dictyocaulus infections

Summary

Summary: Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation.

Top Publications

  1. Divina B, Hoglund J. Heterologous transmission with Dictyocaulus capreolus from roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) to cattle (Bos taurus). J Helminthol. 2002;76:125-31 pubmed
    ..Whether this was due to cross-protection as a result of the prior priming with L3 from roe deer is not clear. However, if it is so, it opens up the possibility of using D. capreolus L3 for preventing bovine dictyocauliasis. ..
  2. Kooyman F, Yatsuda A, Ploeger H, Eysker M. Serum immunoglobulin E response in calves infected with the lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus and its correlation with protection. Parasite Immunol. 2002;24:47-56 pubmed
  3. Ploeger H, Eysker M. Protection against and establishment of Dictyocaulus viviparus following primary infection at different dose levels. Vet Parasitol. 2002;106:213-23 pubmed
    ..Results confirmed that our provisional simulation model satisfactorily predicts primary infection outcomes, but that it does not accurately predict levels of protection and immunity against re-infections...
  4. Johnson M, Labes R, Taylor M, Mackintosh C. Efficacy trial of an irradiated cattle lungworm vaccine in red deer (Cervus elaphus). Vet Parasitol. 2003;117:131-7 pubmed
    ..Adult lungworms were found in the lungs of all deer at necropsy but fewer were recorded in the vaccinated deer. Although Huskvac provided a degree of protection for red deer it was not effective enough to recommend its use...
  5. Holzhauer M, Holland W, Ploeger H. Preventive vaccination of lactating and pregnant heifers against lungworm: safety and protection in three dairy herds. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2005;130:74-7 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that a vaccine against D. viviparus can be used safely in heifers, before they are introduced into the adult herd, and that this vaccine can be used as a preventive measure against lungworm outbreaks in adult cattle...
  6. Bennema S, Vercruysse J, Claerebout E, Schnieder T, Strube C, Ducheyne E, et al. The use of bulk-tank milk ELISAs to assess the spatial distribution of Fasciola hepatica, Ostertagia ostertagi and Dictyocaulus viviparus in dairy cattle in Flanders (Belgium). Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:51-7 pubmed publisher
    ..ostertagi were observed. D. viviparus infections were spread evenly over Flanders. Knowledge of locations of high risk areas can lead to increased awareness and may be the start of the development of regionally adapted control measures...
  7. Carreno R, Diez Baños N, Hidalgo Argüello M, Nadler S. Characterization of Dictyocaulus species (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from three species of wild ruminants in northwestern Spain. J Parasitol. 2009;95:966-70 pubmed publisher
    ..in R. rupicapra. These results showed that the LSU rDNA gene sequences are useful indicators of genetic and species diversity in species of Dictyocaulus...
  8. Divina B, Wilhelmsson E, Morner T, Mattsson J, Hoglund J. Molecular identification and prevalence of Dictyocaulus spp. (Trichostrongyloidea: Dictyocaulidae) in Swedish semi-domestic and free-living cervids. J Wildl Dis. 2002;38:769-75 pubmed
    ..This indicated that moose anti-D. capreolus antibodies recognized the D. viviparus antigen and that anti-cattle immunoglobulin cross-reacted with moose antibodies...
  9. Wapenaar W, Barkema H, Eysker M, O Handley R. An outbreak of dictyocaulosis in lactating cows on a dairy farm. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2007;231:1715-8 pubmed
    ..Owner-initiated antimicrobial treatment was unsuccessful; 1 lactating cow died, and 50% of the lactating cows had clinical signs of respiratory distress, such as tachypnea and coughing...

More Information

Publications93

  1. Klewer A, Forbes A, Schnieder T, Strube C. A survey on Dictyocaulus viviparus antibodies in bulk milk of dairy herds in Northern Germany. Prev Vet Med. 2012;103:243-5 pubmed publisher
    ..3%) at two, and 4 (0.5%) on all three sampling dates. The majority of the farms represented in the study belonged to four districts of East Frisia, which showed no significant difference in the proportion of positive dairy farms...
