animal toxoplasmosis


Summary: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.

Top Publications

  1. McGeachy M, Chen Y, Tato C, Laurence A, Joyce Shaikh B, Blumenschein W, et al. The interleukin 23 receptor is essential for the terminal differentiation of interleukin 17-producing effector T helper cells in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2009;10:314-24 pubmed publisher
    ..These defects were associated with less proliferation; consequently, fewer effector T(H)-17 cells were produced in the lymph nodes and hence available to emigrate to the bloodstream and tissues. ..
  2. Zhou H, Gu Q, Zhao Q, Zhang J, Cong H, Li Y, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: expression and characterization of a recombinant protein containing SAG1 and GRA2 in Pichia pastoris. Parasitol Res. 2007;100:829-35 pubmed
    ..Our data demonstrate that SAG1-GRA2 triggered a protective response against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, SAG1-GRA2 protein might be a good candidate for the further development of a multiantigenic vaccine...
  3. Dubey J, Sundar N, Hill D, Velmurugan G, Bandini L, Kwok O, et al. High prevalence and abundant atypical genotypes of Toxoplasma gondii isolated from lambs destined for human consumption in the USA. Int J Parasitol. 2008;38:999-1006 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii in lambs, which has important implications in public health. We believe this is the first in-depth genetic analysis of T. gondii isolates from sheep in the USA...
  4. Degrandi D, Konermann C, Beuter Gunia C, Kresse A, Würthner J, Kurig S, et al. Extensive characterization of IFN-induced GTPases mGBP1 to mGBP10 involved in host defense. J Immunol. 2007;179:7729-40 pubmed
    ..Taken together, mGBPs comprise an important set of host defense molecules...
  5. Boyle J, Saeij J, Boothroyd J. Toxoplasma gondii: inconsistent dissemination patterns following oral infection in mice. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:302-5 pubmed
    ..Based on the inconsistency of infections initiated with oral gavage, it is recommended that natural feeding be used to infect mice when a consistent oral infection is desired...
  6. Fusco G, Rinaldi L, Guarino A, Proroga Y, Pesce A, Giuseppina D, et al. Toxoplasma gondii in sheep from the Campania region (Italy). Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:271-4 pubmed
    ..The 77.8% (91/117) of the farms and the 28.5% (333/11,170) of the sheep resulted positive by serology. In addition, the presence of T. gondii DNA was detected by PCR in 4 milk samples out of the 117 examined (3.4%)...
  7. Jongert E, De Craeye S, Dewit J, Huygen K. GRA7 provides protective immunity in cocktail DNA vaccines against Toxoplasma gondii. Parasite Immunol. 2007;29:445-53 pubmed
    ..We propose GRA7 as a main component in cocktail DNA vaccines for vaccination against T. gondii...
  8. Buxton D, Maley S, Wright S, Rodger S, Bartley P, Innes E. Toxoplasma gondii and ovine toxoplasmosis: new aspects of an old story. Vet Parasitol. 2007;149:25-8 pubmed
    ..gondii with a tendency for samples from certain genetic lines of Charollais sheep more likely to be positive than samples from other lines, suggesting that some sheep have a particular genetic susceptibility to T. gondii...
  9. Melzer T, Duffy A, Weiss L, Halonen S. The gamma interferon (IFN-gamma)-inducible GTP-binding protein IGTP is necessary for toxoplasma vacuolar disruption and induces parasite egression in IFN-gamma-stimulated astrocytes. Infect Immun. 2008;76:4883-94 pubmed publisher
    ..Fusion of the ER with the PV, releasing calcium into the vacuole, may also be the mechanism by which intravacuolar parasite movement and IFN-gamma-induced parasite egression occur...

