central nervous system protozoal infections

Summary

Summary: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges by single celled organisms of the former subkingdom known as protozoa. The central nervous system may be the primary or secondary site of protozoal infection. These diseases may occur as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS or arise in immunocompetent hosts.

Top Publications

  1. Kennedy P. Animal models of human African trypanosomiasis--very useful or too far removed?. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2007;101:1061-2 pubmed
  2. Kennedy P. Diagnostic and neuropathogenesis issues in human African trypanosomiasis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:505-12 pubmed
  3. Heggie T. Swimming with death: Naegleria fowleri infections in recreational waters. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2010;8:201-6 pubmed publisher
    ..With the intent of creating awareness among travel medicine practitioners and the tourism industry, this review focuses on the presenting features of N. fowleri and PAM and offers insight into the prevention and treatment of the disease...
  4. Yagi S, Booton G, Visvesvara G, Schuster F. Detection of Balamuthia mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene DNA in clinical specimens by PCR. J Clin Microbiol. 2005;43:3192-7 pubmed
    ..2 ameba per reaction mixture. A single Balamuthia ameba contains multiple mitochondrial targets; thus, 0.2 ameba represents multiple targets for amplification and is not equivalent to 0.2 of an ameba as a target...
  5. Kristensson K, Nygård M, Bertini G, Bentivoglio M. African trypanosome infections of the nervous system: parasite entry and effects on sleep and synaptic functions. Prog Neurobiol. 2010;91:152-71 pubmed publisher
    ..This raises challenging issues on the effects of cytokines on synaptic functions potentially involved in sleep-wakefulness alterations...
  6. Jayasekera S, Sissons J, Tucker J, Rogers C, Nolder D, Warhurst D, et al. Post-mortem culture of Balamuthia mandrillaris from the brain and cerebrospinal fluid of a case of granulomatous amoebic meningoencephalitis, using human brain microvascular endothelial cells. J Med Microbiol. 2004;53:1007-12 pubmed
    ..The role of HBMECs in understanding the interactions of B. mandrillaris with the blood-brain barrier is discussed...
  7. Foreman O, Sykes J, Ball L, Yang N, de Cock H. Disseminated infection with Balamuthia mandrillaris in a dog. Vet Pathol. 2004;41:506-10 pubmed
    ..Trophozoite and cystic forms of the amoeba were evident within the kidneys and brain parenchyma. This is the first report on a B. mandrillaris infection in a dog...
  8. Rodgers J. Trypanosomiasis and the brain. Parasitology. 2010;137:1995-2006 pubmed publisher
  9. De Jonckheere J. Origin and evolution of the worldwide distributed pathogenic amoeboflagellate Naegleria fowleri. Infect Genet Evol. 2011;11:1520-8 pubmed publisher
    ..There is no evidence of virulence differences between the types of N. fowleri. Two other Naegleria spp. are pathogenic for mice, but human infections due to these two other Naegleria spp. are not known...

More Information

Publications95

  1. Siddiqui R, Emes R, Elsheikha H, Khan N. Area 51: How do Acanthamoeba invade the central nervous system?. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Both molecules should provide excellent opportunities as potential targets in the rational development of therapeutic interventions against Acanthamoeba encephalitis...
  2. Nikolskaia O, Kim Y, Kovbasnjuk O, Kim K, Grab D. Entry of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense into microvascular endothelial cells of the human blood-brain barrier. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:513-9 pubmed
    ..This process may provide an additional transcellular route by which the parasites cross the blood-brain barrier...
  3. Sissons J, Kim K, Stins M, Jayasekera S, Alsam S, Khan N. Acanthamoeba castellanii induces host cell death via a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent mechanism. Infect Immun. 2005;73:2704-8 pubmed
    ..This is the first demonstration that Acanthamoeba-mediated brain microvascular endothelial cell death is dependent on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase...
  4. Okuda D, Hanna H, Coons S, Bodensteiner J. Naegleria fowleri hemorrhagic meningoencephalitis: report of two fatalities in children. J Child Neurol. 2004;19:231-3 pubmed
    ..Histopathologic and immunochemistry analysis of brain tissue revealed the presence of Naegleria trophozoites in both cases...
