dirofilariasis

Summary

Summary: Infection with nematodes of the genus DIROFILARIA, usually in animals, especially dogs, but occasionally in man.

Top Publications

  1. Rishniw M, Barr S, Simpson K, Frongillo M, Franz M, Dominguez Alpizar J. Discrimination between six species of canine microfilariae by a single polymerase chain reaction. Vet Parasitol. 2006;135:303-14 pubmed
    Canine dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis is usually diagnosed by specific antigen testing and/or identification of microfilariae. However, D...
  2. Harizanov R, Jordanova D, Bikov I. Some aspects of the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, and diagnosis of human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1571-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The medical significance of human dirofilariasis is due to frequent misdiagnosis as malignancy and in many cases diagnosis is made after invasive surgical ..
  3. Singh R, Shwetha J, Samantaray J, Bando G. Dirofilariasis: a rare case report. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:75-7 pubmed publisher
    Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection most commonly caused by Dirofilaria repens. It has not been widely recognized in India. There is probably a focus of human infection with D. repens in Kerala...
  4. Simon F, Siles Lucas M, Morchon R, González Miguel J, Mellado I, Carretón E, et al. Human and animal dirofilariasis: the emergence of a zoonotic mosaic. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2012;25:507-44 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilariasis represents a zoonotic mosaic, which includes two main filarial species (Dirofilaria immitis and D. repens) that have adapted to canine, feline, and human hosts with distinct biological and clinical implications...
  5. Azari Hamidian S, Yaghoobi Ershadi M, Javadian E, Abai M, Mobedi I, Linton Y, et al. Distribution and ecology of mosquitoes in a focus of dirofilariasis in northwestern Iran, with the first finding of filarial larvae in naturally infected local mosquitoes. Med Vet Entomol. 2009;23:111-21 pubmed publisher
    ..mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) in Ardebil Province of northwestern Iran, with special reference to the known dirofilariasis focus in Meshkinshahr County, was carried out in July-August 2005 and April-October 2006...
  6. Fleck R, Kurz W, Quade B, Geginat G, Hof H. Human dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens mimicking a scrotal tumor. Urology. 2009;73:209.e1-3 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens is a rare anthropozoonotic disease, with dogs and cats being the definite hosts for this parasite...
  7. Medlock J, Barrass I, Kerrod E, Taylor M, Leach S. Analysis of climatic predictions for extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in the United kingdom. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2007;7:4-14 pubmed
    Transmission of dirofilariasis in Europe is dependent upon the presence of sufficient numbers of infected dogs, susceptible mosquitoes, and a suitable climate to permit extrinsic incubation of Dirofilaria in the mosquito intermediate host...
  8. Oh H, Jun H, You M, Hayasaki M, Song K. Ectopic migration of an adult heartworm in a dog with dirofilariasis (case report). Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:171-3 pubmed publisher
    ..An adult heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, was found in the abdominal cavity of the dog during spaying. Dirofilariasis in this dog was also diagnosed by modified Knott's test, ELISA test, and PCR analysis...
  9. Rajapakshe R, Perera W, Ihalamulla R, Weerasena K, Jayasinghe S, Sajeewani H, et al. Study of dirofilariasis in a selected area in the Western Province. Ceylon Med J. 2005;50:58-61 pubmed
    Human dirofilariasis is a zoonotic infection caused by the filarial worm, Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens, whose primary host is the dog...

More Information

Publications98

  1. Huang S, Liu Y, Chen W. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria immitis mimicking a large epidermal cyst. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol. 2006;20:477-8 pubmed
  2. Ittyerah T, Mallik D. A case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis of the eyelid in the South Indian state of Kerala. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2004;52:235-6 pubmed
    This report describes a case of dirofilariasis of the upper eyelid of a young female patient from Kerala...
  3. Dang T, Nguyen T, Do T, Uga S, Morishima Y, Sugiyama H, et al. A human case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens in Vietnam: histologic and molecular confirmation. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:1003-7 pubmed publisher
    Human dirofilariasis caused by infection with Dirofilaria worms has been frequently reported...
  4. Negahban S, Daneshbod Y, Atefi S, Daneshbod K, Sadjjadi S, Hosseini S, et al. Dirofilaria repens diagnosed by the presence of microfilariae in fine needle aspirates: a case report. Acta Cytol. 2007;51:567-70 pubmed
    b>Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens with viable microfilariae outside the worm have not been reported before. A 40-year-old truck driver from rural Shiraz, Iran, had a firm mass, 2.5 x 2...
