central nervous system parasitic infections


Summary: Infections of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges caused by parasites.

Top Publications

  1. Shahlaie K, Hawk M, Hu B, Theis J, Kim K. Parasitic central nervous system infections: echinococcus and schistosoma. Rev Neurol Dis. 2005;2:176-85 pubmed
    ..Ongoing advancements in neuroimaging and diagnostic studies, as well as efforts to better understand the parasite genome and host-parasite relationships, will likely continue to improve patient management...
  2. Hughes A, Biggs B. Parasitic worms of the central nervous system: an Australian perspective. Intern Med J. 2002;32:541-53 pubmed
    ..Specific risk factors that predispose to these infections are also discussed and particular attention is drawn to the situation in Australia...
  3. Turkoglu O, Solaroglu I, Tun K, Beskonakli E, Taskin Y. Secondary infection of intracranial hydatid cyst with Clostridium ramosum. Childs Nerv Syst. 2005;21:1004-7 pubmed
    ..Brain involvement in hydatid disease occurs in 1-2% of all Echinococcus granulosus infections. Secondary infection of intracranial hydatid cysts is extremely rare...
  4. Stauffer W, Magill A, Kain K. Parasitic central nervous system infections in immunocompromised hosts: clarification of malaria diagnosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2006;43:114-5; author reply 115-6 pubmed
  5. Llanes E, Stibal A, Muhlethaler K, Vajtai I, Hausler R, Caversaccio M. Echinococcosis presenting as an otogenic brain abscess: an unusual lesion of the middle ear cleft and temporal lobe. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008;35:115-20 pubmed
    ..Evacuation of the brain abscess was performed with a combined otolaryngologic and neurosurgical procedures (canal wall-down mastoidectomy and temporal craniotomy). The pathology turned out to be infestation with Echinococcus granulosus...
  6. Lichtenbergová L, Lassmann H, Jones M, Kolarova L, Horak P. Trichobilharzia regenti: host immune response in the pathogenesis of neuroinfection in mice. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:328-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Immunoreactivity of the parasite intestinal content for specific antigens of oligodendrocytes/myelin and neurofilaments showed for the first time that schistosomula ingest the nervous tissue components during their migration...
  7. Wyman M, Starkey R, Weisbrode S, Filko D, Grandstaff R, Ferrebee E. Ophthalmomyiasis (interna posterior) of the posterior segment and central nervous system myiasis: Cuterebra spp. in a cat. Vet Ophthalmol. 2005;8:77-80 pubmed
    ..The larva was demonstrated by histopathology with coagulation necrosis and hemorrhage of the optic nerve, retina and choroid, and anterior uveitis. No significant cerebrum and anterior brain stem lesions were found. ..
  8. Senturk S, Oguz K, Soylemezoglu F, Inci S. Cerebral alveolar echinoccosis mimicking primary brain tumor. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:420-2 pubmed
    ..Perfusion-weighted MR imaging revealed low relative cerebral blood volume within the calcified lesion and peripheral hyperemia. Single-voxel proton MR spectroscopy with an echo time of 135 milliseconds was normal. ..
  9. Frost L. Dental management of the tropical disease human African trypanosomiasis: an unusual case of pseudobulbar palsy. Br Dent J. 2011;210:13-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Changes in disease demographics require the dental profession to increase its awareness of migration medicine and the appropriate dental management of such diseases...

More Information


  1. Singh N, Husain S. Infections of the central nervous system in transplant recipients. Transpl Infect Dis. 2000;2:101-11 pubmed
  2. Rumboldt Z, Thurnher M, Gupta R. Central nervous system infections. Semin Roentgenol. 2007;42:62-91 pubmed
  3. Asri F, Tazi I, Maaroufi K, El Moudden A, Ghannane H, Ait Benali S. [Cerebral hydatic cyst and psychiatric disorders. Two cases]. Encephale. 2007;33:216-9 pubmed
    ..We are conscious of the methodological difficulties that present these 2 cases but there are unfortunately due to the financial difficulties of our patients. ..
