theileriasis

Summary

Summary: Infection of cattle, sheep, or goats with protozoa of the genus THEILERIA. This infection results in an acute or chronic febrile condition.

Top Publications

  1. Spitalska E, Torina A, Cannella V, Caracappa S, Sparagano O. Discrimination between Theileria lestoquardi and Theileria annulata in their vectors and hosts by RFLP based on the 18S rRNA gene. Parasitol Res. 2004;94:318-20 pubmed
    ..However, we developed a species-specific RFLP test based on the MspI restriction enzyme, able to cut amplified products from T. lestoquardi only and to discriminate the two species in both tick and blood samples...
  2. Salih D, El Hussein A, Seitzer U, Ahmed J. Epidemiological studies on tick-borne diseases of cattle in Central Equatoria State, Southern Sudan. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:1035-44 pubmed
    ..The highest prevalence of Theileria parva was reported in the rainy season (October). The implications of these results on the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases are discussed with emphasis on East Coast fever...
  3. Rocchi M, Ballingall K, Ngugi D, MacHugh N, McKeever D. A rapid and sensitive intracellular flow cytometric assay to identify Theileria parva infection within target cells. Parasitology. 2008;135:195-201 pubmed
    ..Analysis of infected cells between 48 and 72 h post-infection clearly defines the potential transforming capability of different stabilates. ..
  4. Bell Sakyi L, Koney E, Dogbey O, Walker A. Incidence and prevalence of tick-borne haemoparasites in domestic ruminants in Ghana. Vet Parasitol. 2004;124:25-42 pubmed
  5. Nagore D, García Sanmartín J, Garcia Perez A, Juste R, Hurtado A. Detection and identification of equine Theileria and Babesia species by reverse line blotting: epidemiological survey and phylogenetic analysis. Vet Parasitol. 2004;123:41-54 pubmed
    ..4% similarity, were identified. The biologic meaning of such genotypes is discussed in terms of their phylogenetic relationships and potential pathogenicity...
  6. Khukhuu A, Lan D, Long P, Ueno A, Li Y, Luo Y, et al. Molecular epidemiological survey of Theileria orientalis in Thua Thien Hue Province, Vietnam. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:701-5 pubmed
    ..8%) and 9 ticks (10.6%). Phylogenetic analysis using MPSP gene sequences showed the presence of seven genotypes, four previously categorized genotypes (Types 1, 3, 5 and 7) and three new genotypes (Types N-1, N-2 and N-3). ..
  7. Bedelian C, Nkedianye D, Herrero M. Maasai perception of the impact and incidence of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) in southern Kenya. Prev Vet Med. 2007;78:296-316 pubmed
    ..As suggested by pastoralists in this study, the development of compensation schemes or incentives from wildlife would reduce the conflict between livestock keeping and wildlife conservation...
  8. Aktas M, Dumanli N, Angin M. Cattle infestation by Hyalomma ticks and prevalence of Theileria in Hyalomma species in the east of Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2004;119:1-8 pubmed
    ..detritum, respectively. In H.a. anatolicum collected from shelters, the above rates were 11.8 and 17.6 in male and female ticks, respectively. The prevalence and intensity of Theileria infection was greater in female ticks than in males...
  9. Chaisi M, Sibeko K, Collins N, Potgieter F, Oosthuizen M. Identification of Theileria parva and Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA gene sequence variants in the African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in southern Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2011;182:150-62 pubmed publisher
    ..parva variants and, although amplicons were obtained from Theileria sp. (buffalo) DNA, none of the Theileria sp. (buffalo) 18S rRNA sequence variants were detected by the T. parva-specific hybridization probes. ..

More Information

Publications84

  1. Altangerel K, Sivakumar T, Inpankaew T, Jittapalapong S, Terkawi M, Ueno A, et al. Molecular prevalence of different genotypes of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle and water buffaloes in Thailand. J Parasitol. 2011;97:1075-9 pubmed publisher
    ..orientalis in Thailand. In conclusion, T. orientalis parasites circulating in Thailand are more diverse in their genetic characters than previously anticipated. ..
