Summary: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.

Top Publications

  1. Filkins L, O Toole G. Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infections: Polymicrobial, Complex, and Hard to Treat. PLoS Pathog. 2015;11:e1005258 pubmed publisher
  2. Sinshaw Y, Alemu S, Fekadu A, Gizachew M. Successful TB treatment outcome and its associated factors among TB/HIV co-infected patients attending Gondar University Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia: an institution based cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:132 pubmed publisher
    ..Strengthening collaborative TB/HIV management activities that would trace the identified factors shall be recommended to increase successful treatment outcome of TB. ..
  3. Holmes J, Yu M, Chung R. Hepatitis B reactivation during or after direct acting antiviral therapy - implication for susceptible individuals. Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2017;16:651-672 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanism is unknown. Areas covered: HCV/HBV coinfection is common, particularly in regions endemic for HBV...
  4. Abongomera C, Ritmeijer K, Vogt F, Buyze J, Mekonnen Z, Admassu H, et al. Development and external validation of a clinical prognostic score for death in visceral leishmaniasis patients in a high HIV co-infection burden area in Ethiopia. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178996 pubmed publisher
    ..Implementation of focused strategies could contribute to optimal management and reduction of the case fatality rates. ..
  5. Petrara M, Cattelan A, Sasset L, Freguja R, Carmona F, Sanavia S, et al. Impact of monotherapy on HIV-1 reservoir, immune activation, and co-infection with Epstein-Barr virus. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185128 pubmed publisher
    ..001). Long-term mART is associated with higher levels of T- and B-cell activation and, conversely to cART, does not reduce the size of HIV-1 reservoir and EBV co-infection. ..
  6. Gandhi N, Brust J, Moodley P, Weissman D, Heo M, Ning Y, et al. Minimal diversity of drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2014;20:426-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We conclude that, although Beijing strain was common among drug-susceptible TB, other strains predominated among MDR TB and XDR TB cases. Drug-resistance was a stronger predictor of survival than strain type. ..
  7. Tay S, Badu K, Mensah A, Gbedema S. The prevalence of malaria among HIV seropositive individuals and the impact of the co- infection on their hemoglobin levels. Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2015;14:10 pubmed publisher
    ..0% had knowledge on transmission but only 8.5% use in bed nets. It was revealed that almost all the patients with malaria infection were anemic. ..
  8. Katsube O, Kikkawa Y, Takizawa H, Hase I, Morita H, Nomura Y, et al. [IMPACT OF COEXISTING NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA DURING THE TREATMENT OF PULMONARY TUBERCULOSIS]. Kekkaku. 2015;90:607-12 pubmed
    ..Coexisting NTM observed during treatment for tuberculosis likely results from colonization or contamination and usually has low pathogenicity. However, this finding is related to prolonged hospitalization. ..
  9. Buonora S, dos Santos F, Daumas R, Passos S, da Silva M, de Lima M, et al. Increased sensitivity of NS1 ELISA by heat dissociation in acute dengue 4 cases. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:204 pubmed publisher
    ..7%. Although it is time consuming and requires the use of specific laboratory equipment, NS1 ELISA combined with heat dissociation could be a slightly better alternative for triage in suspected dengue cases. ..

More Information

Publications108 found, 100 shown here

  1. Arif M, Hunter J, Léda A, Zukurov J, Samer S, Camargo M, et al. Pace of Coreceptor Tropism Switch in HIV-1-Infected Individuals after Recent Infection. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, CCR5Δ32 polymorphisms, GB virus C (GBV-C) coinfection, and HLA profiles were also evaluated...
  2. Domercant J, Jean Louis F, Hulland E, Griswold M, Andre Alboth J, Ye T, et al. Seroprevalence of Herpes Simplex Virus type-2 (HSV-2) among pregnant women who participated in a national HIV surveillance activity in Haiti. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:577 pubmed publisher
    ..5, 98.4% had positive Kalon tests. The prevalence of HSV-2 is relatively high among pregnant women in Haiti. Public health interventions to increase access to HSV-2 screening in antenatal services are warranted. ..
  3. Papanicolaou G. Severe influenza and S. aureus pneumonia: for whom the bell tolls?. Virulence. 2013;4:666-8 pubmed publisher
  4. Mazarico E, Gómez Roig M, Miñano J, Cortes L, Gonzalez Bosquet E. Relationship of human papilloma virus multiple genotype infection with patient's age and type of cervical lesion. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2014;35:378-81 pubmed
    ..03). In the present study population the authors found no evidence of higher prevalence of multiple HPV genotype infection in women with carcinoma. Age of women with multiple infection was lower than those with single infection. ..