  4. Qvarnstrom Y, da Silva A, Schuster F, Gelman B, Visvesvara G. Molecular confirmation of Sappinia pedata as a causative agent of amoebic encephalitis. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:1139-42 pubmed publisher
    ..The results illustrate the potential for other free-living amoebae, which are not normally associated with human disease, to cause occasional infections...
  5. Al Shamahy H. Seroprevalence of Helicobacter pylori among children in Sana'a, Yemen. Ann Saudi Med. 2005;25:299-303 pubmed
    ..A possible way of eliminating H. pylori from the population would be via public health measures, i.e. preventing the reuse of plastic jerry cans, and improving sanitation and the standard of living. ..
  6. Muszyńska A, Zajkowska J, Łebkowski W, Pawlak Zalewska W, Łebkowska U, Pancewicz S. [Neuroradiologic imaging results suggestive of parasitic cysts in central nervous system in course of neoplastic disorders--cases report]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2009;26:645-8 pubmed
  7. Nouira Y, Binous M, Nouira K, Mekni A, Kallel Y, Fitouri Z, et al. Intraprostatic hydatid cyst: an unusual presentation. ScientificWorldJournal. 2006;6:2315-8 pubmed
    ..Postoperative course was uneventful and follow-up did not show evidence of recurrence. This is the first case of hydatid cyst of the prostate to present as an intraprostatic stone pouch. ..
  8. Iyigun O, Uysal S, Sancak R, Hokelek M, Uyar Y, Bernay F, et al. Multiple organ involvement hydatid cysts in a 2-year-old boy. J Trop Pediatr. 2004;50:374-6 pubmed
    ..We suggest that a differential diagnosis of hydatid cyst should be considered when a brain mass is found in a patient, even 2 years old, from an endemic area of echinococcosis. ..
  9. Soumare M, Seydi M, Diop S, Ndour C, Faye N, Fall N, et al. [Parasitic and fungal neuroinfections at the Infectious Diseases Clinic in Fann Teaching Hospital in Dakar]. Mali Med. 2009;24:31-4 pubmed
    ..These results give evidence of the frequency and the gravity of the adult's cerebral malaria in Dakar, but also the growing place of the neuromeningeal cryptococcosis in the neuromeningeal opportunist pathology of HIV positive patients. ..
  10. Yin C, Shi Y. [Investigation of inpatient cases of food-borne parasitic encephalopathy]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2002;20:177-9 pubmed
    ..6% (3/115), and angiostrongyliasis cantonensis and gnathostomiasis 0.9% (1/115) each. 13.9% (16/115) of the patients were hospitalized for three times or more. More attention should be paid to food-borne parasitic encephalopathy. ..
  11. Silva G, Nagib P, Chiari E, Van Rooijen N, Machado C, Camargos E. Peripheral macrophage depletion reduces central nervous system parasitism and damage in Trypanosoma cruzi-infected suckling rats. J Neuroimmunol. 2004;149:50-8 pubmed
    ..Occludin immunoreactivity remained as in uninfected animals. Our results indicate a role for blood-born macrophages in both parasite invasion and brain reaction. Microglia activation cannot be discarded. ..
  12. Marx C, Lin J, Masruha M, Rodrigues M, da Rocha A, Vilanova L, et al. Toxocariasis of the CNS simulating acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Neurology. 2007;69:806-7 pubmed
  13. Taghipour M, Saffarrian A, Ghaffarpasand F, Azarpira N. Dumbbell-Shape Hydatid Cyst of Meckel Cave Extending to Cerebellopontine Angle and Middle Fossa; Surgical Technique and Outcome of Rare Case. World Neurosurg. 2017;104:1049.e7-1049.e10 pubmed publisher
    ..Needle aspiration along with dissection of the cyst microsurgically is recommended in similar cases. ..
  14. Lv S, Zhang Y, Steinmann P, Zhou X, Utzinger J. Helminth infections of the central nervous system occurring in Southeast Asia and the Far East. Adv Parasitol. 2010;72:351-408 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, risk factors, and research needs for enhanced patient management and population-based control measures are discussed. ..
