 signaling in T cells and thus play a role in host immune evasion of filarial parasites...
  29. Yatawara L, Wickramasinghe S, Nagataki M, Rajapakse R, Agatsuma T. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Setaria digitata of Sri Lanka based on CO1 and 12S rDNA genes. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:161-5 pubmed
    ..Phylogenetic trees inferred from these two genes resembled one another in recognizing monophyly of Setaria. S. digitata and Setaria labiatopapillosa appear to be sister species...
  30. Hornok S, Genchi C, Bazzocchi C, Fok E, Farkas R. Prevalence of Setaria equina microfilaraemia in horses in Hungary. Vet Rec. 2007;161:814-6 pubmed
  31. Ahmad R, Srivastava A. Cytosolic and microsomal glutathione-S-transferases from bovine filarial worms Setaria cervi. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1285-90 pubmed publisher
    ..cervi is quite distinct to the cytosolic protein catalyzing the same reaction...
  32. El Shahawi G, Abdel Latif M, Saad A, Bahgat M. Setaria equina: in vivo effect of diethylcarbamazine citrate on microfilariae in albino rats. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:603-10 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, one of the possible mechanisms by which DEC reduces blood microfilarial count is trapping larvae in organs and killing them through cellular adherence...
  33. Perumal A, Gunawardene Y, Dassanayake R. Setaria digitata in advancing our knowledge of human lymphatic filariasis. J Helminthol. 2016;90:129-38 pubmed publisher
    ..This review highlights numerous insights into the morphological, histological, biochemical, immunological and genetic aspects of S. digitata that have broadened our understanding towards the control and eradication of filarial diseases. ..
  34. Muhammad G, Saqib M. Successful treatment of ocular equine microfilariasis (Setaria species) with ivermectin. Vet Rec. 2007;160:25-6 pubmed
  35. Bright J, Raj R. Isolation and analysis of surface antigens of filarial nematode Setaria digitata. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29:725-9 pubmed
    ..The release of 29 KD surface protein during in vitro culture of adult parasite and its cross-reactivity with antiserum to surface antigens revealed the possible natural shedding of surface molecules into the host system...
  36. Watermeyer R, Boomker J, Putteril J. Studies on the genus Setaria Viborg, 1795 in South Africa. II. Setaria scalprum (Von Linstow, 1908) and Setaria saegeri (Le Van Hoa, 1961). Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2003;70:7-13 pubmed
    ..Differences in the postdeirid, ventral transverse bands and bosses on the cuticle of the male specimens were also observed. Setaria saegeri in common duiker and grysbok is a new parasite record for these hosts...
  37. Demiaszkiewicz A, Lachowicz J, Karbowiak G. [Increase of infection of European bison by nematodes Setaria labiatopapillosa in Bia?owie a Forest]. Wiad Parazytol. 2007;53:335-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of these studies was to determine the level of infection of European bison by nematodes belonging to the genus Setaria...
  38. Kaushal N, Srivastava N, Mustafa H, Tandon A, Singh S, Kaushal D. Isolation of an antigen fraction from Setaria cervi adults having potential for immunodiagnosis of human filariasis. Immunol Invest. 2009;38:749-61 pubmed publisher
  39. Nayak A, Gayen P, Saini P, Maitra S, Sinha Babu S. Albendazole induces apoptosis in adults and microfilariae of Setaria cervi. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:236-42 pubmed publisher
    ..We present data from molecular studies to provide evidence for ABZ-induced apoptosis in Mf and adult worms of S. cervi...
  40. Watermeyer R, Boomker J, Putterill J. Studies on the genus Setaria Viborg, 1795 in South Africa. I. Setaria africana (Yeh, 1959). Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2000;67:229-34 pubmed
    ..africana africana are single whereas those of S. africana farchaiare double. Setaria africana farchaiis recorded for the first time in South Africa...