  5. Arduin H, Domenech de Cellès M, Guillemot D, Watier L, Opatowski L. An agent-based model simulation of influenza interactions at the host level: insight into the influenza-related burden of pneumococcal infections. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:382 pubmed publisher
    ..It provides a unique framework to generate in silico data for different scenarios and thereby test mechanistic hypotheses. ..
  6. Alvaro Meca A, Berenguer J, Diaz A, Micheloud D, Aldamiz Echevarría T, Fanciulli C, et al. Stroke in HIV-infected individuals with and without HCV coinfection in Spain in the combination antiretroviral therapy era. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0179493 pubmed publisher
    ..the combination antiretroviral (cART) era in Spain and to categorize them by the presence or absence of HCV coinfection. We analyzed hospital discharges with a diagnosis of stroke in Spain according to ICD-9-CM during 1997-2013...
  7. Weissenbacher Lang C, Nedorost N, Knecht C, Hennig Pauka I, Hüber M, Voglmayr T, et al. Comparison of Pneumocystis nucleic acid and antibody profiles and their associations with other respiratory pathogens in two Austrian pig herds. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185387 pubmed publisher
    ..Younger pigs may be more susceptible as they had higher PCS burdens. It is possible that PCS may contribute to a respiratory disease in pigs and further investigation of its potential role is warranted. ..
  8. Khatib A, Matiko E, Khalid F, Welty S, Ali A, Othman A, et al. HIV and hepatitis B and C co-infection among people who inject drugs in Zanzibar. BMC Public Health. 2017;17:917 pubmed publisher
  9. Farhana Quyum -, Mashfiqul Hasan -, Ahmed Z. A case of lepromatous leprosy with co-existing tuberculosis verrucosa cutis (TVC). Lepr Rev. 2015;86:176-9 pubmed
    ..Slit skin smear examination from ear lobes, forehead and nodules, and histopathology of the warty lesion, respectively confirmed the diagnoses of leprosy and tuberculosis. ..
  10. Janahi I, Abdulkayoum A, Almeshwesh F, Alkuwari M, Al Hammadi A, Alameri M. Viral aetiology of bronchiolitis in hospitalised children in Qatar. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:139 pubmed publisher
    ..Future studies should investigate the interplay between climate characteristics, population's factors and the most detectable circulating viruses. ..
  11. Al Salama Z, Deeks E. Elbasvir/Grazoprevir: A Review in Chronic HCV Genotypes 1 and 4. Drugs. 2017;77:911-921 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, elbasvir/grazoprevir, with or without ribavirin, represents an effective new option for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV genotype 1 and 4 infection, including a number of difficult-to-treat populations. ..
  12. Franzoso F, Seyffert M, Vogel R, Yakimovich A, de Andrade Pereira B, Meier A, et al. Cell Cycle-Dependent Expression of Adeno-Associated Virus 2 (AAV2) Rep in Coinfections with Herpes Simplex Virus 1 (HSV-1) Gives Rise to a Mosaic of Cells Replicating either AAV2 or HSV-1. J Virol. 2017;91: pubmed publisher
    ..Conversely, low Rep protein levels in G1 phase permit HSV-1 replication but are insufficient for AAV2 replication. This allows both viruses to productively replicate in distinct sets of dividing cells. ..
  13. Realpe Quintero M, Copado Villagrana E, Trujillo Ochoa J, Alvarez A, Panduro A, Fierro N. Cytokine Signatures Discriminate Highly Frequent Acute Hepatitis a Virus and Hepatitis E Virus Coinfections from Monoinfections in Mexican Pediatric Patients. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017;36:689-692 pubmed publisher
    ..Significant overexpression of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-12, IL-13 and interferon-gamma during hepatitis A virus monoinfections and limited secretion of cytokines in hepatitis E virus infections were observed. ..
  14. Lorenzo M, Sánchez Puig J, Blasco R. Vaccinia virus and Cowpox virus are not susceptible to the interferon-induced antiviral protein MxA. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0181459 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, these results point to a lack of susceptibility of the Poxviridae to MxA antiviral activity. ..
  15. Wang H, Anthony D, Yatmaz S, Wijburg O, Satzke C, Levy B, et al. Aspirin-triggered resolvin D1 reduces pneumococcal lung infection and inflammation in a viral and bacterial coinfection pneumonia model. Clin Sci (Lond). 2017;131:2347-2362 pubmed publisher
    ..Here, we evaluated the proresolving actions of aspirin-triggered RvD1 (AT-RvD1) in an acute coinfection pneumonia model...