  5. Kennedy P. Human African trypanosomiasis of the CNS: current issues and challenges. J Clin Invest. 2004;113:496-504 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the issues of diagnosis and staging of CNS disease, its neuropathogenesis, and the possibility of new therapies for treating late-stage disease...
  6. Yoder J, Straif Bourgeois S, Roy S, Moore T, Visvesvara G, Ratard R, et al. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis deaths associated with sinus irrigation using contaminated tap water. Clin Infect Dis. 2012;55:e79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..fowleri-containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and N. fowleri migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In 2011, 2 adults died in Louisiana hospitals of infectious meningoencephalitis after brief illnesses...
  7. Schuster F, Dunnebacke T, Booton G, Yagi S, Kohlmeier C, Glaser C, et al. Environmental isolation of Balamuthia mandrillaris associated with a case of amebic encephalitis. J Clin Microbiol. 2003;41:3175-80 pubmed
    ..The environmental isolate is similar in its antimicrobial sensitivities and identical in its 16S ribosomal DNA sequences to the Balamuthia isolate from the deceased patient...
  8. Hainard A, Tiberti N, Robin X, Ngoyi D, Matovu E, Enyaru J, et al. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 are powerful staging markers for human African trypanosomiasis. Trop Med Int Health. 2011;16:119-26 pubmed publisher
  9. Kim J, Lee S, Sohn H, Lee J, Chwae Y, Park S, et al. The immune response induced by DNA vaccine expressing nfa1 gene against Naegleria fowleri. Parasitol Res. 2012;111:2377-84 pubmed publisher
    ..fowleri infection. Furthermore, these results suggest that nfal vaccination may be an effective method for treatment of N. fowleri infection...
  10. Li Q, Yang X, Qian J. September 2004: a 6-year-old girl with headache and stiff neck. Brain Pathol. 2005;15:93-5 pubmed
    ..Amebic infection should be included in the differential diagnosis of any granulomatous lesion in CNS; and careful search for amebic parasites should be carried out especially when necrosis predominates in the pathological material. ..
  11. Mätz Rensing K, Kunze M, Zöller M, Roos C, Kiderlen A, Ludwig C, et al. Fatal Balamuthia mandrillaris infection in a gorilla - first case of balamuthiasis in Germany. J Med Primatol. 2011;40:437-40 pubmed publisher
    ..A 12-year-old female western lowland gorilla died in a zoological garden in Germany after exhibiting general neurological signs...
  12. Pusterla N, Wilson W, Conrad P, Mapes S, Leutenegger C. Comparative analysis of cytokine gene expression in cerebrospinal fluid of horses without neurologic signs or with selected neurologic disorders. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67:1433-7 pubmed
  13. Walochnik J, Wylezich C, Michel R. The genus Sappinia: history, phylogeny and medical relevance. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:4-13 pubmed publisher
    ..In 2001, Gelman and colleagues reported a case of severe encephalitis in a non-immunocompromised young man caused by Sappinia. ..
  14. Chimelli L. Co-infection of HIV and tropical infectious agents that affect the nervous system. Rev Neurol (Paris). 2012;168:270-82 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews some of the key diagnostic aspects of tropical infections associated with HIV infection. ..
  15. Matthews J, Brown A, Larison K, Bishop Stewart J, Rogers P, Kent M. Pseudoloma neurophilia n. g., n. sp., a new microsporidium from the central nervous system of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2001;48:227-33 pubmed
    ..1% similarity and therefore this microsporidium can be considered a distinct genus and species, which we have named Pseudoloma neurophilia n. g., n. sp...
  16. Leon Sarmiento F, Prada D, Bayona Prieto J, Valderrama V, Garcia I, León M, et al. [Neurological effects of American trypanosomyiasis: clinical aspects]. Biomedica. 2003;23:462-75 pubmed
    ..Neurological pathologies poses a serious threat in Colombia due to the prevalence of Chagas disease. ..