  2. Chaussepied M, Michie A, Moreau M, Harnett M, Harnett W, Langsley G. Notch is constitutively active in Theileria-transformed B cells and can be further stimulated by the filarial nematode-secreted product, ES-62. Microbes Infect. 2006;8:1189-91 pubmed
    ..Notch is also activated to a similar extent by addition of exogenous IL-10, and this occurs prior to any increase in proliferation in T. parva-infected B cells. ..
  3. Mealey R, Kappmeyer L, Ueti M, Wagner B, Knowles D. Protective effects of passively transferred merozoite-specific antibodies against Theileria equi in horses with severe combined immunodeficiency. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2012;19:100-4 pubmed publisher
    ..equi merozoite stabilate, delayed time to peak parasitemia occurred. Protective effects were associated with a predominance of passively transferred merozoite-specific IgG3...
  4. De Deken R, Martin V, Saido A, Madder M, Brandt J, Geysen D. An outbreak of East Coast Fever on the Comoros: a consequence of the import of immunised cattle from Tanzania?. Vet Parasitol. 2007;143:245-53 pubmed
  5. Okuthe O, Buyu G. Prevalence and incidence of tick-borne diseases in smallholder farming systems in the western-Kenya highlands. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:307-12 pubmed
    ..05). The difference in disease frequencies in two areas in close proximity shows the importance of monitoring disease events in order to understand and advice farmers in different production and farming systems appropriately...
  6. Morrison W. Progress towards understanding the immunobiology of Theileria parasites. Parasitology. 2009;136:1415-26 pubmed publisher
    ..This paper summarizes important advances in knowledge of the immunobiology of these parasites over the last 40 years, focusing particularly on areas of relevance to vaccination...
  7. Kim J, Yokoyama N, Kumar S, Inoue N, Inaba M, Fujisaki K, et al. Identification of a piroplasm protein of Theileria orientalis that binds to bovine erythrocyte band 3. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;137:193-200 pubmed
  8. Kim C, Blanco L, Alhassan A, Iseki H, Yokoyama N, Xuan X, et al. Diagnostic real-time PCR assay for the quantitative detection of Theileria equi from equine blood samples. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:158-63 pubmed
    ..equi in the remaining 19 negative blood samples. This quantitative real-time PCR assay provides a valuable tool for fast laboratory diagnostic assessment of T. equi infection in horses...
  9. Sayin F, Dincer S, Karaer Z, Cakmak A, Inci A, Yukari B, et al. Studies on the epidemiology of tropical theileriosis (Theileria annulata infection) in cattle in Central Anatolia, Turkey. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2003;35:521-39 pubmed
    ..The two different management systems encountered in the study were considered to have influenced the tick infestation levels. ..
  10. Bhoora R, Quan M, Franssen L, Butler C, van der Kolk J, Guthrie A, et al. Development and evaluation of real-time PCR assays for the quantitative detection of Babesia caballi and Theileria equi infections in horses from South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2010;168:201-11 pubmed publisher
    ..equi-specific qPCR assay could positively detect T. equi DNA in 80% of the samples. These results suggest that the qPCR assays are more sensitive than the RLB assay for the detection of T. equi and B. caballi infections in field samples...
  11. Connelley T, MacHugh N, Pelle R, Weir W, Morrison W. Escape from CD8+ T cell response by natural variants of an immunodominant epitope from Theileria parva is predominantly due to loss of TCR recognition. J Immunol. 2011;187:5910-20 pubmed publisher
    ..The levels of heterozygosity in individual Tp2(49-59) residues correlated closely with loss of immune recognition, suggesting that immune selection has contributed to epitope polymorphism...
  12. Lizundia R, Chaussepied M, Huerre M, Werling D, Di Santo J, Langsley G. c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase/c-Jun signaling promotes survival and metastasis of B lymphocytes transformed by Theileria. Cancer Res. 2006;66:6105-10 pubmed
    ..The similarity between Theileria-transformed B cells with human B lymphomas argues that exploiting the reversible nature of Theileria-induced transformation could throw light on the mechanisms underlying human malignancies. ..