  16. Tavares A, Fronteira I, Couto I, Machado D, Viveiros M, Abecasis A, et al. HIV and tuberculosis co-infection among migrants in Europe: A systematic review on the prevalence, incidence and mortality. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0185526 pubmed publisher
    ..Adequate social support, early detection, appropriate treatment, and adequate access to healthcare are key improvements to tackle HIV-TB co-infection among these populations. ..
  17. Yap S, Abdullah N, McStea M, Takayama K, Chong M, Crisci E, et al. HIV/Human herpesvirus co-infections: Impact on tryptophan-kynurenine pathway and immune reconstitution. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186000 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, we investigated the seroprevalence of four common HHVs among treated HIV-infected participants and their impact on kynurenine/tryptophan (K/T) ratio and long-term CD4 T-cell recovery in HIV/HHV co-infected participants...
  18. Jiang W, Wu M, Zhou J, Wang Y, Hao C, Ji W, et al. Etiologic spectrum and occurrence of coinfections in children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:787 pubmed publisher
    ..9%), human rhinovirus (HRV) (22.1%), M. pneumoniae (15.8%). Coinfection was identified in 34.6% (293 of 846) of the patients. The majority of these (209 [71...
  19. Garg R, Malhotra H, Gupta A, Kumar N, Jain A. Concurrent dengue virus and Japanese encephalitis virus infection of the brain: is it co-infection or co-detection?. Infection. 2012;40:589-93 pubmed publisher
  20. Drain P, Mayeza L, Bartman P, Hurtado R, Moodley P, Varghese S, et al. Diagnostic accuracy and clinical role of rapid C-reactive protein testing in HIV-infected individuals with presumed tuberculosis in South Africa. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2014;18:20-6 pubmed
    ..Rapid CRP testing helped exclude PTB,and may be a valuable test in assisting nurses and physicians in TB-endemic regions. ..
  21. Peters L, Mocroft A, Lundgren J, Grint D, Kirk O, Rockstroh J. HIV and hepatitis C co-infection in Europe, Israel and Argentina: a EuroSIDA perspective. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14 Suppl 6:S13 pubmed publisher
  22. Martinello M, Hajarizadeh B, Grebely J, Dore G, Matthews G. HCV Cure and Reinfection Among People With HIV/HCV Coinfection and People Who Inject Drugs. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2017;14:110-121 pubmed publisher
    ..among marginalised or "high-risk" populations, including people who inject drugs (PWID) and people with HIV/HCV coinfection. Concern that HCV reinfection may compromise HCV treatment outcomes is sometimes cited as a reason for not ..
  23. Cota G, de Sousa M, de Assis T, Pinto B, Rabello A. Exploring prognosis in chronic relapsing visceral leishmaniasis among HIV-infected patients: Circulating Leishmania DNA. Acta Trop. 2017;172:186-191 pubmed publisher
    ..001). These results reinforce that a negative PCR could be a useful tool to support prophylaxis interruption among patients with CD4 counts above 200cells/mm3 and that a positive PCR suggests imminent VL relapse. ..
  24. Rantshabeng P, Moyo S, Moraka N, Ndlovu A, MacLeod I, Gaseitsiwe S, et al. Prevalence of oncogenic human papillomavirus genotypes in patients diagnosed with anogenital malignancies in Botswana. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:731 pubmed publisher
    ..HPV types detected whereas in HIV-negative patients only HPV 16 was detected. Our study suggests that multivalent vaccines may be more suitable in this setting, especially for HIV-infected individuals. ..
  25. Sileshi B, Deyessa N, Girma B, Melese M, Suarez P. Predictors of mortality among TB-HIV Co-infected patients being treated for tuberculosis in Northwest Ethiopia: a retrospective cohort study. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13:297 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition cotrimoxazol prophylactic therapy remained important factor in reduction of mortality during TB treatment. The study also noted importance of early ART even at higher CD4 counts. ..
  26. Omarjee R, Prat C, Flusin O, Boucau S, Tenebray B, Merle O, et al. Importance of case definition to monitor ongoing outbreak of chikungunya virus on a background of actively circulating dengue virus, St Martin, December 2013 to January 2014. Euro Surveill. 2014;19: pubmed
  27. Zijlstra E. Visceral leishmaniasis: a forgotten epidemic. Arch Dis Child. 2016;101:561-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Control efforts focus on case finding, availability of diagnostic tools, reservoir control and protection from sand flies (insecticides, bed nets). There is no human vaccine. ..