  15. Miklossy J. Alzheimer's disease - a neurospirochetosis. Analysis of the evidence following Koch's and Hill's criteria. J Neuroinflammation. 2011;8:90 pubmed publisher
    ..Spirochetal infection occurs years or decades before the manifestation of dementia. As adequate antibiotic and anti-inflammatory therapies are available, as in syphilis, one might prevent and eradicate dementia. ..
  16. Helbok R, Broessner G, Pfausler B, Schmutzhard E. Chronic meningitis. J Neurol. 2009;256:168-75 pubmed publisher
    ..However, most patients with idiopathic chronic meningitis have a relatively good outcome. ..
  17. Marin B, Boussinesq M, Druet Cabanac M, Kamgno J, Bouteille B, Preux P. Onchocerciasis-related epilepsy? Prospects at a time of uncertainty. Trends Parasitol. 2006;22:17-20 pubmed
    ..volvulus strains; (iii) immunological mechanisms involving cross-reactive immunization or cytokine production during infection; and (iv) the triggering role of insomnia due to itching. ..
  18. DeSanto J, Ross J. Spine infection/inflammation. Radiol Clin North Am. 2011;49:105-27 pubmed publisher
    ..Subsequently, several infectious pathogenic agents are discussed individually as they affect the spinal column and its contents. ..
  19. Mahi M, Amil T, Chaouir S, Hanine A, Benameur M. [Imaging of a historical case of vertebral hydatidosis]. J Neuroradiol. 2001;28:244-8 pubmed
    ..Radiological, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in a case of spinal hydatidosis are reported. ..
  20. Siddiqui R, Pleass R, Mortazavi P, Khan N. Non-vertebrate models to study parasite invasion of the central nervous system. Trends Parasitol. 2011;27:5-10 pubmed publisher
    ..Improving our knowledge of these core processes might elevate the efficiency of therapy of diseases caused by them. ..
  21. Pizzolato G, Janzer R. [Inflammatory and infectious manifestations of the nervous system]. Rev Med Suisse Romande. 1999;119:799-804 pubmed
    ..We will review recent progress in our knowledge about transmissible spongiformes encephalopathies and AIDS-associated lesions, and briefly discuss cerebral vasculitis, granulomatous diseases and the most frequent infections by parasites...
  22. Kiderlen A, Laube U. Balamuthia mandrillaris, an opportunistic agent of granulomatous amebic encephalitis, infects the brain via the olfactory nerve pathway. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:49-52 pubmed
    ..A similar invasion pathway has been described for N. fowleri. The data suggest that the olfactory nerve pathway is a likely route for natural infection of the brain by B. mandrillaris amebae...
  23. Deng L, Xiong P, Qian S. Diagnosis and stereotactic aspiration treatment of cerebral sparganosis: summary of 11 cases. J Neurosurg. 2011;114:1421-5 pubmed publisher
  24. Chacko G. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Semin Diagn Pathol. 2010;27:167-85 pubmed
    ..In this review of the pathology of parasitic infections that affect the CNS, each parasite is discussed in the sequence of epidemiology, life cycle, pathogenesis, and pathology. ..
  25. Gana R, Skhissi M, Maaqili R, Bellakhdar F. Multiple infected cerebral hydatid cysts. J Clin Neurosci. 2008;15:591-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of surgery is to remove the cyst unruptured and this should be followed by antihelminthic and antibiotic treatment in order to avoid recurrences...
  26. Benzagmout M, Maaroufi M, Chakour K, Chaoui M. Atypical radiological findings in cerebral hydatid disease. Neurosciences (Riyadh). 2011;16:263-6 pubmed
    ..An MRI was helpful in the diagnosis of the 2 cases. Both patients underwent successful surgery with a good outcome. The hydatid nature of the cyst was confirmed by histology in both cases...
  27. Wang S, Yang F, Huang Y, Shi G, Weng X. [Clinical analysis of 78 cases of parasitic encephalopathy]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2009;27:245-8 pubmed
    ..To investigate the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, therapeutic approaches and outcomes of parasitic encephalopathy...