  2. Jimenez A, Montenegro V, Hernandez J, Dolz G, Maranda L, Galindo J, et al. Dynamics of infections with gastrointestinal parasites and Dictyocaulus viviparus in dairy and beef cattle from Costa Rica. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:262-71 pubmed
    ..Treatment, age and maximum temperature had significant effect on D. viviparus counts on farm A, but not on farm B...
  3. Fiedor C, Strube C, Forbes A, Buschbaum S, Klewer A, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, et al. Evaluation of a milk ELISA for the serodiagnosis of Dictyocaulus viviparus in dairy cows. Vet Parasitol. 2009;166:255-61 pubmed publisher
  4. Ploeger H. Dictyocaulus viviparus: re-emerging or never been away?. Trends Parasitol. 2002;18:329-32 pubmed
    ..This might indicate that Dictyocaulus viviparus is re-emerging as a significant parasite in the dairy cattle industry. Much is still unknown, and here the most important aspects requiring urgent attention are put into perspective...
  5. Matthews J, Davidson A, Beynon R. The application of mass spectrometry to identify immunogenic components of excretory/secretory products from adult Dictyocaulus viviparus. Parasitology. 2004;128 Suppl 1:S43-7 pubmed
    ..viviparus, whilst the other six proteins have shown no significant identities. Isolation of further peptide sequences is now warranted to facilitate cloning of the genes encoding these antigens...
  6. Gibbons L, Hoglund J. Dictyocaulus capreolus n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from roe deer, Capreolus capreolus and moose, Alces alces in Sweden. J Helminthol. 2002;76:119-25 pubmed
    ..eckerti and D. viviparus using either a PCR-linked hybridization assay or image analysis software to study the dimensions of the buccal capsule...
  7. Hoglund J, Morrison D, Mattsson J, Engstrom A. Population genetics of the bovine/cattle lungworm (Dictyocaulus viviparus) based on mtDNA and AFLP marker techniques. Parasitology. 2006;133:89-99 pubmed
    ..Second, the 2 smaller genetic groups occurred on farms where the predominant group also occurred, suggesting that these farms have had multiple introductions of D. viviparus...
  8. Hoglund J, Svensson C, Hessle A. A field survey on the status of internal parasites in calves on organic dairy farms in southwestern Sweden. Vet Parasitol. 2001;99:113-28 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the study shows that good management such as usage of parasite safe pastures and supplementary feeding may help control gastrointestinal parasites...
  9. Ploeger H, Verbeek P, Dekkers C, Strube C, van Engelen E, Uiterwijk M, et al. The value of a bulk-tank milk ELISA and individual serological and faecal examination for diagnosing (sub)clinical Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in dairy cows. Vet Parasitol. 2012;184:168-79 pubmed publisher
  10. McKeand J. Vaccine development and diagnostics of Dictyocaulus viviparus. Parasitology. 2000;120 Suppl:S17-23 pubmed
    ..This review describes the development of the secreted AChE as a vaccine candidate, as well as documenting recent developments in the immunodiagnosis of D. viviparus...
  11. Schunn A, Forbes A, Schnieder T, Strube C. Validation of a Dictyocaulus viviparus MSP-ELISA and cut-off adjustment in a one-year longitudinal field study in dairy cattle herds. Vet Parasitol. 2012;189:291-8 pubmed publisher
    ..493 to be performed...
  12. Strube C, Schnieder T, von Samson Himmelstjerna G. Differential gene expression in hypobiosis-induced and non-induced third-stage larvae of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:221-31 pubmed
    ..The expression patterns of these genes were validated by quantitative real-time PCR. This revealed differential gene expression, particularly for the N-methyltransferase...
  13. Panuska C. Lungworms of ruminants. Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract. 2006;22:583-93 pubmed
    ..The life cycles, epidemiology, pathology, diagnosis and treatment of Dictyocaulus viviparus, Dictyocaulus filaria, and Muellerius capillaris are summarized in this article...
  14. Hoglund J, Gånheim C, Alenius S. The effect of treatment with eprinomectin on lungworms at early patency on the development of immunity in young cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2003;114:205-14 pubmed
    ..Consequently, infected calves that remain out on pasture should be treated. This will restrain transmission of the parasite despite the fact that immunity is deteriorated...