  28. Farfan M, Piemonte P, Labra Y, Henríquez J, Candia E, Torres J. [Filmarray GI TM panel for detection of enteric pathogens in stool samples: preliminary experience]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2016;33:89-91 pubmed publisher
    ..1%) more than one pathogen was found. Describe the experience of using FilmArray GI® panel in stool specimens, which highlights the large number of positive samples for a microorganism and co-detection of enteric pathogens. ..
  29. Gupta V, Kumar M, Bisht D, Kaushik A. Plants in our combating strategies against Mycobacterium tuberculosis: progress made and obstacles met. Pharm Biol. 2017;55:1536-1544 pubmed publisher
    ..This will help in future to shorten the current therapeutic regimens for TB and also for treating HIV-TB co-infection. ..
  30. Moendeg K, Angeles J, Nakao R, Leonardo L, Fontanilla I, Goto Y, et al. Geographic strain differentiation of Schistosoma japonicum in the Philippines using microsatellite markers. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005749 pubmed publisher
    ..Genetic surveillance using microsatellites is therefore important to predict the ongoing gene flow and degree of genetic diversity, which indirectly reflects the success of the control program in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. ..
  31. . KASL Clinical Practice Guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2012;18:109-62 pubmed
    ..This guideline is also intended to provide guidance for the management of patients under the following special circumstances: malignancy, transplantation, dialysis, coinfection with other viruses, pregnancy, and children.
  32. Feleke D, Tarko S, Hadush H. Performance comparison of CareStart™ HRP2/pLDH combo rapid malaria test with light microscopy in north-western Tigray, Ethiopia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:399 pubmed publisher
    ..92. CareStart™ RDT has very good sensitivity and specificity for malaria diagnosis. The test kit also has an excellent agreement with light microscopy. It is therefore useful in resource-limited areas where microscopy is not available. ..
  33. Coffie P, Tchounga B, Bado G, Kabran M, Minta D, Wandeler G, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis B and delta according to HIV-type: a multi-country cross-sectional survey in West Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:466 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, screening for both viruses should be systematically performed to allow a better management of HIV-infected patients. Follow-up studies are necessary to determine the impact of these two viruses on HIV infection. ..
  34. Hidalgo Tenorio C, Ramírez Taboada J, Gil Anguita C, Esquivias J, Omar Mohamed Balgahata M, Sampedro A, et al. Safety and immunogenicity of the quadrivalent human papillomavirus (qHPV) vaccine in HIV-positive Spanish men who have sex with men (MSM). AIDS Res Ther. 2017;14:34 pubmed publisher
    ..Older age was the main protective factor against HR-HPV infection, and non-suppressed HIV viremia was a risk factor. ISRCTN14732216 ( ). ..
  35. Marks M, Jarvis J, Howlett W, Mabey D. Neurosyphilis in Africa: A systematic review. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005880 pubmed publisher
    ..Future well-designed prospective studies are needed to better delineate the incidence and clinical spectrum of neurosyphilis in Africa and to better define interactions with HIV in this setting. ..
  36. Ustero P, Kay A, Ngo K, Golin R, Tsabedze B, Mzileni B, et al. School and household tuberculosis contact investigations in Swaziland: Active TB case finding in a high HIV/TB burden setting. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0178873 pubmed publisher
    ..In comparison, household contact investigations yielded a higher percentage of contacts with positive TB screens and an additional tuberculosis case. ..
  37. Afriyie D, Amponsah S, Dogbey J, Agyekum K, Kesse S, Truter I, et al. A pilot study evaluating the prescribing of ceftriaxone in hospitals in Ghana: findings and implications. Hosp Pract (1995). 2017;45:143-149 pubmed publisher
    ..The appropriateness of ceftriaxone prescribing was high in this leading hospital in Ghana; however, there is room for improvement with targeted education initiatives, with further research planned. ..
  38. Cutland C, Schrag S, Thigpen M, Velaphi S, Wadula J, Adrian P, et al. Increased risk for group B Streptococcus sepsis in young infants exposed to HIV, Soweto, South Africa, 2004-2008(1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:638-45 pubmed publisher
  39. Zhu Y, Wu J, Feng X, Chen H, Lu H, Chen L, et al. Patient characteristics and perceived health status of individuals with HIV and tuberculosis coinfection in Guangxi, China. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e6475 pubmed publisher
    ..Compared with the HIV monoinfected, patients with HIV/TB coinfection were more likely to be older, male, less educated, unemployed, carrying health insurance, having advanced stage ..