More Information


  1. Clementino M, Souza M, Andrade Neto V. Seroprevalence and Toxoplasma gondii-IgG avidity in sheep from Lajes, Brazil. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:199-203 pubmed
    ..Epidemiological studies are required in order to identify sources of infection for these hosts as well as their impact on animal breeding in the region and risk of transmission to humans...
  2. Vesco G, Buffolano W, La Chiusa S, Mancuso G, Caracappa S, Chianca A, et al. Toxoplasma gondii infections in sheep in Sicily, southern Italy. Vet Parasitol. 2007;146:3-8 pubmed
    ..The presence of cats on the farm, farm size and using surface water as drinking water for the animals were risk factors for infection in sheep, with age as a significant confounder...
  3. Saeij J, Boyle J, Coller S, Taylor S, Sibley L, Brooke Powell E, et al. Polymorphic secreted kinases are key virulence factors in toxoplasmosis. Science. 2006;314:1780-3 pubmed
    ..Both are hypervariable rhoptry proteins that are secreted into the host cell upon invasion. These results suggest that secreted kinases unique to the Apicomplexa are crucial in the host-pathogen interaction...
  4. Wilson D, Matthews S, Yap G. IL-12 signaling drives CD8+ T cell IFN-gamma production and differentiation of KLRG1+ effector subpopulations during Toxoplasma gondii Infection. J Immunol. 2008;180:5935-45 pubmed
  5. Rodger S, Maley S, Wright S, Mackellar A, Wesley F, Sales J, et al. Role of endogenous transplacental transmission in toxoplasmosis in sheep. Vet Rec. 2006;159:768-72 pubmed
    ..2 per cent of pregnancies and 4.1 per cent of lambs in the seropositive group). Antibody to specific antigens of T gondii was demonstrated in sera from these two lambs by Western blotting...
  6. Taylor S, Barragan A, Su C, Fux B, Fentress S, Tang K, et al. A secreted serine-threonine kinase determines virulence in the eukaryotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. Science. 2006;314:1776-80 pubmed
    ..These attributes of ROP18 required kinase activity, which revealed that secretion of effectors is a major component of parasite virulence...
  7. Könen Waisman S, Howard J. Cell-autonomous immunity to Toxoplasma gondii in mouse and man. Microbes Infect. 2007;9:1652-61 pubmed
    ..There are many poorly understood host and pathogen variables that affect the outcome of infection...
  8. Morley E, Williams R, Hughes J, Thomasson D, Terry R, Duncanson P, et al. Evidence that primary infection of Charollais sheep with Toxoplasma gondii may not prevent foetal infection and abortion in subsequent lambings. Parasitology. 2008;135:169-73 pubmed
    ..gondii infections may not always be acquired following an initial infection and raises the question as to whether the mechanisms of T. gondii transmission prior to and during ovine pregnancies are fully understood...
  9. Moire N, Dion S, Lebrun M, Dubremetz J, Dimier Poisson I. Mic1-3KO tachyzoite a live attenuated vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis derived from a type I strain shows features of type II strain. Exp Parasitol. 2009;123:111-7 pubmed publisher
    ..These data demonstrate that the deleted strain derived from a type I strain behaves like type II strain in outbred mice in terms of virulence, dissemination in mouse tissue and persistence in brain...
  10. Dubey J. Toxoplasmosis in sheep--the last 20 years. Vet Parasitol. 2009;163:1-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In the present paper, information on the prevalence, transmission, and control of ovine toxoplasmosis in the last 20 years is reviewed...
  11. Stimbirys A, Bagdonas J, Gerulis G, Russo P. A serological study on the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep of Lithuania. Pol J Vet Sci. 2007;10:83-7 pubmed
    ..05). The results of this investigation suggest that the Toxoplasma gondii parasite is widely spread, and can be one of reasons of sheep abortion in Lithuania...
  12. Wang X, Claflin J, Kang H, Suzuki Y. Importance of CD8(+)Vbeta8(+) T cells in IFN-gamma-mediated prevention of toxoplasmic encephalitis in genetically resistant BALB/c mice. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2005;25:338-44 pubmed