  41. Rhee J, Choi E, Park B, Jang B. Application of scanning electron microscopy in assessing the prevalence of some Setaria species in Korean cattle. Korean J Parasitol. 1994;32:1-6 pubmed
    ..1% were male S. digitata; 9.2% were female and 5.0% were male S. marshalli, respectively. The average length of S. marshalli was somewhat longer than that of S. digitata. S. marshalli was documented for the first time in Korea...
  42. Goyal N, Srivastava V. Mitochondrial NADH oxidase activity of Setaria cervi. Vet Parasitol. 1990;37:229-36 pubmed
    ..The system was also found to be susceptible to exposure to anthelmintics, amongst which levamisole proved the most effective...
  43. Murugan A, Kaleysaraj R. In vitro release of biologically active materials from the bovine filarial parasite Setaria digitata. Indian J Exp Biol. 1991;29:1047-50 pubmed
    ..Activity of collagenase could not be detected in the male worm under experimental conditions...
  44. Almeida A, Bhopale M, Renapurkar D. Evaluation of Setaria cervi antigen in the diagnosis of human filariasis. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 1990;37:323-9 pubmed
    ..In the case of CIEP, positive reaction was seen in only one case from group I...
  45. Agarwal A, Shukla O, Ghatak S, Tekwani B. Biogenic amines, metabolites and monoamine oxidase in the filarial worm Setaria cervi. Int J Parasitol. 1990;20:873-81 pubmed
    ..Diethylcarbamazine, suramin, levamisole and centperazine significantly inhibited MAO activity. (The characteristics of the enzyme indicated that it may have a role in host-parasite interactions)...
  46. Cancrini G, Pietrobelli M, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Tampieri M, Della Torre A. Development of Dirofilaria and Setaria nematodes in Aedes albopictus. Parassitologia. 1995;37:141-5 pubmed
    ..It is particularly emphasized the danger for human health of an increased probability of transmission of Dirofilaria in urban areas...
  47. Watanabe Y, Yang C, Tung K, Ooi H. Comparison of microfilaria concentration method for Setaria digitata infection in cattle and for Dirofilaria immitis infection in dogs. J Vet Med Sci. 2004;66:543-5 pubmed
    ..Thus, the Acetone test is recommended for the primary screening of microfilaremia of S. digitata in cattle...
  48. Beuria M, Bal M, Das M. Allergic reactivity and IgG subclasses to a proteinase fraction of Setaria digitata in filariasis. J Helminthol. 1995;69:181-5 pubmed
    ..The serum levels of other IgG subclasses except IgG2, did not correlate with ITH reactivity. IgG2 levels were higher in ITH negative EN and CP patients but not in the AS group...
  49. Kumar S. Somatic antigens from male and female adults of Setaria cervi: immune reactions in guinea pigs. Rev Biol Trop. 1987;35:69-71 pubmed
    ..The antigens from female worms were effective (40% protection) at low dose level (2 ml 50 microliters/ml) also...
  50. Unnikrishnan L, Raj R. Fumarate reductase system of filarial parasite Setaria digitata. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1992;184:448-53 pubmed
  51. Agarwal A, Tekwani B, Shukla O, Ghatak S. Effect of anthelmintics and phenothiazines on adenosine 5'-triphosphatases of filarial parasite Setaria cervi. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:245-8 pubmed
    ..Diethylcarbamazine was a potent inhibitor of these ATPases. Mebendazole, levamisole and centperazine also caused significant inhibition of the ATPases indicating this enzyme system as a common target for the action of anthelmintic drugs...
  52. Fujii T, Hayashi T, Furuya T, Taira N. A consideration on the relationship between worm age and mortality of Setaria marshalli recovered from the peritoneal cavity of calves born in Tottori prefecture, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 1996;58:171-2 pubmed
    ..It is speculated that this is a normal fate of this parasite at the end of its life, and therefore, the life span of S. marshalli would be approximately one year after prenatal infection...