  40. Aberra H, Desalegn H, Berhe N, Medhin G, Stene Johansen K, Gundersen S, et al. Early experiences from one of the first treatment programs for chronic hepatitis B in sub-Saharan Africa. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:438 pubmed publisher
    ..However, one quarter of the patients were in need of antiviral treatment, underscoring the need to scale up CHB treatment on the African continent. NCT02344498 ( identifier). Registered 16 January 2015. ..
  41. Yang Y, Cheng W, Zhou Y, Jiang Q. [Impact of HIV/HBV infection and HIV/HBV co-infection on outcomes of pregnancy]. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi. 2017;38:837-840 pubmed publisher ..
  42. Stafford K, Rikhtegaran Tehrani Z, Saadat S, Ebadi M, Redfield R, Sajadi M. Long-term follow-up of elite controllers: Higher risk of complications with HCV coinfection, no association with HIV disease progression. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7348 pubmed publisher
    To estimate the effect of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on the development of complications and progression of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease among HIV-infected elite controllers.Single-center retrospective cohort...
  43. Soriano V, Labarga P, Fernandez Montero J, Mendoza C, Benítez Gutiérrez L, Pena J, et al. Drug interactions in HIV-infected patients treated for hepatitis C. Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol. 2017;13:807-816 pubmed publisher
    ..g., tenofovir and sofosbuvir, respectively) is subject to induction/inhibition of drug transporters (e.g., P-glycoprotein) and requires special attention in patients with renal insufficiency. ..
  44. Pozniak A, Coyne K, Miller R, Lipman M, Freedman A, Ormerod L, et al. British HIV Association guidelines for the treatment of TB/HIV coinfection 2011. HIV Med. 2011;12:517-24 pubmed publisher
  45. Lo Re V, Kallan M, Tate J, Localio A, Lim J, Goetz M, et al. Hepatic decompensation in antiretroviral-treated patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus compared with hepatitis C virus-monoinfected patients: a cohort study. Ann Intern Med. 2014;160:369-79 pubmed publisher
    ..Rates of decompensation were higher for co-infected patients with advanced liver fibrosis, severe anemia, diabetes, and nonblack race. National Institutes of Health. ..
  46. Kwon J, Kim J, Lee J, Kim Y, Sohn C, Lim K, et al. Low utility of blood culture in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia: An observational study on 2705 patients admitted to the emergency department. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017;96:e7028 pubmed publisher
    ..This finding suggests the need to refine the current guidelines for obtaining blood cultures in the ED for pediatric CAP. ..
  47. Falade Nwulia O, Sutcliffe C, Moon J, Chander G, Wansom T, Keruly J, et al. High hepatitis C cure rates among black and nonblack human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults in an urban center. Hepatology. 2017;66:1402-1412 pubmed publisher
    ..C virus (HCV) cure rates have been similar in patients with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection; however, in the ION-4 study, black patients treated with ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) were significantly ..
  48. Blanton L, Alabi N, Mustaquim D, Taylor C, Kniss K, Kramer N, et al. Update: Influenza Activity in the United States During the 2016-17 Season and Composition of the 2017-18 Influenza Vaccine. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66:668-676 pubmed publisher
    ..This report summarizes influenza activity in the United States during October 2, 2016-May 20, 2017 and updates the previous summary (1). ..
  49. Gómez Mora E, Massanella M, Garcia E, Giles D, Bernadó M, Urrea V, et al. Elevated humoral response to cytomegalovirus in HIV-infected individuals with poor CD4+ T-cell immune recovery. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0184433 pubmed publisher
    ..One potential source of immune activation could be coinfection with cytomegalovirus (CMV)...
  50. Ramos J, Leon R, Merino E, Montero M, Aljibe A, Blanes M, et al. Is Visceral Leishmaniasis Different in Immunocompromised Patients Without Human Immunodeficiency Virus? A Comparative, Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Analysis. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1127-1133 pubmed publisher
    ..1% in HIV-positive patients. The features of VL may be different in immunosuppressed patients, with more fever and less hepatomegaly and leukopenia than in HIV-infected patients...
  51. Dumre S, Bhandari R, Shakya G, Shrestha S, Cherif M, Ghimire P, et al. Dengue Virus Serotypes 1 and 2 Responsible for Major Dengue Outbreaks in Nepal: Clinical, Laboratory, and Epidemiological Features. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;97:1062-1069 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a country with recent dengue introduction, like Nepal, urgently requires a systematic surveillance and appropriate control measures in place to respond to any disastrous outbreaks...