  5. Genchi C, Mortarino M, Rinaldi L, Cringoli G, Traldi G, Genchi M. Changing climate and changing vector-borne disease distribution: the example of Dirofilaria in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:295-9 pubmed publisher
    ..repens. Furthermore, diagnosis is problematic and in-clinic serological tests, such as those for D. immitis, do not exist. Therefore, most infections go undiagnosed, allowing the infection to spread undetected...
  6. Otranto D, Brianti E, Gaglio G, Dantas Torres F, Azzaro S, Giannetto S. Human ocular infection with Dirofilaria repens (Railliet and Henry, 1911) in an area endemic for canine dirofilariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011;84:1002-4 pubmed publisher
    Dirofilaria repens, which is usually found in canine subcutaneous tissues, is the main causative agent of human dirofilariasis in the Old Word. However, a relationship between animal and human cases of dirofilariasis caused by D...
  7. Montoya Alonso J, Carretón E, Juste M, Mellado I, Morchon R, Simon F. Epidemiological survey of canine heartworm disease on the island of Gran Canaria (Canary Islands - Spain) between 2000 and 2008. Vet Parasitol. 2010;173:165-8 pubmed publisher
    ..As this breed can act as a natural reservoir in Gran Canaria, regular surveillance is needed to detect changes in the epidemiological picture on this island. ..
  8. Lee A, Bowman D, Lucio Forster A, Beall M, Liotta J, Dillon R. Evaluation of a new in-clinic method for the detection of canine heartworm antigen. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:387-91 pubmed publisher
  9. Demiaszkiewicz A, Polańczyk G, Pyziel A, Kuligowska I, Lachowicz J. [The first foci of dirofilariosis of dogs evoked by Dirofilaria repens Railliet et Henry, 1911 in central Poland]. Wiad Parazytol. 2009;55:367-70 pubmed
    ..repens is common in central Poland. The result of our investigations lets us suppose, that the range of occurrence of D. repens will spread significantly towards north Europe...
  10. Auer H, Susani M. [The first autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariosis in Austria]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2008;120:104-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The recent case report deals with the 13(th) human case, which has to be considered as the first autochthonously acquired in Austria. ..
  11. Bourguinat C, Keller K, Bhan A, Peregrine A, Geary T, Prichard R. Macrocyclic lactone resistance in Dirofilaria immitis. Vet Parasitol. 2011;181:388-92 pubmed publisher
    ..3% in microfilariae that survived repeated treatments with high doses of ML anthelmintics. The data show phenotypic and genotypic evidence of ML resistance in Dirofilaria immitis. ..
  12. Mannino G, Contestabile M, Medori E, Mannino C, Maurizi Enrici M, Marangi M, et al. Dirofilaria repens in the eyelid: case report of subcutaneous manifestation. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2009;19:475-7 pubmed
    ..The authors report a case of eyelid subcutaneous filariasis...
  13. Otranto D, Diniz D, Dantas Torres F, Casiraghi M, de Almeida I, de Almeida L, et al. Human intraocular filariasis caused by Dirofilaria sp. nematode, Brazil. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:863-6 pubmed publisher
    A case of human intraocular dirofilariasis is reported from northern Brazil. The nematode was morphologically and phylogenetically related to Dirofilaria immitis but distinct from reference sequences, including those of D...
  14. Aiello A, Aiello P, Aiello F. A case of palpebral dirofilariasis. Eur J Ophthalmol. 2005;15:407-8 pubmed
    Dirofilaria repens infection is the most frequent and widespread dirofilariasis in the world. In Italy subcutaneous dirofilariasis is present especially in Northern-Central areas.
  15. Geary T, Bourguinat C, Prichard R. Evidence for macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic resistance in Dirofilaria immitis. Top Companion Anim Med. 2011;26:186-92 pubmed publisher
  16. Tasić A, Rossi L, Tasic S, Miladinović Tasić N, Ilić T, Dimitrijević S. Survey of canine dirofilariasis in Vojvodina, Serbia. Parasitol Res. 2008;103:1297-302 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first detailed survey on canine dirofilariasis in the continental part of the Balkans...