  53. Pietrobelli M, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Cancrini G, Tampieri M. [Bovine setariasis (Note I):trap for the capture of possible intermediate hosts of Setaria labiatopapillosa]. Parassitologia. 1995;37:249-53 pubmed
    ..It was tested in an area of Friuli Venezia Giulia (Udine province, NE Italy) during 21 nights in the summer 1994 (29/6-29/9) and allowed to catch 16159 mosquitoes and 218 other Diptera, showing a very good efficiency...
  54. Buchwalder R, Schuster R. [Finding Setaria equina in horses]. Angew Parasitol. 1989;30:127-30 pubmed
    ..Based on a thorough analysis of the international literature, the paper discusses geographical distribution, morphology, cycle and diagnosis of this nematode as well as clinical symptoms mainly caused by the stages of the larvae...
  55. Yeargan M, Lyons E, Kania S, Patton S, Breathnach C, Horohov D, et al. Incidental isolation of Setaria equina microfilariae in preparations of equine peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161:142-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Although notable effects on the assays were not observed in this study, it seems possible that microfilarial contamination could represent a confounding variable for experiments examining cellular immunity...
  56. Sugunan V, Raj R. Excretory/secretory antigens from a bovine filarial parasite cross react with human antifilarial antibodies. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:1124-7 pubmed
    ..ESF2 was more specific and accurate in detecting human filarial infection. Similar proteins secreted by human filarial parasites could be targets for combating the disease by cure or control...
  57. Maya A, Jayaraman K, Balakrishnan A. Necrosis of lung epithelial cells by filarial parasitic protein via an early induction of c-H-ras and TNF alpha expression. Cell Biol Int. 1997;21:273-80 pubmed
  58. John L, Raj R. Immune response of electroeluted detergent soluble 29 kDa antigen from Setaria digitata (Von Linstow). Indian J Exp Biol. 1998;36:862-6 pubmed
    ..The 29 kDa protein, the most reactive of the detergent soluble proteins produced partial suppression of immune response, thereby contributing to the factors responsible for the survival of filarial parasites in hosts...
  59. Shin S, Cho K, Wee S. Ocular infection of cattle with Setaria digitata. J Vet Med Sci. 2002;64:7-10 pubmed
    ..The ocular infection with S. digitata reported herein may document the first aberrant case in Korean cattle...
  60. Mukhopadhyay S, Sahoo P, George A, Bal V, Rath S, Ravindran B. Delayed clearance of filarial infection and enhanced Th1 immunity due to modulation of macrophage APC functions in xid mice. J Immunol. 1999;163:875-83 pubmed
    ..Thus, Btk is involved in critical macrophage APC functions regulating priming of T cells, and can modulate these responses in pathophysiologically relevant fashion in vivo...
  61. Bright J, Raj R. Antigenic analysis of purified surface antigens of filarial nematode Setaria digitata. Indian J Exp Biol. 1992;30:362-6 pubmed
    ..The 29 KD protein existed as a monomer and as cross-linked with the 17 and 36 KD proteins. All surface antigen fractions showed antigenicity, where as 29 KD protein remained as a high avidity surface antigen...
  62. Bright J, Kaleysaraj R. Cuticle specific antigens from filarial parasite Setaria digitata. Indian J Exp Biol. 1990;28:6-9 pubmed
    ..As the cuticle of the parasite is in contact with the host system, an antigenic preparation from it may prove a useful tool for the detection of filariasis...
  63. Nakano H, Tozuka M, Ikadai H, Ishida H, Goto R, Kudo N, et al. Morphological survey of bovine Setaria in the abdominal cavities of cattle in Aomori and Kumamoto Prefectures, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:413-5 pubmed
    ..Of these worms, 35 were identified as Setaria digitata, 14 as S. marshalli, and one as S. labiatopapillosa in Aomori Prefecture, while 816 were identified as S. digitata and 31 as S. marshalli in Kumamoto Prefecture...