  52. Cain K, Varma J. Finding tuberculosis at the first encounter with HIV care: don't miss the opportunity to save a life. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2012;16:1138 pubmed publisher
  53. Dhungana G, Sharma S, Khadga P, Verma S. Surveillance of tuberculosis among HIV infected persons in three different regions of Nepal. Nepal Med Coll J. 2013;15:113-6 pubmed
    ..25). TB case detection rate by cultural technique was found to be twice as superior as direct microscopy. It can be concluded that smear negative TB constitute the significant proportion of TB cases in HIV infected persons. ..
  54. Pai N. Multiplexed point-of-care assays for HIV and co-infections for resource constrained settings: a perspective. Future Microbiol. 2015;10:1393-6 pubmed publisher
  55. Greenaway C, Azoulay L, Allard R, Cox J, Tran V, Abou Chakra C, et al. A population-based study of chronic hepatitis C in immigrants and non-immigrants in Quebec, Canada. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:140 pubmed publisher
  56. Linke Serinsöz E, Fend F, Quintanilla Martinez L. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) related lymphomas, pathology view point. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2017;34:352-363 pubmed publisher
  57. Uemura H, Tsukada K, Mizushima D, Aoki T, Watanabe K, Kinai E, et al. Interferon-free therapy with direct acting antivirals for HCV/HIV-1 co-infected Japanese patients with inherited bleeding disorders. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0186255 pubmed publisher
    ..While several studies have reported the high efficacy and safety of direct acting antivirals (DAA) in HIV-1 co-infected patients, such data are limited in hemophiliacs...
  58. . KASL clinical practice guidelines: management of hepatitis C. Clin Mol Hepatol. 2016;22:76-139 pubmed publisher
  59. Musarurwa C, Zijenah L, Duri D, Mateveke Dangaiso K, Mhandire K, Chipiti M, et al. Association of high serum vitamin D concentrations with active pulmonary TB in an HIV co-endemic setting, Harare, Zimbabwe. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:142 pubmed publisher
  60. Carballo A, Murillo R, Jakubowska A, Herrero S, Williams T, Caballero P. Co-infection with iflaviruses influences the insecticidal properties of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus occlusion bodies: Implications for the production and biosecurity of baculovirus insecticides. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0177301 pubmed publisher
  61. Morawski B, Yunus M, Kerukadho E, Turyasingura G, Barbra L, Ojok A, et al. Hookworm infection is associated with decreased CD4+ T cell counts in HIV-infected adult Ugandans. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:e0005634 pubmed publisher
    ..Elucidating the relationship between hookworm infection and immune recovery could provide opportunities for health optimization, e.g. integrated deworming, in these vulnerable populations. ..
  62. Chen N, Liu Z, Shie S, Chen T, Wu T. Clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A outbreak in Taiwan, 2015-2016: observations from a tertiary medical center. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:441 pubmed publisher
    ..the clinical significance of acute hepatitis A in the MSM population, where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection is common. There was a higher prevalence of reported MSM (p < 0.001), HIV (p < 0...
  63. Weatherhead J, Cortés A, Sandoval C, Vaca M, Chico M, Loor S, et al. Comparison of Cytokine Responses in Ecuadorian Children Infected with Giardia, Ascaris, or Both Parasites. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2017;96:1394-1399 pubmed publisher
    ..A total of 39 patients were evaluated. Children with coinfection had a significant decrease in Th1 cytokine production, interleukin 2 (IL-2) (P < 0...
  64. Raut C, Rao N, Sinha D, Hanumaiah H, Manjunatha M. Chikungunya, dengue, and malaria co-infection after travel to Nigeria, India. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:908-9 pubmed publisher
  65. Medland N, Chow E, Bradshaw C, Read T, Sasadeusz J, Fairley C. Predictors and incidence of sexually transmitted Hepatitis C virus infection in HIV positive men who have sex with men. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:185 pubmed publisher
    ..Rising syphilis incidence may offset declines in HCV transmission through HCV treatment as prevention. ..
  66. Steinau M, Gorbach P, Gratzer B, Braxton J, Kerndt P, Crosby R, et al. Concordance Between Anal and Oral Human Papillomavirus Infections Among Young Men Who have Sex With Men. J Infect Dis. 2017;215:1832-1835 pubmed publisher
    ..HIV and smoking were associated with higher prevalence at both sites and frequency of concordant types. Coinfections of identical HPV types were rare, suggesting independent infection events and/or different modes of clearance. ..