  15. von Holtum C, Strube C, Schnieder T, von Samson Himmelstjerna G. Development and evaluation of a recombinant antigen-based ELISA for serodiagnosis of cattle lungworm. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:218-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, we conclude that the ELISA using the recombinant MSP-fusion protein appears to be a suitable method for routine diagnosis and epidemiological studies of cattle lungworm...
  16. Holzhauer M, van Schaik G, Saatkamp H, Ploeger H. Lungworm outbreaks in adult dairy cows: estimating economic losses and lessons to be learned. Vet Rec. 2011;169:494 pubmed publisher
    ..One lesson from these outbreaks is that recognising that potentially lungworm-naïve animals are to be introduced into the adult herd allows for timely measures (for example, vaccination) to prevent a lungworm outbreak...
  17. Ranganathan S, Nagaraj S, Hu M, Strube C, Schnieder T, Gasser R. A transcriptomic analysis of the adult stage of the bovine lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparus. BMC Genomics. 2007;8:311 pubmed
    ..In this study, we provide first insights into the transcriptome of the adult stage of D. viviparus through the analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs)...
  18. Goździk K, Engström A, Hoglund J. Optimization of in-house ELISA based on recombinant major sperm protein (rMSP) of Dictyocaulus viviparus for the detection of lungworm infection in cattle. Res Vet Sci. 2012;93:813-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the in-house rMSP-based ELISA optimized in this study showed excellent diagnostic performance for detection of lungworm infection in cattle...
  19. Gånheim C, Hoglund J, Waller K. Acute phase proteins in response to Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in calves. Acta Vet Scand. 2004;45:79-86 pubmed
    ..However, high numbers of eosinophils and low levels of APP do not exclude a diagnosis of lungworm. Thus, lungworm infection may not be detected if measurements of APP are used to assess calf health in herds or individual animals...
  20. Stromberg B, Woodward B, Courtney C, Kunkle W, Johnson E, Zimmerman G, et al. Persistent efficacy of doramectin injectable against artificially induced infections with Cooperia punctata and Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 1999;83:49-54 pubmed
    ..5% efficacious against lungworms for up to 28 days and was 99.8% efficacious in reducing infection resulting from challenge with infective larvae of C. punctata for at least 28 days post-treatment. ..
  21. Charlier J, Ghebretinsae A, Meyns T, Czaplicki G, Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. Antibodies against Dictyocaulus viviparus major sperm protein in bulk tank milk: Association with clinical appearance, herd management and milk production. Vet Parasitol. 2016;232:36-42 pubmed publisher
    ..On the other hand, the test has been potential to detect subclinical production impacts and study risk factors through epidemiological surveys. ..
  22. Hagberg M, Lunden A, Hoglund J, Morrison D, Waller K, Wattrang E. Characterization of bovine lymphocytes stimulated in vitro by Dictyocaulus viviparus homogenate. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:342-53 pubmed publisher
    ..viviparus, but no clear acquired responses could be detected. Overall, this suggests that most T lymphocytes are stimulated by the D. viviparus homogenate rather than any particular lymphocyte subpopulation. ..
  23. Lazari O, Kipar A, Johnson D, Selkirk M, Matthews J. Up-regulated expression of the alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunit on inflammatory infiltrates during Dictyocaulus viviparus infection. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:429-37 pubmed
    ..Recruitment of nAChR-containing leucocytes to the lungs of D. viviparus-infected cattle suggests that these cells may represent possible downstream targets for parasite-secreted acetylcholinesterases. ..
  24. Molan A, Duncan A, Barry T, McNabb W. Effects of condensed tannins and crude sesquiterpene lactones extracted from chicory on the motility of larvae of deer lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes. Parasitol Int. 2003;52:209-18 pubmed
    ..Activity of these secondary compounds explains the reduced parasite problem of young deer grazing chicory. ..
  25. El Seify M, Harfoush M, El Shahawy I. Biological aspects on Dictyocaulus arnfieldi. J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2010;40:395-400 pubmed
    ..The biological data of the different developmental stages were recorded and discussed, where the period required for maturation, hatching and development of 2nd and 3rd stage larvae was 84 hours, general discussion was given...