  17. Mittal M, Sathish K, Bhatia P, Chidamber B. Ocular dirofilariasis in Dubai, UAE. Indian J Ophthalmol. 2008;56:325-6 pubmed
    A rare occurrence of ocular subconjunctival dirofilariasis in a 53-year-old healthy Indian male working in Dubai, UAE presenting with an acute red eye is reported...
  18. Ondriska F, Lengyel D, Miterpakova M, Lengyelova B, Streharova A, Dubinsky P. Human dirofilariosis in the Slovak Republic - a case report. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2010;17:169-71 pubmed
    ..Subsequent PCR analysis of the DNA identified the parasite as Dirofilaria repens. After removal of the parasite, the subcutaneous nodule completely resolved and the patient was successfully cured. ..
  19. Fioretti D, Diaferia M, Grelloni V, Maresca C. Canine filariosis in Umbria: an update of the occurrence one year after the first observation of autochthonous foci. Parassitologia. 2003;45:79-83 pubmed
  20. Vezzani D, Eiras D, Wisnivesky C. Dirofilariasis in Argentina: historical review and first report of Dirofilaria immitis in a natural mosquito population. Vet Parasitol. 2006;136:259-73 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to review information on dirofilariasis in the country, and to report our recent findings on mosquito vectors...
  21. Janjetović Z, Arar Z, Paradzik M, Sapina L, Bitunjac M, Lojen G, et al. [Ocular dirofilariasis: a case report]. Acta Med Croatica. 2010;64:41-5 pubmed
    A case of ocular dirofilariasis in a female patient is presented. The zoonosis caused by parasites of the genus Dirofilaria is relatively rare in humans, with a higher incidence in south and central Europe, Asia and Africa...
  22. Khechine Martinez R, Doucet C, Blanchard S, Rouland J, Labalette P. [Subconjunctival dirofilariasis: a case report]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2009;32:350.e1-4 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilariasis is a disease rarely seen in humans, occurring commonly in noncarnivorous mammals. The microfilariae are transmitted by a mosquito vector. Ocular dirofilariasis is rarely described in the ophthalmic literature...
  23. Cancrini G, Scaramozzino P, Gabrielli S, Di Paolo M, Toma L, Romi R. Aedes albopictus and Culex pipiens implicated as natural vectors of Dirofilaria repens in central Italy. J Med Entomol. 2007;44:1064-6 pubmed
    ..entomological samplings were carried out in four sites within the Lazio region, foci of canine subcutaneous dirofilariasis. Collections were made in 2002-2003 by means of dog-baited and miniature Centers for Disease Control and ..
  24. Xia Z, Yu D, Mao J, Zhang Z, Yu J. The occurrence of Dirofilaria immitis, Borrelia burgdorferi, Ehrlichia canis and Anaplasma phagocytophium in dogs in China. J Helminthol. 2012;86:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..burgdorferi was at Beijing. In conclusion, the dog population in China is at potential risk for D. immitis, B. burgdorferi, E. canis and A. phagocytophium infection, the risk being especially high in southern China. ..
  25. Dujic M, Mitrovic B, Zec I. Orbital swelling as a sign of live Dirophilaria repens in subconjunctival tissue. Scand J Infect Dis. 2003;35:430-1 pubmed
    ..A histopathological examination revealed an adult, non-gravid female Dirofilaria repens s. acutiuscula. To the authors' knowledge this is the first case of subconjunctival live dirophilaria reported in a human. ..
  26. Tavakolizadeh S, Mobedi I. Orbital dirofilariasis in Iran: a case report. Korean J Parasitol. 2009;47:397-9 pubmed publisher
    b>Dirofilariasis is a common parasitic disease in both domestic and wild animals around the world, with canines as the principal reservoir host and mosquitoes as the vector...
  27. Hira P, Al Buloushi A, Khalid N, Iqbal J, Bain O, Eberhard M. Zoonotic filariasis in the Arabian Peninsula: autochthonous onchocerciasis and dirofilariasis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2008;79:739-41 pubmed
    ..These two cases bring to four the number of reports of zoonotic filariasis in the Arabian Peninsula and suggest that zoonotic filariasis is not uncommon in the Arabian Gulf region. ..
  28. Cancrini G, Romi R, Gabrielli S, Toma L, Di Paolo M, Scaramozzino P. First finding of Dirofilaria repens in a natural population of Aedes albopictus. Med Vet Entomol. 2003;17:448-51 pubmed
    ..immitis and D. repens in the head-thorax of one collected 11th October 2002. Thus Ae. albopictus is a potential vector of both Dirofilarias in Italy, representing risks for veterinary and human health...