  67. Lowen A. Constraints, Drivers, and Implications of Influenza A Virus Reassortment. Annu Rev Virol. 2017;4:105-121 pubmed publisher
    ..consider the constraints and drivers acting on influenza A virus reassortment, including the likelihood of coinfection at the host and cellular levels, mixing and assembly of heterologous gene segments within coinfected cells, and ..
  68. Gadia C, Manirakiza A, Tekpa G, Konamna X, Vickos U, Nakoune E. Identification of pathogens for differential diagnosis of fever with jaundice in the Central African Republic: a retrospective assessment, 2008-2010. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:735 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-infection with at least two of these pathogens was also found. These findings suggest that a systematic investigation should be undertaken of infectious agents that cause febrile jaundice in the CAR. ..
  69. Carrillo Hernández M, Ruiz Saenz J, Villamizar L, Gómez Rangel S, Martínez Gutierrez M. Co-circulation and simultaneous co-infection of dengue, chikungunya, and zika viruses in patients with febrile syndrome at the Colombian-Venezuelan border. BMC Infect Dis. 2018;18:61 pubmed publisher
  70. Hoa N, Chieu T, Do Dung S, Long N, Hieu T, Luc N, et al. Streptococcus suis and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome, Vietnam. Emerg Infect Dis. 2013;19:331-3 pubmed publisher
  71. Kouyos R, Rauch A, Braun D, Yang W, Böni J, Yerly S, et al. Higher risk of incident hepatitis C virus coinfection among men who have sex with men, in whom the HIV genetic bottleneck at transmission was wide. J Infect Dis. 2014;210:1555-61 pubmed publisher
    ..the association between the genetic bottleneck of HIV at transmission and the prevalence and incidence of HCV coinfection in HIV-infected MSM from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)...
  72. Tempia S, Walaza S, Viboud C, Cohen A, Madhi S, Venter M, et al. Deaths associated with respiratory syncytial and influenza viruses among persons ?5 years of age in HIV-prevalent area, South Africa, 1998-2009(1). Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:600-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Surveillance for RSV should be strengthened to clarify the public health implications and severity of illness associated with RSV infection in South Africa. ..
  73. Yang L, He Z, Huang X, Liu H, Tao J. Prevalence of human papillomavirus and the correlation of HPV infection with cervical disease in Weihai, China. Eur J Gynaecol Oncol. 2015;36:73-7 pubmed
    ..The prevalence of HPV was higher in young people. The most common HPV genotype was 16, followed by 52 and 58. HR HPV is the most probable infection factor for cervical diseases. ..
  74. Moser W, Coulibaly J, Ali S, Ame S, Amour A, Yapi R, et al. Efficacy and safety of tribendimidine, tribendimidine plus ivermectin, tribendimidine plus oxantel pamoate, and albendazole plus oxantel pamoate against hookworm and concomitant soil-transmitted helminth infections in Tanzania and Côte d'Ivoire: a ra. Lancet Infect Dis. 2017;17:1162-1171 pubmed publisher
    ..Swiss National Science Foundation. ..
  75. Gervasoni C, Riva A, Impagnatiello C, Galli M, Cattaneo D. Is chewed raltegravir an option to care for HIV-infected patients with active tuberculosis?. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;57:480-1 pubmed publisher
  76. Venturini E, Turkova A, Chiappini E, Galli L, de Martino M, Thorne C. Tuberculosis and HIV co-infection in children. BMC Infect Dis. 2014;14 Suppl 1:S5 pubmed publisher
    ..The mechanisms promoting susceptibility of people with HIV to tuberculosis disease are incompletely understood, being likely caused by multifactorial processes. ..
  77. Chanda Kapata P, Kapata N, Klinkenberg E, Grobusch M, Cobelens F. The prevalence of HIV among adults with pulmonary TB at a population level in Zambia. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:236 pubmed publisher
    ..However; the TB/HIV co-infection was higher in areas with higher TB prevalence. Innovative and effective strategies for ensuring TB/HIV co-infected individuals are detected and treated early are required. ..
  78. Osei E, Der J, Owusu R, Kofie P, Axame W. The burden of HIV on Tuberculosis patients in the Volta region of Ghana from 2012 to 2015: implication for Tuberculosis control. BMC Infect Dis. 2017;17:504 pubmed publisher
    ..Findings also demonstrate that HIV co-infection affects TB treatment outcomes adversely. Strengthening the TB/HIV collaborative efforts is required in order to reduce the burden of co-infection in patients. ..