  26. Jimenez A, Fernandez A, Dolz G, Vargas B, Epe C, Schnieder T. Dictyocaulus viviparus seroprevalence and epidemiology in Costa Rican dairy cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2008;154:294-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The results obtained in this study indicate a high D. viviparus seroprevalence in the analyzed farms and that the factors farm, altitude and life zones were significantly related to lungworm infections...
  27. Henriksen S, Larsen M, Grønvold J, Nansen P, Wolstrup J. Nematode-trapping fungi in biological control of Dictyocaulus viviparus. Acta Vet Scand. 1997;38:175-9 pubmed
    ..The average reduction in larval release, caused by fungal spores, was 86%. ..
  28. Eysker M, van der Aar W, Boersema J, Dop P, Kooyman F. The efficacy of Michel's dose and move system on gastrointestinal nematode infections in diary calves. Vet Parasitol. 1998;75:99-114 pubmed
    ..Nevertheless, it can be concluded that under normal conditions the dose and move system remains to be a valuable and easily applicable system for the control of PGE. ..
  29. Mackintosh C. Dictyocaulus species in red deer. Vet Rec. 2006;159:92; discussion 92 pubmed
  30. Schreurs N, Molan A, Lopez Villalobos N, Barry T, McNabb W. Effects of grazing undrenched weaner deer on chicory or perennial ryegrass/white clover pasture on the viability of gastrointestinal nematodes and lungworms. Vet Rec. 2002;151:348-53 pubmed
  31. Molento M, Depner R, Mello M. Suppressive treatment of abamectin against Dictyocaulus viviparus and the occurrence of resistance in first-grazing-season calves. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:373-6 pubmed
    ..Faecal larval counts determined that none of the compounds used was able to eliminate D. viviparus for up to 28 days after treatment. The "Area Nova" strain was isolated for future work. ..
  32. Acevedo P, Vicente J, Alzaga V, Gortazar C. Relationship between bronchopulmonary nematode larvae and relative abundances of Spanish ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica) from Castilla-La Mancha, Spain. J Helminthol. 2005;79:113-8 pubmed
    ..Bronchopulmonary outputs in the Spanish ibex from Castilla-La Mancha seems not to represent a health risk for this endemic wild ungulate but may be useful in any health surveillance scheme for the increasing populations of Spanish ibex...
  33. Holzhauer M, Ploeger H, Verhoeff J. [Lungworm disease in dairy cattle: symptoms, diagnosis, and pathogenesis on the basis of four case reports]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2003;128:174-8 pubmed
    ..The fourth case led to the conclusion that lungworm infection must have been re-introduced by cows purchased from another farm. ..
  34. Stromberg B, Averbeck G, Anderson J, Woodward B, Cunningham J, Brake A, et al. Comparison of the persistent efficacy of the injectable and pour-on formulations of doramectin against artificially-induced infection with Dictyocaulus viviparus in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 1999;87:45-50 pubmed
    ..0%, 93.1% and 81.5% effective in reducing lungworm infection resulting from challenge infection for up to 28, 35, and 42 days post-treatment, respectively. ..
  35. Kırcalı Sevimli F, Kozan E, Dogan N. Efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on treatment in sheep naturally infected with Dictyocaulus filaria and Cystocaulus ocreatus. J Helminthol. 2011;85:472-5 pubmed publisher
    ..However, the decrease in faecal larval count of C. ocreatus was found to be 86, 86 and 91%, on days 14, 21 and 42, respectively...
  36. Hoglund J. Targeted selective treatment of lungworm infection in an organic dairy herd in Sweden. Vet Parasitol. 2006;138:318-27 pubmed
    ..However, the infection was not eradicated from the herd despite close monitoring of the seroprevalence and targeted selective treatment of every seropositive animal on two occasions. ..
  37. Hoskin S, Wilson P, Charleston W, Barry T. A model for study of lungworm (Dictyocaulus sp.) and gastrointestinal nematode infection in young red deer (Cervus elaphus). Vet Parasitol. 2000;88:199-217 pubmed
    ..Thus, methods of infection to produce concurrent sub-clinical lungworm and GI nematode burdens for study of sub-clinical parasitism in young deer have been defined. ..