  29. Bowman D, Atkins C. Heartworm biology, treatment, and control. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract. 2009;39:1127-58, vii pubmed publisher
    ..The treatment of potential complications of heartworm infection, such as post-adulticide thromboembolism, eosinophilic granulomatous pneumonitis, and caval syndrome, is also discussed...
  30. Grandi G, Morchon R, Kramer L, Kartashev V, Simon F. Wolbachia in Dirofilaria repens, an agent causing human subcutaneous dirofilariasis. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1421-3 pubmed publisher
    Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis is an increasingly reported zoonosis caused by several filarial species, in particular by Dirofilaria (Nochtiella) repens. Like many filarial worms, D...
  31. Nath R, Gogoi R, Bordoloi N, Gogoi T. Ocular dirofilariasis. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2010;53:157-9 pubmed publisher
    ..In India this infection is occasionally being reported. We report three cases of ocular dirofilariasis from the state of Assam presenting as periorbital and subconjunctival cysts...
  32. Vezzani D, Carbajo A. Spatial and temporal transmission risk of Dirofilaria immitis in Argentina. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1463-72 pubmed
    ..immitis transmission in the Southern Hemisphere and provides a useful guide for heartworm prevention during the transmission periods in different regions of Argentina...
  33. Sassi S, Abid L, Dhouib R, Mrad K, Bouguila H, Abbes I, et al. [Conjunctival dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria Repens. A new Tunisian case]. J Fr Ophtalmol. 2006;29:e5 pubmed
    b>Dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens is a parasitic disease affecting domestic animals and transmitted to man by mosquito bites. Human infestation is rare and involves benign subcutaneous and ocular manifestations...
  34. Paras K, Little S, Reichard M, Reiskind M. Detection of Dirofilaria immitis and Ehrlichia species in coyotes (Canis latrans), from rural Oklahoma and Texas. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2012;12:619-21 pubmed publisher
    ..throughout the United States, but coyotes from rural Oklahoma in the current study had a higher exposure rate than those reported from California, and a lower rate than data from an earlier study from Oklahoma...
  35. Masny A, Lewin T, Salamatin R, Golab E. Autochthonous canine Dirofilaria repens in the vicinity of Warsaw. Pol J Vet Sci. 2011;14:659-61 pubmed
    ..Monitoring the infection in the European countries should be introduced to establish the actual geographic range of dirofilariosis...
  36. Pipia A, Varcasia A, Tosciri G, Seu S, Manunta M, Mura M, et al. New insights onto cardiopulmonary nematodes of dogs in Sardinia, Italy. Parasitol Res. 2014;113:1505-9 pubmed publisher
    ..9% (61/684) to D. immitis. If on one side A. vasorum can be considered an emerging parasite in Sardinia, the parasitic pressure and the risk of infection for D. immitis in the island seems to be increased compared with the recent past...
  37. Hoch H, Strickland K. Canine and feline dirofilariasis: life cycle, pathophysiology, and diagnosis. Compend Contin Educ Vet. 2008;30:133-40; quiz 141 pubmed
  38. Rodrigues Silva R, Guerra R, de Almeida F, Machado Silva J, de Paiva D. [Human pulmonary dirofilariasis at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a case report]. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2004;37:56-9 pubmed
    We report a case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis in a female patient 45-years-old, derived from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
  39. Pampiglione S, Rivasi F, Gustinelli A. Dirofilarial human cases in the Old World, attributed to Dirofilaria immitis: a critical analysis. Histopathology. 2009;54:192-204 pubmed publisher
    To review 28 cases of human dirofilariasis reported in the last 30 years in the Old World and attributed, by their respective authors, to Dirofilaria immitis or a species of Dirofilaria other than D. repens.
  40. Padmaja P, Kanagalakshmi -, Samuel R, Kuruvilla P, Mathai E. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis in southern India: a case report. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2005;99:437-40 pubmed
  41. Fok E, Jacsó O, Szebeni Z, Gyorffy A, Sükösd L, Lukacs Z, et al. Elimination of Dirofilaria (syn. Nochtiella) repens microfilariae in dogs with monthly treatments of moxidectin 2.5%/imidacloprid 10% (Advocate, Bayer) spot-on. Parasitol Res. 2010;106:1141-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, it may be supposed that adult D. repens were killed based on the observation that no further microfilariae were seen up to 6 months after the end of the treatment period...