  17. Sundar N, Asmundsson I, Thomas N, Samuel M, Dubey J, Rosenthal B. Modest genetic differentiation among North American populations of Sarcocystis neurona may reflect expansion in its geographic range. Vet Parasitol. 2008;152:8-15 pubmed publisher
    ..Moreover, our study confirms that diverse intermediate hosts share a common infection source, the opossum (Didelphis virginiana)...
  18. Khan N. Acanthamoeba invasion of the central nervous system. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:131-8 pubmed
    ..Recent studies have identified several molecular mechanisms associated with Acanthamoeba traversal of the blood-brain barrier and targeting those may help develop therapeutic interventions and/or design preventative strategies...
  19. Chevrier C, Canini F, Darsaud A, Cespuglio R, Buguet A, Bourdon L. Clinical assessment of the entry into neurological state in rat experimental African trypanosomiasis. Acta Trop. 2005;95:33-9 pubmed
    ..The entry into the second stage is marked by the occurrence of the first access, BW follow-up being essential and often sufficient its determination. ..
  20. Nijjar S, Del Bigio M. Cerebral trypanosomiasis in an incarcerated man. CMAJ. 2007;176:448 pubmed
  21. Courtioux B, Pervieux L, Vatunga G, Marin B, Josenando T, Jauberteau Marchan M, et al. Increased CXCL-13 levels in human African trypanosomiasis meningo-encephalitis. Trop Med Int Health. 2009;14:529-34 pubmed publisher
    ..To determine the role of the B-cell attracting chemokine CXCL-13, which may initiate B-cell trafficking and IgM production in diagnosing HAT meningo-encephalitis...
  22. Morley P, Traub Dargatz J, Benedict K, Saville W, Voelker L, Wagner B. Risk factors for owner-reported occurrence of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis in the US equine population. J Vet Intern Med. 2008;22:616-29 pubmed publisher
    ..Because the risk of EPM occurrence on operations is closely tied to factors that impact exposure to opossums, their feces, and their environment, controlling these exposures may be important in preventing the occurrence of EPM. ..
  23. Cervantes Sandoval I, de Serrano Luna J, Tapia Malagón J, Pacheco Yepez J, Silva Olivares A, Galindo Gómez S, et al. Characterization of Naegleria fowleri strains isolated from human cases of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis in Mexico. Rev Invest Clin. 2007;59:342-7 pubmed
    ..fowleri. The need for better epidemiological information and educational programs about basic clinical and pathological aspects of free-living amoebae provided by the health authorities are emphasized. ..
  24. Ranjan R, Handa A, Choudhary A, Kumar S. Acanthamoeba infection in an interhemispheric ependymal cyst: a case report. Surg Neurol. 2009;72:185-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The aggressive chemotherapy is the only hope for favorable outcome. The dilemmas associated with the diagnosis and treatment are further discussed. ..
  25. Naqi R, Azeemuddin M. Naeglaeria infection of the central nervous system, CT scan findings: a case series. J Pak Med Assoc. 2013;63:399-402 pubmed
    ..However, no definite focal enhancing lesion was noted. In the rest of the cases, no abnormal parenchymal or meningeal enhancement was seen on post-contrast images. ..
  26. Carrasco Yepez M, Rojas Hernandez S, Rodriguez Monroy M, Terrazas L, Moreno Fierros L. Protection against Naegleria fowleri infection in mice immunized with Cry1Ac plus amoebic lysates is dependent on the STAT6 Th2 response. Parasite Immunol. 2010;32:664-70 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings suggest that the STAT6-signalling pathway is critical for defence against N. fowleri infection...
  27. Tung M, Hsu B, Tao C, Lin W, Tsai H, Ji D, et al. Identification and significance of Naegleria fowleri isolated from the hot spring which related to the first primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) patient in Taiwan. Int J Parasitol. 2013;43:691-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, amoebic contamination may present a serious threat to the health of humans who engage in leisure activities at thermal springs...
  28. Lapointe J, Duignan P, Barr B, Petrich A, Macpherson D, Gulland F, et al. Meningoencephalitis associated with an unidentified apicomplexan protozoan in a Pacific harbor seal. J Parasitol. 2003;89:859-62 pubmed
    ..Polymerase chain reaction on brain tissue using specific primers did not amplify T. gondii deoxyribonucleic acid. The meningoencephalitis in this seal thus appears to have been caused by a novel protozoan. ..