  38. McKenna P. Comparative evaluation of two emigration/sedimentation techniques for the recovery of dictyocaulid and protostrongylid larvae from faeces. Vet Parasitol. 1999;80:345-51 pubmed
    ..In addition to its greater sensitivity, it is suggested that the flask method offers advantages over the funnel system both in terms of time-saving and in lessening the likelihood of cross-contamination. ..
  39. Crawshaw W, Smith J. Dictyocaulosis in housed five- to eight-month-old dairy-bred calves. Vet Rec. 2003;153:149-50 pubmed
  40. Schnieder T, Epe C, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Kohlmetz C. The development of protective immunity against gastrointestinal nematode and lungworm infections after use of an ivermectin bolus in first-year grazing calves. Vet Parasitol. 1996;64:239-50 pubmed
    ..In spite of the effective treatment with an ivermectin bolus during the first year a considerable resistance to gastrointestinal nematode and lungworm infection was present in the second grazing season...
  41. Hidalgo Argüello M, Diez Baños N, Rojo Vazquez F. Efficacy of moxidectin 1% injectable and 0.2% oral drench against natural infection by Dictyocaulus filaria in sheep. Vet Parasitol. 2002;107:95-101 pubmed
    ..2% oral drench, administered at 0.2mg/kg b.w., were 100% effective against D. filaria infection in sheep. No adverse reactions to the treatments were observed in the animals. ..
  42. Deger S, Deger Y, Ertekin A, Gül A, Biçek K, Ozdal N. [Determination of the status of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants in cattle infected with Dictyocaulus viviparus]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:234-7 pubmed
    ..Lipid peroxidation was observed and the activities and concentrations of antioxidants systems were decreased in the lungs of cattle infected with Dictyocaulus viviparus. ..
  43. Borji H, Azizzadeh M, Ebrahimi M, Asadpour M. Study on small ruminant lungworms and associated risk factors in northeastern Iran. Asian Pac J Trop Med. 2012;5:853-6 pubmed publisher
    ..05) with prevalence rate of 4.6% and 2.0%, respectively. Due to its impact on production, emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of lungworm infection in this area. ..
  44. Gulland F. The role of nematode parasites in Soay sheep (Ovis aries L.) mortality during a population crash. Parasitology. 1992;105 ( Pt 3):493-503 pubmed
    ..It is suggested that parasites contribute to mortality in malnourished hosts, exacerbating the effects of food shortage. ..
  45. Foreyt W, Hunter D, Cook J, Smith L. Susceptibility of elk to lungworms from cattle. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:729-33 pubmed
    ..Results from this experiment indicated that D. viviparus larvae of cattle origin can mature in elk and larvae can be passed in large numbers in feces, but this cattle isolate of D. viviparus was not highly pathogenic in elk...
  46. Ploeger H, Eysker M. Simulating Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in calves: the parasitic phase. Parasitology. 2000;120 Suppl:S3-15 pubmed
    ..Further experimentation is needed to re-evaluate current model description and to improve model simulation. ..
  47. Laabs E, Schnieder T, Strube C. In vitro studies on the sexual maturation of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus during the development of preadult larvae to adult worms. Parasitol Res. 2012;110:1249-59 pubmed publisher
    ..All in all, the present study gives not only insights into morphological differentiation but provides data lightening molecular aspects of sexual maturation in D. viviparus...
  48. Strube C, Buschbaum S, Schnieder T. Genes of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus associated with transition from pasture to parasitism. Infect Genet Evol. 2012;12:1178-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Obtained data provide the basis for future fundamental research into genes associated with parasitic lifestyle but also applied research like vaccine and/or drug development...
  49. Taylor S, Kenny J, Edgar H, Mallon T, Canavan A. Induction of protective immunity to Dictyocaulus viviparus in calves while under treatment with endectocides. Vet Parasitol. 2000;88:219-28 pubmed
    ..This experiment shows that if calves are exposed to infective larvae while under systemic endectocide cover, an immune reaction is stimulated...
  50. Ploeger H, Holzhauer M, Uiterwijk M, van Engelen E. Comparison of two serum and bulk-tank milk ELISAs for diagnosing natural (sub)clinical Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in dairy cows. Vet Parasitol. 2014;199:50-8 pubmed publisher
    ..3% to the current 41% or the possibly more appropriate 30% increased its sensitivity for detecting lungworm infections, but did not lead to similar sensitivity estimates as found for the NL-BTM ELISA. ..