  28. Elsheikha H, Khan N. Protozoa traversal of the blood-brain barrier to invade the central nervous system. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 2010;34:532-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Advances in understanding the molecular pathways will offer opportunities for the rational development of novel therapeutic interventions...
  29. Rumana M, Mahadevan A, Nayil Khurshid M, Kovoor J, Yasha T, Santosh V, et al. Cestode parasitic infestation: intracranial and spinal hydatid disease--a clinicopathological study of 29 cases from South India. Clin Neuropathol. 2006;25:98-104 pubmed
    ..None of the cases had anaphylactic reaction, with no significant post-operative morbidity and no mortality. One intracranial and 2 spinal lesions caused by fertile cysts recurred to undergo repeated surgery...
  30. Kitis O, Calli C, Yunten N. Report of diffusion-weighted MRI in two cases with different cerebral hydatid disease. Acta Radiol. 2004;45:85-7 pubmed
    ..To present MRI findings in two cases of cerebral hydatid disease with an emphasis on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings of Echinococcus granulosus (EG) versus Echinococcus alveolaris (EA)...
  31. Akgoz A, Mukundan S, Lee T. Imaging of rickettsial, spirochetal, and parasitic infections. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2012;22:633-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Being familiar with clinical presentation and imaging findings of these infections is crucial for early diagnosis and treatment especially in patients who live in or have a travel history to endemic regions or are immunocompromised...
  32. Pittella J. Pathology of CNS parasitic infections. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:65-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Some infections may be present as an expanding mass lesion. The parasites can be identified by conventional histology, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and PCR...
  33. Thanaviratananich S, Thanaviratananich S, Ngamjarus C. Corticosteroids for parasitic eosinophilic meningitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;10:CD009088 pubmed publisher
    ..cantonensis) is the major cause of infectious eosinophilic meningitis. Dead larvae of this parasite cause inflammation and exacerbate symptoms of meningitis. Corticosteroids are drugs used to reduce inflammation caused by this parasite...
  34. Patankar T, Krishnan A, Prasad S, Goel A. Isolated cerebral hydatid cysts: a comparative study of two different types of presentations. J Assoc Physicians India. 1999;47:805-8 pubmed
    ..To demonstrate the existence of two imaging patterns of cerebral hydatidosis and discuss its clinical importance...
  35. Das K, Gosal J, Singh S, Mehrotra A, Jaiswal A, Jaiswal S, et al. Solitary Cysticercal Cyst Inside the Blake's Pouch Remnant of Mega Cisterna Magna with Associated Aqueductal Stenosis: Clinical and Management Implications. World Neurosurg. 2017;102:693.e1-693.e5 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical scenario presented here has not been described previously. Endoscopic cyst removal in such a situation is an effective and low-risk procedure that obviates the further need for antihelminthic medications. ..
  36. Del Brutto O. [Cerebrovascular disease in the tropics]. Rev Neurol. 2001;33:750-62 pubmed
    ..To review the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and therapy of diseases causing cerebrovascular disease (CVD) in the tropics...
  37. Jayakumar P, Chandrashekar H, Ellika S. Imaging of parasitic infections of the central nervous system. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:37-64 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, it is possible to demonstrate the complications of the primary infection and those secondary to treatment, in some cases. ..
  38. Guney O, Ozturk K, Kocaogullar Y, Eser O, Acar O. Submandibular and intracranial hydatid cyst in an adolescent. Laryngoscope. 2002;112:1857-60 pubmed
    ..Review of the pertinent literature did not reveal any hydatid disease located simultaneously in both the intracranial and submandibular glands. This is the first case with hydatid disease occurring in both locations at the same time...
  39. Kranick S, Nath A. Neurologic complications of HIV-1 infection and its treatment in the era of antiretroviral therapy. Continuum (Minneap Minn). 2012;18:1319-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Additionally, as successful virologic control has extended the life span of patients with HIV infection, neurologists are called upon to manage long-term complications, such as neurocognitive disorders and peripheral neuropathy...