  13. Katzer F, Ngugi D, Schnier C, Walker A, McKeever D. Influence of host immunity on parasite diversity in Theileria parva. Infect Immun. 2007;75:4909-16 pubmed
    ..These observations suggest that immunity does not prevent transmission of challenge parasites and that its impact on the parasite at a population level is influenced by herd MHC diversity...
  14. McKeever D. Bovine immunity - a driver for diversity in Theileria parasites?. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:269-76 pubmed publisher
    ..This review considers whether bovine immunity acts as a driver for diversity in T. parva and T. annulata and explores other factors that might underlie genetic variation in these parasites...
  15. Akoolo L, Pelle R, Saya R, Awino E, Nyanjui J, Taracha E, et al. Evaluation of the recognition of Theileria parva vaccine candidate antigens by cytotoxic T lymphocytes from Zebu cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2008;121:216-21 pubmed
    ..Immunoscreening of the T. parva genome with these CTL lines should identify novel antigens that will constitute valuable additions to the vaccine candidates currently being evaluated...
  16. Di Giulio G, Lynen G, Morzaria S, Oura C, Bishop R. Live immunization against East Coast fever--current status. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:85-92 pubmed publisher
    ..This article outlines the current status of ITM immunization in the field, with associated developments in the molecular epidemiology of T. parva...
  17. Dobbelaere D, Küenzi P. The strategies of the Theileria parasite: a new twist in host-pathogen interactions. Curr Opin Immunol. 2004;16:524-30 pubmed
  18. Aysul N, Karagenc T, Eren H, Aypak S, Bakirci S. [Prevalence of tropical theileriosis in cattle in the Aydin Region and determination of efficacy of attenuated Theileria annulata vaccine]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2008;32:322-7 pubmed
    ..Results indicated that the incidence of the disease varied among the regions. Clinical theileriosis was found in a total of 22 cattle (10 vaccinated, 12 unvaccinated) during the disease season...
  19. Ota N, Mizuno D, Kuboki N, Igarashi I, Nakamura Y, Yamashina H, et al. Epidemiological survey of Theileria orientalis infection in grazing cattle in the eastern part of Hokkaido, Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2009;71:937-44 pubmed
    ..The present survey indicated that there were at least five types of T. orientalis classified by their MPSP genes in Hokkaido, Japan, and that T. orientalis infection rates are still high in this region...
  20. Shiels B, Langsley G, Weir W, Pain A, McKellar S, Dobbelaere D. Alteration of host cell phenotype by Theileria annulata and Theileria parva: mining for manipulators in the parasite genomes. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:9-21 pubmed
    ..This review summarizes current knowledge of the mechanisms used by Theileria parasites to transform the host cell, and highlights recent work that has mined the Theileria genomes to identify candidate manipulators of host cell phenotype...
  21. Heussler V, Sturm A, Langsley G. Regulation of host cell survival by intracellular Plasmodium and Theileria parasites. Parasitology. 2006;132 Suppl:S49-60 pubmed
    ..This review discusses similarities and differences at the molecular level of Plasmodium- and Theileria-induced regulation of the host cell survival machinery...
  22. Yokoyama N, Ueno A, Mizuno D, Kuboki N, Khukhuu A, Igarashi I, et al. Genotypic diversity of Theileria orientalis detected from cattle grazing in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2011;73:305-12 pubmed
    ..orientalis exist in Kumamoto and Okinawa prefectures of Japan and that genotype-specific PCR assays are highly applicable for the quarantine of transported cattle and for epidemiological surveys of bovine theileriosis in Japan...
  23. Martins S, Di Giulio G, Lynen G, Peters A, Rushton J. Assessing the impact of East Coast Fever immunisation by the infection and treatment method in Tanzanian pastoralist systems. Prev Vet Med. 2010;97:175-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the economic analysis showed that ITM generated a profit estimated to be 7250 TZS (1 USD=1300 TZS) per vaccinated calf, and demonstrated that it was a better control measure than natural infection and subsequent treatment...