  51. Hertzberg H, Durgiai B, Kohler L. [Control of gastrointestinal strongylids in first year calves: use of Paratect Flex bolus at late pasture turnout]. Schweiz Arch Tierheilkd. 1992;134:375-80 pubmed
    ..An outbreak of dictyocaulosis was observed in both groups in October and confirmed that the Paratect Flex-Bolus provides insufficient protection against this infection...
  52. Regassa A, Toyeb M, Abebe R, Megersa B, Mekibib B, Mekuria S, et al. Lungworm infection in small ruminants: prevalence and associated risk factors in Dessie and Kombolcha districts, northeastern Ethiopia. Vet Parasitol. 2010;169:144-8 pubmed publisher
    ..This study showed high prevalence of lungworm infections which impairs the productivity of small ruminants, implying the need for control intervention...
  53. Pyziel A, Laskowski Z, Demiaszkiewicz A, Hoglund J. Interrelationships of Dictyocaulus spp. in Wild Ruminants with Morphological Description of Dictyocaulus cervi n. sp. (Nematoda: Trichostrongyloidea) from Red Deer, Cervus elaphus. J Parasitol. 2017;103:506-518 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, our findings further strengthen the idea that the genetic complexity and diversity among Dictyocaulus lungworms infecting wildlife ruminants is larger than previously believed and warrants further investigation. ..
  54. Gasser R, Jabbar A, Mohandas N, H glund J, Hall R, Littlewood D, et al. Assessment of the genetic relationship between Dictyocaulus species from Bos taurus and Cervus elaphus using complete mitochondrial genomic datasets. Parasit Vectors. 2012;5:241 pubmed publisher
    ..viviparus are separate species. Barcodes in the two mt genomes and proteomes should serve as markers for future studies of the population genetics and/or epidemiology of these and related species of Dictyocaulus...
  55. McNulty S, Strube C, Rosa B, Martin J, Tyagi R, Choi Y, et al. Dictyocaulus viviparus genome, variome and transcriptome elucidate lungworm biology and support future intervention. Sci Rep. 2016;6:20316 pubmed publisher
  56. Lat Lat H, Hassan L, Sani R, Sheikh Omar A, Hishamfariz M, Ng V. First report of bovine lungworm disease in South-East Asia. Trop Biomed. 2007;24:77-81 pubmed
    ..viviparus infection may have been introduced into a tropical climate along with consignments of cattle from lungworm endemic areas resulting in fatal disease outbreaks for a few years following the animal's initial introduction...
  57. Kooyman F, Ploeger H, Hoglund J, van Putten J. Differential N-glycan- and protein-directed immune responses in Dictyocaulus viviparus-infected and vaccinated calves. Parasitology. 2007;134:269-79 pubmed
  58. Sharma R, Bhat T. Effect of bronchodilator and intravascular oxygen releaser on the course of Dictyocaulus filaria infection in lambs. Vet Parasitol. 1990;35:147-55 pubmed
    ..However, the blood clotting time and level of lactate dehydrogenase activity remained altered and followed a course typical of ovine dictyocauliosis...
  59. Jackman J, Gibbs H. Studies on the interrelationships between vitamin A intake and Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in calves. Can Vet J. 1968;9:199-209 pubmed
  60. Johnstone P, Mackintosh C, Manly B. Interpreting comparative experiments on parasite burdens in animals using randomization and canonical variates. Vet Parasitol. 1998;75:199-208 pubmed
    ..Randomization testing and canonical variates analysis are advocated as a means of minimising these problems...
  61. Johnson D, Sales J, Matthews J. Local cytokine responses in Dictyocaulus viviparus infection. Vet Parasitol. 2005;128:309-18 pubmed
    ..These observations are important in the development of recombinant vaccines, particularly when considering adjuvant choice...
  62. von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Schnieder T. Morphology of inhibited larvae of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus. J Helminthol. 1999;73:79-83 pubmed
    ..p.i.), respectively. Inhibited 4M, isolated at 68 d.p.i., were about ten times larger than inhibited L4 isolated at 15 d.p.i...