  79. Vaddadi K, Gandikota C, Jain P, Prasad V, Venkataramana M. Co-circulation and co-infections of all dengue virus serotypes in Hyderabad, India 2014. Epidemiol Infect. 2017;145:2563-2574 pubmed publisher
    ..Phylogenetically, all four strains of the present study showed close relatedness to the strains, which are reported to be high virulent...
  80. Zhu Y, Qi X, Cui L, Zhou M, Wang H. Human co-infection with novel avian influenza A H7N9 and influenza A H3N2 viruses in Jiangsu province, China. Lancet. 2013;381:2134 pubmed publisher
  81. Daftary A, Calzavara L, Padayatchi N. The contrasting cultures of HIV and tuberculosis care. AIDS. 2015;29:1-4 pubmed publisher
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  83. Kempker R, Kipiani M, Mirtskhulava V, Tukvadze N, Magee M, Blumberg H. Acquired Drug Resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Poor Outcomes among Patients with Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis. Emerg Infect Dis. 2015;21:992-1001 pubmed publisher
    ..36%; p<0.01). Acquired resistance occurs commonly among patients with MDR TB and impedes successful treatment outcomes. ..
  84. Achkar J, Cortes L, Croteau P, Yanofsky C, Mentinova M, Rajotte I, et al. Host Protein Biomarkers Identify Active Tuberculosis in HIV Uninfected and Co-infected Individuals. EBioMedicine. 2015;2:1160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..96 for HIV(-) TB, 0.95 for HIV(+) TB). These results warrant validation in larger studies but provide promise that host protein biomarkers could be the basis for a rapid, blood-based test for TB. ..
  85. Couto I, Victória M, Veloso V, Rodrigues L, Grinsztejn B, Lacerda M, et al. Prevalence and predictors for compensated Advanced Chronic Liver Disease (c-ACLD) in patients with chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus (HDV) infection. PLoS ONE. 2017;12:e0174453 pubmed publisher
    ..Patients with hepatitis C coinfection, liver transplantation or presence of conditions that limit liver (LSM) or spleen stiffness measurement (SSM) ..
  86. Fu Y, Wang B, Zhang Q, Xu D, Lin D, Yang X, et al. Combined effects of Chinese medicine feed and ginger extract bath on co-infection of Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Dactylogyrus ctenopharyngodonid in grass carp. Parasitol Res. 2017;116:2017-2025 pubmed publisher
    ..multifiliis and D. ctenopharyngodonid, then the two parasites were eliminated by oral administration of the medicated feed with an immunostimulant (Chinese medicine compound). ..
  87. Conrad C, Bradley H, Broz D, Buddha S, Chapman E, Galang R, et al. Community Outbreak of HIV Infection Linked to Injection Drug Use of Oxymorphone--Indiana, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2015;64:443-4 pubmed
  88. Tsui C, Kong E, Jabra Rizk M. Pathogenesis of Candida albicans biofilm. Pathog Dis. 2016;74:ftw018 pubmed
    ..Further, the classes of antifungal agents used to combat these resilient infections are discussed along with mechanisms of drug resistance. ..
  89. Chen M, Al Hatmi A, Chen Y, Ying Y, Fang W, Xu J, et al. Cryptococcosis and tuberculosis co-infection in mainland China. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2016;5:e98 pubmed publisher
  90. Wuerthner V, Hua J, Hoverman J. The benefits of coinfection: trematodes alter disease outcomes associated with virus infection. J Anim Ecol. 2017;86:921-931 pubmed publisher
    ..we examined the influence of coinfection on disease outcomes...
  91. Krishnamurti U, Unger E. Pathobiology of human papillomaviruses in human immunodeficiency virus - Infected persons. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2017;34:364-370 pubmed publisher
    ..In this review we will briefly explain the pathobiology of HPV in HIV-infected persons and the potential impact of secondary (screening) and primary (vaccination) prevention to reduce HPV-associated disease in those infected with HIV. ..
  92. de Miranda B, de Sá K, da Silva A, Feitosa R, Cayres Vallinoto I, Ishak R, et al. GBV-C/HIV-1 coinfection is associated with low HIV-1 viral load and high CD4+ T lymphocyte count. Arch Virol. 2017;162:3431-3438 pubmed publisher
    ..A cross-sectional study was established to determine the possible effect of HIV-1/GBV-C coinfection on HIV-1 viral load and CD4+ T lymphocyte counts...