  29. Siddiqui R, Ali I, Cope J, Khan N. Biology and pathogenesis of Naegleria fowleri. Acta Trop. 2016;164:375-394 pubmed publisher
    ..Accordingly, we present an up to date review of the biology and pathogenesis of N. fowleri and discuss needs for future research against this fatal infection. ..
  30. Behets J, Seghi F, Declerck P, Verelst L, Duvivier L, Van Damme A, et al. Detection of Naegleria spp. and Naegleria fowleri: a comparison of flagellation tests, ELISA and PCR. Water Sci Technol. 2003;47:117-22 pubmed
    ..fowleri tests is recommended for routine screening. The heterogeneous distribution of the false negative results between the different power plants suggested the presence of different genotypes. ..
  31. Simioli F, Sánchez Cunto M, Velazquez E, Lloveras S, Orduña T. [Chagas disease in the central nervous system in patient infected with HIV: diagnostic and therapeutic difficulties]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2017;34:62-66 pubmed publisher
  32. Naessens J. Bovine trypanotolerance: A natural ability to prevent severe anaemia and haemophagocytic syndrome?. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:521-8 pubmed
    ..Identification of the molecular pathways that lead to anaemia and haemophagocytosis should allow us to design new strategies to control disease. ..
  33. Qvarnstrom Y, Nerad T, Visvesvara G. Characterization of a new pathogenic Acanthamoeba Species, A. byersi n. sp., isolated from a human with fatal amoebic encephalitis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2013;60:626-33 pubmed publisher
    ..sp. as well as a new sequence type, T18, for this new strain. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a Group 1 Acanthamoeba that is indisputably pathogenic in humans. ..
  34. Sissons J, Alsam S, Goldsworthy G, Lightfoot M, Jarroll E, Khan N. Identification and properties of proteases from an Acanthamoeba isolate capable of producing granulomatous encephalitis. BMC Microbiol. 2006;6:42 pubmed
    ..Overall, these data suggest that Acanthamoeba proteases digest ECM, which may play crucial role(s) in invasion of the brain tissue by amoebae. ..
  35. Kim J, Jung S, Lee Y, Song K, Kwon D, Kim K, et al. Effect of therapeutic chemical agents in vitro and on experimental meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008;52:4010-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B. ..
  36. Cohen V, Ceballos V, Rodriguez N, Gonzalez C, Marciano B, Dackiewicz N, et al. [Chagas' disease as a cause of cerebral mass in a patient with lymphoblastic leukemia in remission]. Arch Argent Pediatr. 2010;108:134-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The patient was treated with benznidazole, with good response to therapy: a significant clinical improvement and mass reduction were observed, within the first month of treatment. ..
  37. Madarová L, Trnková K, Feiková S, Klement C, Obernauerova M. A real-time PCR diagnostic method for detection of Naegleria fowleri. Exp Parasitol. 2010;126:37-41 pubmed publisher
    ..The reaction detection limit was 1 copy of the Mp2Cl5 DNA sequence. This assay could become useful in the rapid laboratory diagnostic assessment of the presence or absence of Naegleria fowleri. ..
  38. Mortazavi P, Goldsworthy G, Kirk R, Khan N. Novel model for the in vivo study of central nervous system infection due to Acanthamoeba spp. (T4 genotype). J Med Microbiol. 2009;58:503-8 pubmed publisher
    ..These findings support the view that locusts can be used as a model for the study of Acanthamoeba pathogenesis in vivo...
  39. Doyle J, Campbell E, Fuller A, Spelman D, Cameron R, Malham G, et al. Balamuthia mandrillaris brain abscess successfully treated with complete surgical excision and prolonged combination antimicrobial therapy. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:458-62 pubmed publisher
    ..It illustrates the risk of dissemination from cutaneous to cerebral amoebic lesions, potential progression with corticosteroid therapy, and the prospect for curative excision...