  63. Fernandez A, Larsen M, Nansen P, Grønvold J, Henriksen S, Bjørn H, et al. The efficacy of two isolates of the nematode-trapping fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against Dictyocaulus viviparus larvae in faeces. Vet Parasitol. 1999;85:289-304 pubmed
    ..No differences were found between the fungus-treated and non-treated control pats. This indicated that the rate of degradation of faeces was not affected by the addition of the fungus...
  64. Vercruysse J, Claerebout E. Treatment vs non-treatment of helminth infections in cattle: defining the threshold. Vet Parasitol. 2001;98:195-214 pubmed
    ..Finally, a "preventive threshold" is meant to predict future infection levels, to enable the application of appropriate control measures...
  65. Moazeni M, Khodakaram Jafti A. Verminous pneumonia in a calf caused by Dictyocaulus filaria. Vet Rec. 2007;160:380 pubmed
  66. Borgsteede F, de Leeuw W, vd Burg W. A comparison of the efficacy of four different long-acting boluses to prevent infections with Dictyocaulus viviparus in calves. Vet Q. 1988;10:177-86 pubmed
    ..We concluded that when pastures are heavily infested with lungworm larvae, all boluses prevent severe clinical signs and allow build up of solid immunity, although none completely prevent excretion of larvae...
  67. Kassai T, Takáts C, Fok E, Redl P. Activity of luxabendazole against liver flukes, gastrointestinal roundworms, and lungworms in naturally infected sheep. Parasitol Res. 1988;75:14-8 pubmed
    ..8%-99.6%. The efficacy of luxabendazole compared favorably with that of Diplin Kombi (oxyclozanide and levamisole), which was used as a reference drug...
  68. Ploeger H, Borgsteede F, Sol J, Mirck M, Huyben M, Kooyman F, et al. Cross-sectional serological survey on gastrointestinal and lung nematode infections in first and second-year replacement stock in the netherlands: relation with management practices and use of anthelmintics. Vet Parasitol. 2000;90:285-304 pubmed
    ..It is concluded that the results confirm previous surveys, lending support to the conclusion that parasitic nematode control on Dutch dairy farms, certainly in FGS calves, is good but tends to be overprotective...
  69. Hoskin S, Wilson P, Barry T, Charleston W, Waghorn G. Effect of forage legumes containing condensed tannins on lungworm (Dictyocaulus sp.) and gastrointestinal parasitism in young red deer (Cervus elaphus). Res Vet Sci. 2000;68:223-30 pubmed
    ..Inclusion of sulla in diets for young red deer may reduce the impact of internal parasites and/or reduce the dependence on anthelmintic treatment...
  70. Beldomenico P, Uhart M, Bono M, Marull C, Baldi R, Peralta J. Internal parasites of free-ranging guanacos from Patagonia. Vet Parasitol. 2003;118:71-7 pubmed
    ..Of these, D. filaria and M. expansa possibly reflect interactions with domestic sheep. This is the first time that T. tenuis has been reported in guanacos...
  71. Nashiruddullah N, Darzi M, Mir M, Kamil S, Shahardar R. Recovery of Dictyocaulus species from the lungs of a Kashmir red deer (Cervus elaphus hanglu). Vet Rec. 2005;157:591-2 pubmed
  72. Lat Lat H, Sani R, Hassan L, Sheikh Omar A, Jeyabalan S, Hishammfariz M, et al. Lungworm of cattle in Malaysia. Trop Biomed. 2010;27:236-40 pubmed
    ..Approximately 5% of faecal samples and 1% of lungs were positive for lungworm. Based on the morphology of adult lungworm, eggs and first stage larvae, Malaysian bovine lungworms were D. viviparus...
  73. Cantacessi C, Gasser R, Strube C, Schnieder T, Jex A, Hall R, et al. Deep insights into Dictyocaulus viviparus transcriptomes provides unique prospects for new drug targets and disease intervention. Biotechnol Adv. 2011;29:261-71 pubmed publisher
    ..These advances will underpin the discovery of new drug and/or vaccine targets, focused on biotechnological outcomes...