  42. Casiraghi M, Bazzocchi C, Mortarino M, Ottina E, Genchi C. A simple molecular method for discriminating common filarial nematodes of dogs (Canis familiaris). Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:368-72 pubmed
  43. Thanchomnang T, Intapan P, Lulitanond V, Sangmaneedet S, Chungpivat S, Taweethavonsawat P, et al. Rapid detection of Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and dogs using a real-time fluorescence resonance energy transfer PCR and melting curve analysis. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:255-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore it is a suitable and powerful tool for the diagnosis and for epidemiological surveys of canine dirofilariasis as well as for molecular xenomonitoring of D. immitis in mosquito vectors.
  44. Latrofa M, Montarsi F, Ciocchetta S, Annoscia G, Dantas Torres F, Ravagnan S, et al. Molecular xenomonitoring of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in mosquitoes from north-eastern Italy by real-time PCR coupled with melting curve analysis. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:76 pubmed publisher
    ..Our study aimed to evaluate the recently developed duplex real-time PCR for screening large number of culicids and to assess their positivity for D. immitis and D. repens in an area where both species are endemic...
  45. Cancrini G, Magi M, Gabrielli S, Arispici M, Tolari F, Dell Omodarme M, et al. Natural vectors of dirofilariasis in rural and urban areas of the Tuscan region, central Italy. J Med Entomol. 2006;43:574-9 pubmed
    ..richiardii needs further investigation, because the importance of these species poorly represented, and the role of species such as Aedes albopictus (Skuse), characterized by a dominant diurnal activity pattern, has to be evaluated...
  46. McCall J. The safety-net story about macrocyclic lactone heartworm preventives: a review, an update, and recommendations. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:197-206 pubmed
  47. Lee A, Montgomery S, Theis J, Blagburn B, Eberhard M. Public health issues concerning the widespread distribution of canine heartworm disease. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:168-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Future efforts should focus on the development of a non-invasive diagnostic test for people, and on epidemiological surveys for both animals and people...
  48. Genchi C, Kramer L, Rivasi F. Dirofilarial infections in Europe. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2011;11:1307-17 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews the zoonotic aspects, effects of climate, and other global drivers on Dirofilaria infections in Europe and the possible implications on the transmission and control of these mosquito-borne nematodes...
  49. Gorezis S, Psilla M, Asproudis I, Peschos D, Papadopoulou C, Stefaniotou M. Intravitreal dirofilariasis: a rare ocular infection. Orbit. 2006;25:57-9 pubmed
    Human ocular dirofilariasis is a zoonotic disease, rare in Europe, caused by filarial nematodes. The parasite is either encysted in a subcutaneous nodule or located under the bulbar conjunctiva...
  50. Simon F, Morchon R, González Miguel J, Marcos Atxutegi C, Siles Lucas M. What is new about animal and human dirofilariosis?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:404-9 pubmed publisher
  51. Pantchev N, Norden N, Lorentzen L, Rossi M, Rossi U, Brand B, et al. Current surveys on the prevalence and distribution of Dirofilaria spp. in dogs in Germany. Parasitol Res. 2009;105 Suppl 1:S63-74 pubmed publisher
    ..A further 288 blood samples from non-hunting companion dogs of the Central Upper-Rhine region were tested negative for heartworm antigen between February and August 2007...
  52. Chambers E, McClintock S, Avery M, King J, Bradley M, Schmaedick M, et al. Xenomonitoring of Wuchereria bancrofti and Dirofilaria immitis infections in mosquitoes from American Samoa: trapping considerations and a comparison of polymerase chain reaction assays with dissection. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2009;80:774-81 pubmed
    ..polynesiensis and related species are the primary vectors...
  53. Lee S, Kim H, Chong S, Klein T, Lee W. Molecular survey of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens by direct PCR for wild caught mosquitoes in the Republic of Korea. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:149-55 pubmed
    ..immitis and D. repens in Korea. Infections observed in mosquitoes represent potential health risks for domestic animal and human populations...
  54. Sassnau R, Genchi C. Qualitative risk assessment for the endemisation of Dirofilaria repens in the state of Brandenburg (Germany) based on temperature-dependent vector competence. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:2647-52 pubmed publisher
    ..repens a frequent cause of zoonotic infections...