  40. Lages Silva E, Ramirez L, Silva Vergara M, Chiari E. Chagasic meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: diagnosis, follow-up, and genetic characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi. Clin Infect Dis. 2002;34:118-23 pubmed
    ..Characterization of T. cruzi, directly and indirectly in blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstrated homogeneity of kinetoplast DNA and the presence of lineage 1 (T. cruzi II) in both parasite populations. ..
  41. Chavez Munguia B, Villatoro L, Omaña Molina M, Rodriguez Monroy M, Segovia Gamboa N, Martinez Palomo A. Naegleria fowleri: contact-dependent secretion of electrondense granules (EDG). Exp Parasitol. 2014;142:1-6 pubmed publisher
    ..SDS-PAGE assays of concentrated supernatants of these trophozoites, containing EDG, revealed proteolytic activities. These results suggest that EDG may have a clear role in the cytopathic mechanisms of this pathogenic amoeba. ..
  42. Wiwanitkit V. Review of clinical presentations in Thai patients with primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. MedGenMed. 2004;6:2 pubmed
    ..Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) is a very rare but deadly infection of the central nervous system. Since the disease was first identified in 1965, fewer than 200 cases have been observed worldwide...
  43. Jung S, Schelper R, Visvesvara G, Chang H. Balamuthia mandrillaris meningoencephalitis in an immunocompetent patient: an unusual clinical course and a favorable outcome. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2004;128:466-8 pubmed
    ..We present this case with unusual clinical course to raise awareness of this infectious disease, which may have a more favorable outcome if diagnosed and treated in its early states...
  44. Debnath A, Tunac J, Galindo Gómez S, Silva Olivares A, Shibayama M, McKerrow J. Corifungin, a new drug lead against Naegleria, identified from a high-throughput screen. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012;56:5450-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The same dose of amphotericin B did not reduce ameba growth, and mouse survival was compromised. Based on these results, the U.S. FDA has approved orphan drug status for corifungin for the treatment of PAM...
  45. Vanhecke C, Guevart E, Ezzedine K, Receveur M, Jamonneau V, Bucheton B, et al. [Human African trypanosomiasis in mangrove epidemiologic area. Presentation, diagnosis and treatment in Guinea, 2005-2007]. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2010;58:110-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Gambiense human African trypanosomiasis is still assumed to be endemic in many part of West Africa, particularly in Guinea coastal area with mangrove swamp. Diagnosis is usually made during active medical screening or by passive initiative...
  46. Goswick S, Brenner G. Activities of azithromycin and amphotericin B against Naegleria fowleri in vitro and in a mouse model of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003;47:524-8 pubmed
    ..We conclude that azithromycin has both in vitro and in vivo activity versus N. fowleri and may be a useful addition to therapy for primary amebic meningoencephalitis...
  47. Courtioux B, Boda C, Vatunga G, Pervieux L, Josenando T, M Eyi P, et al. A link between chemokine levels and disease severity in human African trypanosomiasis. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:1057-65 pubmed
    ..These cytokines and chemokines may be triggered by the parasite and hence are potential markers of CNS invasion...
  48. Bando Y, Takahashi T, Uehara H, Kagegi T, Nagahiro S, Izumi K. Autopsy case of amebic granulomatous meningoencephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris in Japan. Pathol Int. 2012;62:418-23 pubmed publisher
    ..Increased awareness and timely diagnosis of Balamuthia encephalitis might lead to earlier initiation of therapy and improved outcome...
  49. Hara T, Fukuma T. Diagnosis of the primary amoebic meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Parasitol Int. 2005;54:219-21 pubmed
    ..The infecting agent was identified as N. fowleri based on morphologic, serologic and molecular techniques carried out on the isolated organisms...
  50. Visvesvara G, Sriram R, Qvarnstrom Y, Bandyopadhyay K, da Silva A, Pieniazek N, et al. Paravahlkampfia francinae n. sp. masquerading as an agent of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2009;56:357-66 pubmed publisher
    ..francinae showed that they were distinct from those of other Paravahlkampfia species. The patient recovered within a few days indicating that some of the previously reported cases of PAM that survived may have been due to P. francinae...