  74. Hoglund J, Viring S, Törnqvist M. Seroprevalence of Dictyocaulus viviparus in first grazing season calves in Sweden. Vet Parasitol. 2004;125:343-52 pubmed
    ..This result is in contrast to previous findings of lungworms in Sweden, and indicates that the parasite status on organic farms is diverse...
  75. Hoglund J, Engstrom A, Morrison D, Mattsson J. Genetic diversity assessed by amplified fragment length polymorphism analysis of the parasitic nematode Dictyocaulus viviparus the lungworm of cattle. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:475-84 pubmed
    ..It seems likely that lungworm infections are rather persistent on different farms, and the sudden outbreaks of disease that can be observed with host movements are most likely to be related to the introduction of susceptible stock...
  76. Alemu S, Leykun E, Ayelet G, Zeleke A. Study on small ruminant lungworms in northeastern Ethiopia. Vet Parasitol. 2006;142:330-5 pubmed
    ..05) while it was insignificant in case of M. capillaris. Due to its impact on production, emphasis should be given for the control and prevention of lungworm infection in highland areas...
  77. Böhm M, White P, Daniels M, Allcroft D, Munro R, Hutchings M. The health of wild red and sika deer in Scotland: an analysis of key endoparasites and recommendations for monitoring disease. Vet J. 2006;171:287-94 pubmed
  78. Hagberg M, Wattrang E, Niskanen R, Tråvén M, Hoglund J, Lunden A. Mononuclear cell subsets in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid during Dictyocaulus viviparus infection of calves: a potential role for gamma/delta TCR-expressing cells in airway immune responses?. Parasite Immunol. 2005;27:151-61 pubmed
    ..After reinfection, establishment of D. viviparus was less successful than after primary infection. In conclusion, these results indicate a role for gamma/delta TCR-expressing lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of D. viviparus infection...
  79. Strube C, Buschbaum S, von Samson Himmelstjerna G, Schnieder T. Stage-dependent transcriptional changes and characterization of paramyosin of the bovine lungworm Dictyocaulus viviparus. Parasitol Int. 2009;58:334-40 pubmed publisher
    ..Recombinantly expressed DvPmy was found to bind collagen and IgG. Thereby the present study is the first showing that nematode paramyosin has the capability for immunomodulation and thus may be involved in host immune defence...
  80. Bauer B, Pomroy W, Gueydon J, Gannac S, Scott I, Pfister K. Comparison of the FLOTAC technique with the McMaster method and the Baermann technique to determine counts of Dictyocaulus eckerti L1 and strongylid eggs in faeces of red deer (Cervus elaphus). Parasitol Res. 2010;107:555-60 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, magnesium sulphate (sg 1.28) was also reliable for strongylid egg detection with the FLOTAC apparatus...
  81. Bates K, Hansen L, Green S, Wallace D, Green T. Potential for cross-transmission of Dictyocaulus viviparus between cattle and white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis. 2000;36:774-8 pubmed
    ..viviparus in the feces and in the lungs upon necropsy...
  82. Matthews J, Davidson A, Freeman K, French N. Immunisation of cattle with recombinant acetylcholinesterase from Dictyocaulus viviparus and with adult worm ES products. Int J Parasitol. 2001;31:307-17 pubmed
    ..These results suggest that in this form, AChE is not a potential vaccine candidate and that adult ES products, in contrast to previous experiments in guinea pigs, do not contain protective components...
  83. Holmgren S, Hagberg Gustavsson M, Lunden A, Wattrang E. Cytokine mRNA expression in bronchoalveolar lavage cells during Dictyocaulus viviparus infection in calves. Parasite Immunol. 2014;36:78-86 pubmed publisher
    ..viviparus infection. It seems likely that the strong IL-4 response observed during primary infection reflects an innate response to the worms that may initiate an ensuing Th2 response, which confers protective immunity. ..
  84. Veneziano V, Di Loria A, Masucci R, Di Palo R, Brianti E, Gokbulut C. Efficacy of eprinomectin pour-on against Dictyocaulus arnfieldi infection in donkeys (Equus asinus). Vet J. 2011;190:414-5 pubmed publisher
    ..EPM was 100% effective in eliminating faecal larvae from day 7, until the end of study at day 28. No adverse drug-reactions or side-effects were observed in any of the treated donkeys...