  64. Rodrigo W, Dassanayake R, Voronin D. Novel parasitic nematode-specific protein of Setaria digitata largely localized in longitudinal muscles, reproductive systems and developing embryos. Exp Parasitol. 2014;141:12-20 pubmed publisher
  65. Theodore J, Kaliraj P. Isolation, purification and characterization of surface antigens of the bovine filarial parasite Setaria digitata for the immunodiagnosis of bancroftian filariasis. J Helminthol. 1990;64:105-14 pubmed
    ..The purified antigen was observed to be glycoprotein in nature. It was possible to identify the stage-specific infection in human filariasis by using the crude and purified antigens in EITB...
  66. Mandal N, Bal M, Das M, Beuria M. Protective efficacy of a filarial surface antigen in experimental filariasis. J Helminthol. 2009;83:47-50 pubmed publisher
    ..coucha...
  67. Fujii T, Hayashi T, Ishimoto A, Takahashi S, Asano H, Kato T. Prenatal infection with Setaria marshalli (Boulenger 1921) in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 1995;56:303-9 pubmed
    ..It is concluded, therefore, that S. marshalli prenatal infection develops during the middle stage of fetal life in summer...
  68. Pietrobelli M, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Segato L, Tampieri M. [Bovine setariasis in Friuli Venezia Giulia]. Parassitologia. 1995;37:69-74 pubmed
    ..28%. The prevalence was significantly correlated with the age of animals; in cow was lower than in young animals. Blood microfilariae (210) and adult females (15) were identified as Setaria labiatopapillosa...
  69. Mukhopadhyay S, Dash A, Ravindran B. Setaria digitata microfilaraemia in Mastomys coucha: an animal model for chemotherapeutic and immunobiological studies. Parasitology. 1996;113 ( Pt 4):323-30 pubmed
    ..coucha implanted with live or cold-stunned adult worms. The S. digitata-M. coucha model thus is found amenable to perform chemotherapeutic and immunobiological investigations in experimental filariasis...
  70. Uddin Q, Parveen N, Khan N, Singhal K. Anti fi larial potential of the fruits and leaves extracts of Pongamia pinnata on cattle filarial parasite Setaria cervi. Phytother Res. 2003;17:1104-7 pubmed
    ..The concentrations of P. pinnata extracts required to produce an equivalent effect on the nerve-muscle preparation were 25 micro g/mL, 5 micro g/mL and 20 micro g/mL, respectively, suggesting a cuticular permeability barrier...
  71. Chirgwin S, Porthouse K, Nowling J, Klei T. The filarial endosymbiont Wolbachia sp. is absent from Setaria equina. J Parasitol. 2002;88:1248-50 pubmed
    ..in hypodermal cords or reproductive tissues. These data suggest that like Onchocerca flexuosa and Acanthocheilonema vitae, S. equina may not be dependent on Wolbachia sp. for survival...
  72. Mohanty M, Sahoo P, Satapathy A, Ravindran B. Setaria digitata infections in cattle: parasite load, microfilaraemia status and relationship to immune response. J Helminthol. 2000;74:343-7 pubmed
  73. Wee S, Jang H, Joo H, Kang Y, Lee C. Setaria marshalli infection in neonatal calves. Korean J Parasitol. 1996;34:207-10 pubmed
    ..Males were 41-52 mm long and females 68-98 mm. Most of them were fully matured, indicating that the calves were infected prenatally. This is the first report of prenatal infection in calves by S. marshalli in Korea...
  74. Ogbogu V, Bablis J, Ajanusi O. Prevalence of microfilariae in cattle at slaughter in Zaria, Nigeria. Vet Parasitol. 1990;36:171-5 pubmed
    ..gutturosa with a prevalence of 40% were isolated from the skin. The blood microfilariae were identified as those of Setaria labiatopapillosa...
  75. Wijesundera W, Chandrasekharan N, Karunanayake E, Dharmasena S. Development of a diagnostic DNA probe to detect Setaria digitata: the causative parasite of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses. Br Vet J. 1996;152:561-71 pubmed
    ..digitata and S. labiato-papillosa. It can also detect a single microfilaria and a L3 larva making it a valuable tool to monitor cattle and mosquito vector populations in the prevention of cerebrospinal nematodiasis...