  51. Ozcelik S, Coşkun K, Yünlü O, Alim A, Malatyali E. The prevalence, isolation and morphotyping of potentially pathogenic free-living amoebae from tap water and environmental water sources in Sivas. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2012;36:198-203 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of FLA from tap water and natural water sources in different parts of the city...
  52. Fukuma T. [Amebic meningoencephalitis]. Brain Nerve. 2009;61:115-21 pubmed
    ..Further, most recently, Sappinia diploidea has been identified as an agent that causes comparatively acute type of encephalitis...
  53. Caruzo G, Cardozo J. Primary amoebic meningoencephalitis: a new case from Venezuela. Trop Doct. 2008;38:256-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Six of these reports originated in Venezuela. The authors describe a new spontaneous case of PAM in a 33-year-old previously healthy Western-Venezuelan man...
  54. Furr M, Pontzer C. Transforming growth factor beta concentrations and interferon gamma responses in cerebrospinal fluid of horses with equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Equine Vet J. 2001;33:721-5 pubmed
    ..These findings confirm the immunomodulatory properties of CSF and suggest new techniques for future research regarding the pathophysiology of EPM...
  55. Hogge C, Campbell M, Johnson K. A new species of myxozoan (Myxosporea) from the brain and spinal cord of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Idaho. J Parasitol. 2008;94:218-22 pubmed publisher
    ..cerebralis, histological examination shows no host response to M. neurotropus n. sp. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is included as an aid in properly identifying the species...
  56. Brofman P, Knostman K, DiBartola S. Granulomatous amebic meningoencephalitis causing the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone in a dog. J Vet Intern Med. 2003;17:230-4 pubmed
  57. Goswick S, Brenner G. Activities of therapeutic agents against Naegleria fowleri in vitro and in a mouse model of primary amebic meningoencephalitis. J Parasitol. 2003;89:837-42 pubmed
    ..Further studies are needed to ascertain whether these agents have synergistic activity with AMB in vitro and in vivo...
  58. Castillo R, Garza J, Shamszadeh M, Reiff A, Marzan K. Acanthamoeba meningoencephalitis presenting as neuropsychiatric lupus in a pediatric patient. Clin Exp Rheumatol. 2012;30:272-6 pubmed
    ..Acanthamoeba infections have only been reported in a small handful of patients and, to our knowledge, this is the first reported case in the United States...
  59. Gerhold R, Howerth E, Lindsay D. Sarcocystis neurona-associated meningoencephalitis and description of intramuscular sarcocysts in a fisher (Martes pennanti). J Wildl Dis. 2005;41:224-30 pubmed
    ..neurona by PCR, but were morphologically similar to previous light and electron microscopy descriptions of S. neurona. This is the first report of clinical neural S. neurona infection in a fisher...
  60. Duarte P, Ebel E, Traub Dargatz J, Wilson W, Conrad P, Gardner I. Indirect fluorescent antibody testing of cerebrospinal fluid for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis. Am J Vet Res. 2006;67:869-76 pubmed
    ..To assess the use of CSF testing with an indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) for diagnosis of equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) caused by Sarcocystis neurona...
  61. Lopez C, Budge P, Chen J, Bilyeu S, Mirza A, Custodio H, et al. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis: a case report and literature review. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2012;28:272-6 pubmed publisher
    ..fowleri infection of the central nervous system...
  62. Thapa R, Patra V, Kundu R. Plasmodium vivax cerebral malaria. Indian Pediatr. 2007;44:433-4 pubmed
    ..Both cases were treated with artesunate. Rarely, cerebral malaria is a presenting complication or occurs during the course of P. vivax infection...
  63. Melo G, Marcondes M, Machado G. Canine cerebral leishmaniasis: potential role of matrix metalloproteinase-2 in the development of neurological disease. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;148:260-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Both MMP-2 and MMP-9 are known to target critical constituents of the BBB, and once activated, they may promote cerebral barrier breakdown, allowing the entrance of inflammatory cells and proteins within the nervous system milieu...
  64. Bennett W, Nespral J, Rosson M, McEvoy K. Use of organs for transplantation from a donor with primary meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri. Am J Transplant. 2008;8:1334-5 pubmed publisher
    ..fowleri infection. Kidneys, pancreas, a lung and liver were used with no evidence of posttransplant infectious complications. This unusual cause of brain death does not preclude successful organ donation...