  55. Bocková E, Rudolf I, Kočišová A, Betášová L, Venclíková K, Mendel J, et al. Dirofilaria repens microfilariae in Aedes vexans mosquitoes in Slovakia. Parasitol Res. 2013;112:3465-70 pubmed publisher
    ..from five locations in two districts (Kosice and Trebisov) of Eastern Slovakia, endemic region of canine dirofilariasis. Collection of mosquitoes was performed between May and August 2012 in premises known to be inhabited by ..
  56. Kramer L, Kartashev V, Grandi G, Morchon R, Nagornii S, Karanis P, et al. Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis, Russia. Emerg Infect Dis. 2007;13:150-2 pubmed
    We report 14 cases of human subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens, diagnosed from February 2003 through July 2004, in patients from Rostovon-Don, Russia. Serologic analysis showed evidence of high risk of exposure to D...
  57. Sathyan P, Manikandan P, Bhaskar M, Padma S, Singh G, Appalaraju B. Subtenons infection by Dirofilaria repens. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2006;24:61-2 pubmed
    ..We are reporting a case of human Dirofilariasis affecting subtenons region in a 63 year-old woman from Coimbatore, South India...
  58. Labarthe N, Guerrero J. Epidemiology of heartworm: what is happening in South America and Mexico?. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:149-56 pubmed
    ..9%), Aedes scapularis (20%) and Culex quinquefasciatus (2.5%), suggesting that the composition of the mosquito population is not a critical factor in the decrease in heartworm infections in dogs in South America...
  59. Yildirim A, Inci A, Duzlu O, Bışkın Z, Ica A, Sahin I. Aedes vexans and Culex pipiens as the potential vectors of Dirofilaria immitis in Central Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2011;178:143-7 pubmed publisher
    ..41 and 0.12, respectively. Although D. immitis DNA's were found in both pools from Ae. vexans and Cx. pipiens, the calculated MIRs provide evidence that Ae. vexans could be the main potential vector of D. immitis in Kayseri...
  60. McCall J, Genchi C, Kramer L, Guerrero J, Dzimianski M, Supakorndej P, et al. Heartworm and Wolbachia: therapeutic implications. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:204-14 pubmed publisher
    ..Preliminary observations suggest that administration of DOXY+IVM for several months prior to (or without) MEL will eliminate adult HW with less potential for severe thromboembolism than MEL alone...
  61. Foroulis C, Khaldi L, Desimonas N, Kalafati G. Pulmonary dirofilariasis mimicking lung tumor with chest wall and mediastinal invasion. Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005;53:173-5 pubmed
    We present a case of human pulmonary dirofilariasis, diagnosed in a 55-year-old heavy smoker (male) by wedge resection of the pulmonary lesion and histologic examination...
  62. Arther R, Bowman D, Slone R, Travis L. Imidacloprid plus moxidectin topical solution for the prevention of heartworm disease (Dirofiloria immitis) in dogs. Parasitol Res. 2005;97 Suppl 1:S76-S80 pubmed publisher
    ..5% moxidectin treatment for the prevention of HW disease was not decreased when dogs were shampooed as early as 90 min post-treatment, or when dogs immersed in water 5 times post-treatment at weekly intervals...
  63. Latrofa M, Dantas Torres F, Annoscia G, Genchi M, Traversa D, Otranto D. A duplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assay for the detection of and differentiation between Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in dogs and mosquitoes. Vet Parasitol. 2012;185:181-5 pubmed publisher
    ..5 pg/?l and 3 × 10(-1)pg/?l for D. immitis and D. repens, respectively). This assay is proposed as a tool for the epidemiological surveillance of the two most important Dirofilaria species in areas where they are endemic and sympatric...
  64. Vital R, Mattos L, Meirelles G. Human pulmonary dirofilariasis: atypical presentation of a rare disease. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop. 2006;39:94-5 pubmed
  65. Huang H, Wang T, Yang G, Zhang Z, Wang C, Yang Z, et al. Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Dirofilaria immitis of China based on COI and 12S rDNA genes. Vet Parasitol. 2009;160:175-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and other species included in the family Onchocercidae. Intra-specific variation was found in COI but not in 12S rDNA. D. immitis and D. repens appear to be sister species...