  40. Choo J, Suh B, Lee H, Lee J, Song C, Shin D, et al. Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis combined with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2003;69:466-9 pubmed
    ..Overall, this case was diagnosed as chronic cerebral paragonimiasis, in which she may have been infected through the contamination of utensils during the preparation of the second intermediate hosts, combined with a cerebral hemorrhage...
  41. Beskonakli E, Solaroglu I, Tun K, Albayrak L. Primary intracranial hydatid cyst in the interpeduncular cistern. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2005;147:781-3; discussion 783 pubmed
    ..In this report, a case of 33-year-old male with primary intracranial hydatid cyst in the interpeduncular cistern is reported. This is the first such case in the literature...
  42. Berger J, Sabet A. Infectious myelopathies. Semin Neurol. 2002;22:133-42 pubmed
    ..This review addresses the infectious myelopathies by microorganism...
  43. Kocaman S, Ersahin Y, Mutluer S. Cerebral hydatid cysts in children. J Neurosci Nurs. 1999;31:270-7 pubmed
    ..Hydatid disease can also be seen in Western countries because of travel and migration. Cerebral hydatid cyst should be kept in mind for the differential diagnosis of cystic lesions...
  44. Carpio A, Romo M, Parkhouse R, Short B, Dua T. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system: lessons for clinicians and policy makers. Expert Rev Neurother. 2016;16:401-14 pubmed publisher
    ..We herein provide an overview of these parasitic diseases and summarize clinical aspects, diagnosis, therapeutic strategies and recent milestones, and aspects related to prevention and control. ..
  45. Kovoor J, Thomas R, Chandrashekhar H, Jayakumar P, Pillai S, Shankar S. Neurohydatidosis. Australas Radiol. 2007;51:406-11 pubmed
    ..Early and non-invasive evaluation of hydatid infestation of brain and spine is of paramount importance, especially in endemic areas. We present a spectrum of imaging findings in neurohydatidosis with a brief review of literature...
  46. Imai K, Koibuchi T, Kumagai T, Maeda T, Osada Y, Ohta N, et al. Cerebral schistosomiasis due to Schistosoma haematobium confirmed by PCR analysis of brain specimen. J Clin Microbiol. 2011;49:3703-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Although serum antibody tests showed a cross-reaction with other helminths and no ova were excreted in urine or feces, the existence of Schistosoma haematobium in the brain was confirmed by PCR analysis...
  47. Choukri M, Bertal A, Lakhdar A, Achouri M, Ouboukhlik A, El Kamar A, et al. [Calcified cerebral hydatid cyst. Report of a case]. J Neuroradiol. 2001;28:261-3 pubmed
    ..The evolution has been favourable with improvement of the left hemiparesis. The calcified hydatid cyst of brain is still exceptional, its symptomatology is the same as the safe CHC, but it poses some diagnostic and therapeutic problems...
  48. Melamede R. Parasitic brain infection, endocannabinoids, and schizophrenia. Med Hypotheses. 2009;72:220-2 pubmed publisher
  49. Schmutzhard E, Helbok R. Rickettsiae, protozoa, and opisthokonta/metazoa. Handb Clin Neurol. 2014;121:1403-43 pubmed publisher
  50. Mullins M. Emergent neuroimaging of intracranial infection/inflammation. Radiol Clin North Am. 2011;49:47-62 pubmed publisher
    ..This article reviews some of the salient factors in understanding intracranial infection/ inflammation, including pathophysiology and neuroimaging protocols/findings, and provides some examples and a few "pearls and pitfalls."..
  51. Bellil S, Limaiem F, Bellil K, Chelly I, Mekni A, Haouet S, et al. [Descriptive epidemiology of extrapulmonary hydatid cysts: a report of 265 Tunisian cases]. Tunis Med. 2009;87:123-6 pubmed
    ..Hydatidosis is a parasitic endemic disease in Tunisia. The liver and lung are the most common sites of involvement; however, it can develop anywhere in the body...