  24. Oura C, Bishop R, Asiimwe B, Spooner P, Lubega G, Tait A. Theileria parva live vaccination: parasite transmission, persistence and heterologous challenge in the field. Parasitology. 2007;134:1205-13 pubmed
  25. Haller D, MacKiewicz M, Gerber S, Beyer D, Kullmann B, Schneider I, et al. Cytoplasmic sequestration of p53 promotes survival in leukocytes transformed by Theileria. Oncogene. 2010;29:3079-86 pubmed publisher
  26. Jeong W, Yoon S, An D, Cho S, Lee K, Kim J. A molecular phylogeny of the benign Theileria parasites based on major piroplasm surface protein (MPSP) gene sequences. Parasitology. 2010;137:241-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Our sequence data showed no geographical influence on worldwide Theileria parasite distribution...
  27. Katzer F, Ngugi D, Walker A, McKeever D. Genotypic diversity, a survival strategy for the apicomplexan parasite Theileria parva. Vet Parasitol. 2010;167:236-43 pubmed publisher
    ..These markers have also been used to show that passage of mixed parasites through an immunised calf results in the removal of the immunising genotype from the parasite population produced by ticks fed on this animal...
  28. Connelley T, MacHugh N, Burrells A, Morrison W. Dissection of the clonal composition of bovine alphabeta T cell responses using T cell receptor Vbeta subfamily-specific PCR and heteroduplex analysis. J Immunol Methods. 2008;335:28-40 pubmed publisher
    ..The development and validation of these methods provides for the first time a generic set of molecular tools that can be used to perform detailed analysis of the TCR diversity and clonal composition of bovine T cell responses...
  29. Kappmeyer L, Thiagarajan M, Herndon D, Ramsay J, Caler E, Djikeng A, et al. Comparative genomic analysis and phylogenetic position of Theileria equi. BMC Genomics. 2012;13:603 pubmed publisher
    ..equi relative to sequenced apicomplexan parasites...
  30. Renneker S, Kullmann B, Gerber S, Dobschanski J, Bakheit M, Geysen D, et al. Development of a competitive ELISA for detection of Theileria annulata infection. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2008;55:249-56 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus the test proved its suitability for the diagnosis of tropical theileriosis and has application for use in serological surveys to monitor the prevalence of the disease or identify carrier animals with high specificity...
  31. Altay K, Aydin M, Dumanli N, Aktas M. Molecular detection of Theileria and Babesia infections in cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2008;158:295-301 pubmed publisher
    ..bigemina was found in three samples (0.77%), B. major in two samples (0.51%) and Babesia sp. in five samples (1.28%). A single animal infected with T. buffeli/orientalis was also infected with B. bigemina...
  32. Chaussepied M, Janski N, Baumgartner M, Lizundia R, Jensen K, Weir W, et al. TGF-b2 induction regulates invasiveness of Theileria-transformed leukocytes and disease susceptibility. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1001197 pubmed publisher
    ..We propose that a TGF-b autocrine loop confers an amoeboid-like motility on Theileria-infected leukocytes, which combines with MMP-dependent motility to drive invasiveness and virulence. ..
  33. Ribeiro M, da Silveira J, Bastos C. Failure of the Amblyomma cajennense nymph to become infected by Theileria equi after feeding on acute or chronically infected horses. Exp Parasitol. 2011;128:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Histopathological analysis failed to detect sporoblast and sporozoites of T. equi in salivary gland acini. This study was not able to observe infection of the A. cajennense by T. equi...
  34. Pelle R, Graham S, Njahira M, Osaso J, Saya R, Odongo D, et al. Two Theileria parva CD8 T cell antigen genes are more variable in buffalo than cattle parasites, but differ in pattern of sequence diversity. PLoS ONE. 2011;6:e19015 pubmed publisher
    ..This study set out to determine the nature and extent of polymorphism in two of these antigens, Tp1 and Tp2, which contain defined CD8(+) T-cell epitopes, and to analyse the sequences for evidence of selection...