  66. Schnyder M, Deplazes P. Cross-reactions of sera from dogs infected with Angiostrongylus vasorum in commercially available Dirofilaria immitis test kits. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:258 pubmed publisher
    ..For the detection of D. immitis infections, a variety of commercial tests have been developed, however, they have not been evaluated for cross-reactions against circulating antigens of A. vasorum...
  67. Tzanetou K, Gasteratos S, Pantazopoulou A, Gogou C, Konidaris D, Fragia K. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens in Greece: a case report. J Cutan Pathol. 2009;36:892-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Microfilariae are transmitted to humans by various species of mosquito. An autochthonous case of subcutaneous dirofilariasis is reported in a Greek patient from the island of Corfu...
  68. Bowman D, Mannella C. Macrocyclic lactones and Dirofilaria immitis microfilariae. Top Companion Anim Med. 2011;26:160-72 pubmed publisher
  69. Cielecka D, Zarnowska Prymek H, Masny A, Salamatin R, Wesołowska M, Gołab E. Human dirofilariosis in Poland: the first cases of autochthonous infections with Dirofilaria repens. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012;19:445-50 pubmed
    ..Because of the increasing number of cases of human infections, whether introduced or local, physicians should take dirofilariosis into consideration in differential diagnosis of skin and eye diseases...
  70. Genchi C, Rinaldi L, Cascone C, Mortarino M, Cringoli G. Is heartworm disease really spreading in Europe?. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:137-48 pubmed
    ..The study also provides the first risk assessment maps for Europe and suggests that if the actual climatic trend continues, filarial infection should spread into previously infection-free areas...
  71. Gioia G, Lecová L, Genchi M, Ferri E, Genchi C, Mortarino M. Highly sensitive multiplex PCR for simultaneous detection and discrimination of Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens in canine peripheral blood. Vet Parasitol. 2010;172:160-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The multiplex PCR assay represents an additional tool for epidemiological studies and routine disease assessment in areas co-endemic for the two Dirofilaria species...
  72. Miliaras D, Meditskou S, Kelekis A, Papachristos I. Human pulmonary Dirofilariasis: one more case in Greece suggests that Dirofilaria is a rather common cause of coin lesions in the lungs in endemic areas of Europe. Int J Immunopathol Pharmacol. 2010;23:345-8 pubmed
    ..For this reason the authors suggest that in every case which presents with a coin lesion in the lung in endemic areas, dirofilariasis should always be considered, and excluded before any other intervention is decided.
  73. Bazzocchi C, Mortarino M, Grandi G, Kramer L, Genchi C, Bandi C, et al. Combined ivermectin and doxycycline treatment has microfilaricidal and adulticidal activity against Dirofilaria immitis in experimentally infected dogs. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:1401-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Results indicate that the combination of these two drugs causes adult worm death. This could have important implications for control of human and animal filarial infections...
  74. Levy J, Edinboro C, Glotfelty C, Dingman P, West A, Kirkland Cady K. Seroprevalence of Dirofilaria immitis, feline leukemia virus, and feline immunodeficiency virus infection among dogs and cats exported from the 2005 Gulf Coast hurricane disaster area. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:218-25 pubmed
    To determine seroprevalence of dirofilariasis in dogs and seroprevalences of dirofilariasis, FeLV infection, and FIV infection in cats exported from the Gulf Coast region following the 2005 hurricanes.
  75. Jamshidi A, Jamshidi M, Mobedi I, Khosroara M. Periocular dirofilariasis in a young woman: a case report. Korean J Parasitol. 2008;46:265-7 pubmed publisher
    A case of periocular dirofilariasis has been diagnosed in Iran. A 27-yr old female referred with a history of edema and redness in the left eye since 2 wk ago...
  76. Raniel Y, Machamudov Z, Garzozi H. Subconjunctival infection with Dirofilaria repens. Isr Med Assoc J. 2006;8:139 pubmed
  77. Miterpákovzá M, Hurníková Z, Antolová D, Dubinsky P. Climate changes implicated for Dirofilaria dissemination in Slovakia. Wiad Parazytol. 2009;55:429-31 pubmed
    ..7%), and hunting dogs (40.5%). In the group of police dogs, 20.5% animals were infected. Dirofilaria repens was detected in all infected dogs. In seven animals co-infection with Dirofilaria immitis was present...
  78. McCall J, Genchi C, Kramer L, Guerrero J, Venco L. Heartworm disease in animals and humans. Adv Parasitol. 2008;66:193-285 pubmed publisher
    ..repens in humans in Europe. The chapter concludes with a discussion on emerging strategies in heartworm treatment and control, highlighting the potential role of tetracycline antibiotics in adulticidal therapy...