  65. Akpek G, Uslu A, Huebner T, Taner A, Rapoport A, Gojo I, et al. Granulomatous amebic encephalitis: an under-recognized cause of infectious mortality after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Transpl Infect Dis. 2011;13:366-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Prolonged corticosteroid use and a recent exposure to unhygienic water are potential risk factors for GAE. Successful outcomes may be achieved with early intensive treatment using a combination of effective drugs...
  66. Enanga B, Burchmore R, Stewart M, Barrett M. Sleeping sickness and the brain. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2002;59:845-58 pubmed
  67. Velho V, Sharma G, Palande D. Cerebrospinal acanthamebic granulomas. Case report. J Neurosurg. 2003;99:572-4 pubmed
    ..Acanthamebic granulomas can cause severe infections in healthy patients as well as in sick ones. This disease should be considered in the differential diagnosis when treating infective granulomas of the CNS...
  68. Rodgers J, Stone T, Barrett M, Bradley B, Kennedy P. Kynurenine pathway inhibition reduces central nervous system inflammation in a model of human African trypanosomiasis. Brain. 2009;132:1259-67 pubmed publisher
  69. Lemos K, Marques L, Aquino L, Alessi A, Zacarias R. Astrocytic and microglial response and histopathological changes in the brain of horses with experimental chronic Trypanosoma evansi infection. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 2008;50:243-9 pubmed
    ..The characteristic gliosis observed in the animals in this experiment suggests the ability of these cells as mediators of immune response. The parasite, T. evansi, was not identified in the nervous tissues...
  70. Khan N. Acanthamoeba: biology and increasing importance in human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2006;30:564-95 pubmed
  71. Mutreja D, Jalpota Y, Madan R, Tewari V. Disseminated acanthamoeba infection in a renal transplant recipient: a case report. Indian J Pathol Microbiol. 2007;50:346-8 pubmed
    ..Both lungs and pancreas also showed infiltration with Acanthamoeba...
  72. Thomas N, Dubey J, Lindsay D, Cole R, Meteyer C. Protozoal meningoencephalitis in sea otters (Enhydra lutris): a histopathological and immunohistochemical study of naturally occurring cases. J Comp Pathol. 2007;137:102-21 pubmed
    ..neurona encephalitis, supporting the conclusion that S. neurona is the most significant protozoal pathogen in the central nervous system of sea otters...
  73. Oddó B D, Ciani A S, Vial C P. [Granulomatous amebic encephalitis caused by Balamuthia mandrillaris. First case diagnosed in Chile]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2006;23:232-6 pubmed
    ..The morphologic elements correspond to the disease described as granulomatous amebic encephalitis and the agent found was identified as Balamuthia mandrillaris (Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA )...
  74. Fica A, Salinas M, Jercic M, Dabanch J, Soto A, Quintanilla S, et al. [Chagas disease affecting the central nervous system in a patient with AIDS demonstrated by quantitative molecular methods]. Rev Chilena Infectol. 2017;34:69-76 pubmed publisher
    ..Diagnosis can be confirmed by molecular test in CSF samples, including new quantitative methods. Despite an adverse prognosis, specific therapy can be attempted besides antiretroviral treatment...
  75. Shakoor S, Beg M, Mahmood S, Bandea R, Sriram R, Noman F, et al. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis caused by Naegleria fowleri, Karachi, Pakistan. Emerg Infect Dis. 2011;17:258-61 pubmed publisher
    ..An increase in primary amebic meningoencephalitis cases may be attributed to rising temperatures, reduced levels of chlorine in potable water, or deteriorating water distribution systems...
  76. Kelley G, Zagmutt Vergara F, Leutenegger C, Myklebust K, Adkison M, McDowell T, et al. Evaluation of five diagnostic methods for the detection and quantification of Myxobolus cerebralis. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:202-11 pubmed
  77. Pace A, Edwards S, Weatherby S. A new clinical variant of the post-malaria neurological syndrome. J Neurol Sci. 2013;334:183-5 pubmed publisher
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