  35. McGuire K, Manuja A, Russell G, Springbett A, Craigmile S, Nichani A, et al. Quantitative analysis of pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in Theileria annulata-infected cell lines derived from resistant and susceptible cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2004;99:87-98 pubmed
    ..annulata infection. Other, currently unknown mechanisms may be of greater importance...
  36. Glass E, Crutchley S, Jensen K. Living with the enemy or uninvited guests: functional genomics approaches to investigating host resistance or tolerance traits to a protozoan parasite, Theileria annulata, in cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2012;148:178-89 pubmed publisher
    ..Next generation sequencing and RNAi methodologies for livestock species will bring new opportunities to link diversity at the genome level to functional differences in health traits in livestock species...
  37. Chaisi M, Collins N, Potgieter F, Oosthuizen M. Sequence variation identified in the 18S rRNA gene of Theileria mutans and Theileria velifera from the African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:132-7 pubmed publisher
    ..velifera, with the greatest diversity observed amongst the T. mutans variants. This variation possibly explained why the RLB hybridization assay failed to detect T. mutans and T. velifera in some of the analysed samples...
  38. Graham S, Pelle R, Honda Y, Mwangi D, Tonukari N, Yamage M, et al. Theileria parva candidate vaccine antigens recognized by immune bovine cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006;103:3286-91 pubmed
    ..These data provide a basis for developing a CTL-targeted anti-East Coast fever subunit vaccine. In addition, orthologs of these antigens may be vaccine targets for other apicomplexan parasites...
  39. Konnai S, Imamura S, Nakajima C, Witola W, Yamada S, Simuunza M, et al. Acquisition and transmission of Theileria parva by vector tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus. Acta Trop. 2006;99:34-41 pubmed
    ..appendiculatus ticks in naturally exposed cattle were relatively high, it would be wise in such a case to consider vector control as well as vaccination against ECF as control measures...
  40. Criado A, Martinez J, Buling A, Barba J, Merino S, Jefferies R, et al. New data on epizootiology and genetics of piroplasms based on sequences of small ribosomal subunit and cytochrome b genes. Vet Parasitol. 2006;142:238-47 pubmed
    ..On the other hand, the existence of mtDNA-like pseudogenes of possible nuclear location in piroplasms is interesting due to their possible impact on molecular phylogeny studies...
  41. Glass E, Jensen K. Resistance and susceptibility to a protozoan parasite of cattle--gene expression differences in macrophages from different breeds of cattle. Vet Immunol Immunopathol. 2007;120:20-30 pubmed
    ..annulata. Our results indicate that there are fundamental differences in gene expression in mphi from both breeds in the way they respond to infection, and even in their pre-infection resting state...
  42. Allsopp M, Lewis B, Penzhorn B. Molecular evidence for transplacental transmission of Theileria equi from carrier mares to their apparently healthy foals. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:130-6 pubmed
    ..Investigation of parasite levels and the effect of maternal colostrum on the newborn suggests that colostral T. equi antibody may act to suppress parasitaemia in the newborn, reducing the incidence of clinical neonatal piroplasmosis...
  43. Bilgic H, Karagenc T, Shiels B, Tait A, Eren H, Weir W. Evaluation of cytochrome b as a sensitive target for PCR based detection of T. annulata carrier animals. Vet Parasitol. 2010;174:341-7 pubmed publisher
    ..The use of this assay will increase the accuracy of epidemiological studies aimed at improving disease control in endemically unstable regions...
  44. Manuja A, Malhotra D, Sikka V, Sangwan A, Sharma R, Kumar B, et al. Isolates of Theileria annulata collected from different parts of India show phenotypic and genetic diversity. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:242-52 pubmed
    ..These observations revealed that the four isolates of T. annulata are different from each other and might be expressing different antigenic determinants on their cell surface...
  45. Eamens G, Gonsalves J, Jenkins C, Collins D, Bailey G. Theileria orientalis MPSP types in Australian cattle herds associated with outbreaks of clinical disease and their association with clinical pathology findings. Vet Parasitol. 2013;191:209-17 pubmed publisher
    ..In New South Wales, 11 of 14 regulatory districts yielded Ikeda positive samples, with five (Mid-Coast, Cumberland, Central North, Hume and Lachlan) containing 234/307 (76%) of the Ikeda positive samples...