  79. Kramer L, Grandi G, Passeri B, Gianelli P, Genchi M, Dzimianski M, et al. Evaluation of lung pathology in Dirofilaria immitis-experimentally infected dogs treated with doxycycline or a combination of doxycycline and ivermectin before administration of melarsomine dihydrochloride. Vet Parasitol. 2011;176:357-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Dogs that received the combined doxycycline/ivermectin protocol and treated with adulticide showed less severe arterial lesions and the virtual absence of thrombi...
  80. Wesolowska M, Kisza K, Szaliński M, Zielinski M, Okulewicz A, Misiuk Hojlo M, et al. First case of heterochthonous subconjunctival dirofilariasis described in Poland. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2010;83:210 pubmed publisher
  81. Simon F, Lopez Belmonte J, Marcos Atxutegi C, Morchon R, Martín Pacho J. What is happening outside North America regarding human dirofilariasis?. Vet Parasitol. 2005;133:181-9 pubmed
    The etiologic agents of human dirofilariasis in the Old World are Dirofilaria immitis, which cause pulmonary and subcutaneous nodules, and Dirofilaria repens, which cause ocular lesions...
  82. Capelli G, Drago A, Martini S, Montarsi F, Soppelsa M, Delai N, et al. First report in Italy of the exotic mosquito species Aedes (Finlaya) koreicus, a potential vector of arboviruses and filariae. Parasit Vectors. 2011;4:188 pubmed publisher
    ..During the routine monitoring activity in a tiger mosquito-free area, an unexpected mosquito was noticed, which clearly did not belong to the recorded Italian fauna...
  83. Hellmann K, Heine J, Braun G, Paran Dobesova R, Svobodová V. Evaluation of the therapeutic and preventive efficacy of 2.5 % moxidectin / 10 % imidacloprid (Advocate(®), Bayer animal health) in dogs naturally infected or at risk of natural infection by Dirofilaria repens. Parasitol Res. 2011;109 Suppl 1:S77-86 pubmed publisher
    ..Advocate(®) was effective in the treatment of dogs infected with microfilaria of Dirofilaria repens. Due to the low rate of natural infections the preventive efficacy could not be proven, but no dog treated became positive...
  84. Chopra R, Panhotra B, Al Marzooq Y, Al Mulhim A. Subcutaneous dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens. Saudi Med J. 2004;25:1694-6 pubmed
    Human dirofilariasis caused by Dirofilaria repens D. repens is a common zoonosis in the Mediterranean countries and parts of South Asia. During the last decade, it has been reported from countries previously considered non-endemic...
  85. Song K, Park J, Lee D, Lee S, Shin H. Serological update and molecular characterization of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs, South Korea. Res Vet Sci. 2010;88:467-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Using the chi(2) test and Fisher's exact test, no significant differences in the prevalence of dirofilariasis were observed among different gender and age groups, although the prevalence of this disease among dogs 2-4yrs ..
  86. Genchi C, Rinaldi L, Mortarino M, Genchi M, Cringoli G. Climate and Dirofilaria infection in Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2009;163:286-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This mosquito species could spread from southern to northern European countries in the near future, changing the epidemiological patterns of dirofilariosis both in humans and animals...
  87. Khurana S, Singh G, Bhatti H, Malla N. Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis in India: a report of three cases with brief review of literature. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2010;28:394-6 pubmed publisher
    Human subcutaneous dirofilariasis is a rare infection caused by filarial worms of the genus Dirofilaria. The parasites are transmitted to man by mosquitoes and the infection is manifested as subcutaneous nodules...
  88. Zarnowska Prymek H, Cielecka D, Salamatin R. [Dirofilariasis--Dirofilaria repens--first time described in Polish patients]. Przegl Epidemiol. 2008;62:547-51 pubmed
    In this paper the first cases of human dirofilariasis in Poland are presented. The clinical manifestations were typical subcutaneous nodules with the adult worm (D. repens) in the center...
  89. Sabu L, Devada K, Subramanian H. Dirofilariosis in dogs and humans in Kerala. Indian J Med Res. 2005;121:691-3 pubmed
    ..With 7 per cent dogs positive for microfilariae of D. repens in Kerala, it is suggested that human beings are at an enhanced risk of acquiring dirofilaria infection...