  52. Finsterer J, Auer H. Parasitoses of the human central nervous system. J Helminthol. 2013;87:257-70 pubmed publisher
    ..g. Angiostrongylus costaricensis) or whether they remain undetected or asymptomatic, like 25% of neurocysticerciasis cases. ..
  53. Sun R, Wu Z. [The immunopathology mechanisms of matrix metalloproteinases in brain infection induced by parasites]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2010;28:468-73 pubmed
    ..This article reviews function and pathological mechanism of MMP during the infection of relevant parasites involving brain...
  54. Thawley V, Suran J, Boller E. Presumptive central nervous system cuterebriasis and concurrent protein-losing nephropathy in a dog. J Vet Emerg Crit Care (San Antonio). 2013;23:335-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe the clinical course and successful management of a dog suspected to have central nervous system (CNS) Cuterebra larval migration and concurrent protein-losing nephropathy (PLN)...
  55. Abdel Razek A, Watcharakorn A, Castillo M. Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2011;21:815-41, viii pubmed publisher
    ..Combining imaging findings with geographic prevalence, clinical history, and serologic tests is required for diagnosis of parasitic diseases of the central nervous system...
  56. Allen A, Goupil B, Valentine B. A retrospective study of spinal cord lesions in goats submitted to 3 veterinary diagnostic laboratories. Can Vet J. 2012;53:639-42 pubmed
  57. Tunaci M, Tunaci A, Engin G, Ozkorkmaz B, Ahishali B, Rozanes I. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis. Neuroradiology. 1999;41:844-6 pubmed
    ..We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava...
  58. Altinors N, Bavbek M, Caner H, Erdogan B. Central nervous system hydatidosis in Turkey: a cooperative study and literature survey analysis of 458 cases. J Neurosurg. 2000;93:1-8 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to analyze central nervous system (CNS) involvement in this disease, the related problems the disease causes, and its diagnostic and therapeutic aspects...
  59. Kristensson K, Mhlanga J, Bentivoglio M. Parasites and the brain: neuroinvasion, immunopathogenesis and neuronal dysfunctions. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 2002;265:227-57 pubmed
  60. Elzi L, Decker M, Battegay M, Rutishauser J, Blum J. Chest pain after travel to the tropics. Lancet. 2004;363:1198 pubmed
  61. Bosman A, Oosthuizen M, Venter E, Steyl J, Gous T, Penzhorn B. Babesia lengau associated with cerebral and haemolytic babesiosis in two domestic cats. Parasit Vectors. 2013;6:128 pubmed publisher
    ..Babesia lengau, recently described from asymptomatic cheetahs, has now possibly been incriminated as the causative agent in two severe clinical cases in domestic cats...
  62. Stoppini L, Buchs P, Brun R, Muller D, Duport S, Parisi L, et al. Infection of organotypic slice cultures from rat central nervous tissue with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Int J Med Microbiol. 2000;290:105-13 pubmed
    ..Secondly, it provides, to the best of our knowledge, the first in vitro demonstration of intracellular forms of African trypanosomes...
  63. Kaw G, Sitoh Y. Clinics in diagnostic imaging (58). Chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. Singapore Med J. 2001;42:89-91 pubmed
    ..CT scan confirmed the presence of large calcified nodules in the corresponding regions. These imaging findings were typical of chronic cerebral paragonimiasis. The clinical, CT and MR features of cerebral paragonimiasis are reviewed...
  64. Knezevic K, Turkulov V, Canak G, Lalosevic V, Tomic S. [Neurotrichinosis]. Med Pregl. 2001;54:483-5 pubmed
    ..Central nervous system complications can occur during the course of this disease. This paper presents a case of neurotrichinellosis, assayed by using indirect immunofluorescence test...
  65. Vonlaufen N, Gianinazzi C, Muller N, Simon F, Björkman C, Jungi T, et al. Infection of organotypic slice cultures from rat central nervous tissue with Neospora caninum: an alternative approach to study host-parasite interactions. Int J Parasitol. 2002;32:533-42 pubmed
    ..caninum within the context of neuronal tissue, which at the same time can be modulated and influenced under controlled conditions, and will be useful in the future to gain more information on the cerebral phase of neosporosis...