  46. Geysen D, Bazarusanga T, Brandt J, Dolan T. An unusual mosaic structure of the PIM gene of Theileria parva and its relationship to allelic diversity. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2004;133:163-73 pubmed
    ..The relevance of this finding for diagnosis and the relationship between these mechanisms and the possible role of this protein in host immune responses is discussed...
  47. Oura C, Bishop R, Wampande E, Lubega G, Tait A. Application of a reverse line blot assay to the study of haemoparasites in cattle in Uganda. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:603-13 pubmed
    ..mutans and possibly T. taurotragi and T. velifera, may also cause clinical disease. Overall, the results presented here highlight the complexity of tick-borne pathogen infections in cattle in Uganda...
  48. Ndungu S, Brown C, Dolan T. In vivo comparison of susceptibility between Bos indicus and Bos taurus cattle types to Theileria parva infection. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2005;72:13-22 pubmed
    ..indicus breds and a B. taurus breed are equally susceptible to T. parva infection. However, Zebus born to dams from an ECF endemic area showed a better ability to control the course of disease than cattle from ECF free areas...
  49. MacHugh N, Connelley T, Graham S, Pelle R, Formisano P, Taracha E, et al. CD8+ T-cell responses to Theileria parva are preferentially directed to a single dominant antigen: Implications for parasite strain-specific immunity. Eur J Immunol. 2009;39:2459-69 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, we have demonstrated a profound immunodominance in the CD8(+) T-cell response to T. parva, which we propose is a major determinant of the parasite strain specificity of the response and hence immune protection...
  50. Jensen K, Paxton E, Waddington D, Talbot R, Darghouth M, Glass E. Differences in the transcriptional responses induced by Theileria annulata infection in bovine monocytes derived from resistant and susceptible cattle breeds. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:313-25 pubmed
    ..annulata infection...
  51. Glass E, Preston P, Springbett A, Craigmile S, Kirvar E, Wilkie G, et al. Bos taurus and Bos indicus (Sahiwal) calves respond differently to infection with Theileria annulata and produce markedly different levels of acute phase proteins. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:337-47 pubmed
    ..In contrast, Sahiwals appear able to overcome infection with T. annulata as well as limit pathology by preventing the over-stimulation of pathways involving these cytokines...
  52. Nagore D, García Sanmartín J, Garcia Perez A, Juste R, Hurtado A. Identification, genetic diversity and prevalence of Theileria and Babesia species in a sheep population from Northern Spain. Int J Parasitol. 2004;34:1059-67 pubmed
    ..The widespread distribution of Theileria spp. in the studied sheep population suggests that the parasites involved are of relatively low pathogenicity, in contrast to what has been reported for Theileria sp. China 1 in other countries...
  53. Sibeko K, Oosthuizen M, Collins N, Geysen D, Rambritch N, Latif A, et al. Development and evaluation of a real-time polymerase chain reaction test for the detection of Theileria parva infections in Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer) and cattle. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:37-48 pubmed publisher
    ..parva diagnostics and can reliably detect the parasite in carrier animals with a piroplasm parasitaemia as low as 8.79 x 10(-4)%...
  54. Oura C, Odongo D, Lubega G, Spooner P, Tait A, Bishop R. A panel of microsatellite and minisatellite markers for the characterisation of field isolates of Theileria parva. Int J Parasitol. 2003;33:1641-53 pubmed
    ..parva. Cluster analysis of multilocus genotypes from the 14 isolates (using a neighbour joining algorithm) revealed that genetic similarity between isolates was not obviously related to their geographical origin...
  55. Butler C, Nijhof A, van der Kolk J, de Haseth O, Taoufik A, Jongejan F, et al. Repeated high dose imidocarb dipropionate treatment did not eliminate Babesia caballi from naturally infected horses as determined by PCR-reverse line blot hybridization. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:320-2 pubmed
    ..These results confirm that the CFT is not a suitable test for pre-import testing and that even high dose treatment with imidocarb may not be capable of eliminating B. caballi and T. equi infections from healthy carriers...
  56. Bazarusanga T, Vercruysse J, Marcotty T, Geysen D. Epidemiological studies on Theileriosis and the dynamics of Theileria parva infections in Rwanda. Vet Parasitol. 2007;143:214-21 pubmed
    ..Another important finding was the fact that young animals are infected early in life in all regions except in the high land zone indicating the existence of a particular epidemiological situation in this part of the country...
  57. Criado Fornelio A, Buling A, Pingret J, Etievant M, Boucraut Baralon C, Alongi A, et al. Hemoprotozoa of domestic animals in France: prevalence and molecular characterization. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159:73-6 pubmed publisher
    ..in 2 sheep, Theileria buffeli in 5 cows and B. major in 1 cow. Evidence presented in this contribution indicates that haematic protozoa are not widely distributed in domestic mammal populations of France...
  58. Bhoora R, Franssen L, Oosthuizen M, Guthrie A, Zweygarth E, Penzhorn B, et al. Sequence heterogeneity in the 18S rRNA gene within Theileria equi and Babesia caballi from horses in South Africa. Vet Parasitol. 2009;159:112-20 pubmed publisher
    ..caballi is required prior to the development of molecular diagnostic tests to detect these parasites in horses. Species-specific probes must be in designed in regions of the gene that are both conserved within and unique to each species...
  59. McFadden A, Rawdon T, Meyer J, Makin J, Morley C, Clough R, et al. An outbreak of haemolytic anaemia associated with infection of Theileria orientalis in naive cattle. N Z Vet J. 2011;59:79-85 pubmed publisher
    ..An outbreak of haemolytic anaemia occurred when 87 cattle were introduced from a presumed non-infected herd from south Otago to a herd in Northland (n=580 cows), New Zealand, where theileriosis is endemic...
  60. Dumanli N, Aktas M, Cetinkaya B, Cakmak A, Koroglu E, Saki C, et al. Prevalence and distribution of tropical theileriosis in eastern Turkey. Vet Parasitol. 2005;127:9-15 pubmed
    ..A total of 179 ticks (136 female; 43 male) belonging to Hyalomma spp. were collected from cattle from three towns. Ticks were identified to be Hyalomma anatolicum anatolicum on the basis of morphological features...
  61. Guergnon J, Dessauge F, Traincard F, Cayla X, Rebollo A, Bost P, et al. A PKA survival pathway inhibited by DPT-PKI, a new specific cell permeable PKA inhibitor, is induced by T. annulata in parasitized B-lymphocytes. Apoptosis. 2006;11:1263-73 pubmed
    ..annulata-infected B cells from apoptosis. These results also indicate that DPT-PKI could be a powerful tool to inhibit PKA pathways in other cell types...
  62. Abutarbush S, Alqawasmeh D, Mukbel R, Al Majali A. Equine babesiosis: seroprevalence, risk factors and comparison of different diagnostic methods in Jordan. Transbound Emerg Dis. 2012;59:72-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA) test appears to be more reliable than microscopic examination and PCR in estimating the seroprevalence of the disease as well as identifying carrier horses to babesiosis...
  63. McKeever D. Theileria parva and the bovine CTL response: down but not out?. Parasite Immunol. 2006;28:339-45 pubmed
    ..This review discusses the issue of how CTL immunity is likely to impact on parasite population structure in the light of available information on diversity of the parasite and its ability to recombine...
  64. Almeria S, Delgado Neira Y, Adelantado C, Huguet M, Vinent J, Nicolàs A. Mediterranean theileriosis and other tick transmitted piroplasmoses in cattle in Minorca (Balearic Islands, Spain): the effect of tick control on prevalence levels analyzed by reverse line blot (RLB) macroarrays. J Parasitol. 2009;95:598-603 pubmed publisher
    ..Adequate control measures and vaccination approaches are required to improve the situation of Mediterranean theileriosis on the island...