  66. Wilkins P. Immunodiagnosis of CNS parasitic infections. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:23-36 pubmed publisher
    ..In some instances potential new antigens or methods are presented, particularly if adoption of these methods is expected in the near future. ..
  67. Nickerson J, Richner B, Santy K, Lequin M, Poretti A, Filippi C, et al. Neuroimaging of pediatric intracranial infection--part 2: TORCH, viral, fungal, and parasitic infections. J Neuroimaging. 2012;22:e52-63 pubmed publisher
    ..Brief discussions of epidemiology and pathophysiology will be followed by a review of the imaging findings and potential differential considerations...
  68. Moiyadi A, Mahadevan A, Anandh B, Shivashankar R, Chickabasavaiah Y, Shankar S. Visceral larva migrans presenting as multiple intracranial and intraspinal abscesses. Neuropathology. 2007;27:371-4 pubmed
  69. Druet Cabanac M, Boussinesq M, Dongmo L, Farnarier G, Bouteille B, Preux P. Review of epidemiological studies searching for a relationship between onchocerciasis and epilepsy. Neuroepidemiology. 2004;23:144-9 pubmed
    ..However, the results are nearly significant. Further research is needed in this neglected subject, in particular for the better understanding of the neurological pathogenicity in onchocerciasis...
  70. Chai J. Paragonimiasis. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:283-96 pubmed publisher
    ..uterobilateralis, P. mexicanus, and P. skrjabini infections with the dose of 10mg/kg twice a day; however, its efficacy in P. westermani infection, in particular cerebral infections, remains to be elucidated. ..
  71. Kalinowska S, Trześniowska Drukała B, Samochowiec J. [HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders]. Psychiatr Pol. 2013;47:453-63 pubmed
    ..Apart from typical immunologic pathologies, the HIV infection leads to some neurocognitive, motoric and behavioral disorders. The aim of this paper is to present the up-to-date knowledge of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)...
  72. . Severe falciparum malaria. World Health Organization, Communicable Diseases Cluster. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000;94 Suppl 1:S1-90 pubmed
  73. Husain N, Kumar P. Pathology of tropical diseases. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2011;21:757-75, vii pubmed publisher
    ..Nutritional disorders present with generalized and nonspecific imaging manifestations. The pathology of commonly encountered vitamin deficiencies is also discussed...
  74. Liang S, Ji D, Hsia K, Hung C, Sheng W, Hsu B, et al. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba species related to amoebic encephalitis and nonpathogenic free-living amoeba species from the rice field. J Appl Microbiol. 2010;109:1422-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Isolation and characterization of the clinically relevant amphizoic amoebas in vegetated farmlands, which may present a risk to farmers' health...
  75. Fleury A, Carrillo Mezo R, Flisser A, Sciutto E, Corona T. Subarachnoid basal neurocysticercosis: a focus on the most severe form of the disease. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9:123-33 pubmed publisher
    ..We provide a critical review of the central epidemiological, clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic features of this particular form of the disease, which is still associated with unacceptably high rates of morbidity and mortality...
  76. Kristensson K, Masocha W, Bentivoglio M. Mechanisms of CNS invasion and damage by parasites. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;114:11-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Finally, examples are given which illustrate different mechanisms by which parasites can cause dysfunction or damage in the CNS related to toxic effects of parasite-derived molecules or to immune responses to the infection. ..
  77. da Rocha A, Maia A, Ferreira N, do Amaral L. Granulomatous diseases of the central nervous system. Top Magn Reson Imaging. 2005;16:155-87 pubmed
    ..Taking these parameters into account we will discuss the several patterns of image found in parasitic, bacterial, and fungal granulomatous infections...
  78. Nawa Y. [Parasitic diseases in the central nervous system]. Rinsho Shinkeigaku. 2005;45:891-3 pubmed
    ..They accidentally migrate into CNS to cause deleterious conditions. Clinicians should always remind about the possibility of parasitic diseases when they make differential diagnosis for CNS diseases...