  65. Izzo M, Poe I, Horadagoda N, de Vos A, House J. Haemolytic anaemia in cattle in NSW associated with Theileria infections. Aust Vet J. 2010;88:45-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Treatments included both registered and non-registered products. There is a possibility of a new strain of Theileria sp. in Australia and the possible vectors encountered in NSW are discussed...
  66. Morrison W. The biological and practical significance of antigenic variability in protective T cell responses against Theileria parva. Vet Parasitol. 2007;148:21-30 pubmed
  67. da Silveira J, Rabelo E, Ribeiro M. Detection of Theileria and Babesia in brown brocket deer (Mazama gouazoubira) and marsh deer (Blastocerus dichotomus) in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2011;177:61-6 pubmed publisher
    ..14.3%), Babesia bovis (4.8%) and Babesia bigemina (4.8%). However, only one of the infected wild cervids exhibited accentuated anaemia (PCV=17%). This is first report concerning the occurrence of Theileria spp. in Brazilian cervids...
  68. Brígido C, da Fonseca I, Parreira R, Fazendeiro I, Do Rosario V, Centeno Lima S. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of Theileria spp. parasites in autochthonous bovines (Mirandesa breed) in Portugal. Vet Parasitol. 2004;123:17-23 pubmed
    ..buffeli/orientalis group, confirming the PCR/RLB diagnosis...
  69. Gharbi M, Sassi L, Dorchies P, Darghouth M. Infection of calves with Theileria annulata in Tunisia: Economic analysis and evaluation of the potential benefit of vaccination. Vet Parasitol. 2006;137:231-41 pubmed
    ..Considering that the vaccine would cost 5 TD (Euro 3.10), the cost-benefit ratio of vaccination is 23.7. Sensitivity analysis of the vaccination costs shows that the indifference decision point is around 118 TD (Euro 73.29)...
  70. Seitzer U, Ahmed J. Tropical theileriosis: cytotoxic T lymphocyte response to vaccination. Vaccine. 2008;26 Suppl 6:G24-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Any strain-specificity induced by immunisation is likely to be manifested by CTL. Besides CTLs, CD4+ T-cells also play an important role in protective immunity to T. annulata infection...
  71. Baumgartner M. Enforcing host cell polarity: an apicomplexan parasite strategy towards dissemination. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2011;14:436-44 pubmed publisher
    ..This parasite strategy highlights mechanisms of motility regulation that are also likely relevant for immune or cancer cell motility...
  72. Oura C, Bishop R, Wampande E, Lubega G, Tait A. The persistence of component Theileria parva stocks in cattle immunized with the 'Muguga cocktail' live vaccine against East Coast fever in Uganda. Parasitology. 2004;129:27-42 pubmed
    ..parva genotypes showing there was a significant level of tick challenge. Some of the vaccinated animals become infected with a subset of local genotypes providing evidence for limited vaccine 'breakthrough'...
  73. Odongo D, Oura C, Spooner P, Kiara H, Mburu D, Hanotte O, et al. Linkage disequilibrium between alleles at highly polymorphic mini- and micro-satellite loci of Theileria parva isolated from cattle in three regions of Kenya. Int J Parasitol. 2006;36:937-46 pubmed
    ..parva populations. A novel observation was that disequilibrium was also detected between alleles at three individual pairs of VNTR loci when isolates from the three regional meta-populations were pooled for analysis...
  74. Oura C, Asiimwe B, Weir W, Lubega G, Tait A. Population genetic analysis and sub-structuring of Theileria parva in Uganda. Mol Biochem Parasitol. 2005;140:229-39 pubmed
    ..The population from Kayunga was in linkage disequilibrium. Genetic distances and Wrights fixation index (F(ST)) indicate that there is evidence for geographical sub-structuring between the Lira and the Kayunga populations...
  75. Simuunza M, Weir W, Courcier E, Tait A, Shiels B. Epidemiological analysis of tick-borne diseases in Zambia. Vet Parasitol. 2011;175:331-42 pubmed publisher
    ..A negative association was observed between the number of co-infecting pathogens and the erythrocyte packed cell volume (PCV) of carrier cattle...