  13. Dumètre A, Ajzenberg D, Rozette L, Mercier A, Dardé M. Toxoplasma gondii infection in sheep from Haute-Vienne, France: seroprevalence and isolate genotyping by microsatellite analysis. Vet Parasitol. 2006;142:376-9 pubmed
    ..gondii with a potential risk of parasite transmission to humans by consumption of undercooked meat. Multilocus microsatellite analysis shows the predominance of type II in sheep as previously described in humans...
  14. Caetano B, Bruna Romero O, Fux B, Mendes E, Penido M, Gazzinelli R. Vaccination with replication-deficient recombinant adenoviruses encoding the main surface antigens of toxoplasma gondii induces immune response and protection against infection in mice. Hum Gene Ther. 2006;17:415-26 pubmed
    ..gondii antigens, other parasite antigens should be tested alone or in combination with those described here to further develop a protective vaccine against toxoplasmosis...
  15. Mévélec M, Bout D, Desolme B, Marchand H, Magné R, Bruneel O, et al. Evaluation of protective effect of DNA vaccination with genes encoding antigens GRA4 and SAG1 associated with GM-CSF plasmid, against acute, chronical and congenital toxoplasmosis in mice. Vaccine. 2005;23:4489-99 pubmed
    ..gondii SAG1 and GRA4 antigens. Our data demonstrated that protection was improved by associating antigens (SAG1 and GRA4) and cytokine (GM-CSF) for further development of a multiantigenic vaccine against toxoplasmosis...
  16. Morley E, Williams R, Hughes J, Terry R, Duncanson P, Smith J, et al. Significant familial differences in the frequency of abortion and Toxoplasma gondii infection within a flock of Charollais sheep. Parasitology. 2005;131:181-5 pubmed
    ..gondii infection. This work invites further study into the epidemiology of ovine toxoplasmosis and may have implications for sheep husbandry methods in the future...
  17. Hill D, Chirukandoth S, Dubey J, Lunney J, Gamble H. Comparison of detection methods for Toxoplasma gondii in naturally and experimentally infected swine. Vet Parasitol. 2006;141:9-17 pubmed
    ..gondii infection in tissues from naturally and experimentally infected pigs. The results indicate that a serum-based ELISA is the most sensitive method, of those tested, for detection of T. gondii infected swine...
  18. Hitziger N, Dellacasa I, Albiger B, Barragan A. Dissemination of Toxoplasma gondii to immunoprivileged organs and role of Toll/interleukin-1 receptor signalling for host resistance assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Cell Microbiol. 2005;7:837-48 pubmed
    ..However, TLR1(-/-), TLR2(-/-), TLR4(-/-), TLR6(-/-) and TLR9(-/-) animals did not exhibit increased susceptibility to infection. These results suggest that intricate mechanisms regulate TIR-mediated responses during Toxoplasma infection...
  19. Aviles H, Stiles J, O Donnell P, Orshal J, Leid J, Sonnenfeld G, et al. Kinetics of systemic cytokine and brain chemokine gene expression in murine toxoplasma infection. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1282-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The early production of IFN-gamma and the delayed expression of CXCR4 and CXCR5 indicate that T. gondii induces an early robust cellular immune response, followed by a strong and sustained antibody-mediated immunity. ..
  20. Tsai Y, Chung W, Fei A, Kaphle K, Peng S, Wu Y. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in pigs from slaughterhouses in Taiwan. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1540-1 pubmed publisher
    ..1% of 395 pigs. The results indicate a high prevalence of infection in pigs in Taiwan destined for human consumption. ..
  21. Simsek S, Utuk A, Babur C, Koroglu E. [Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in dogs in the province of Kocaeli]. Turkiye Parazitol Derg. 2006;30:171-4 pubmed
    ..05). The seropositivity was found to be 68.2%, 75.6% and 62.5% in the 0-1, 1-3, and over 3 age groups, respectively. As a result, the high seropositivity of dog toxoplasmosis in Kocaeli province has been found to be important. ..
  22. Ramzan M, Akhtar M, Muhammad F, Hussain I, Hiszczynska Sawicka E, Haq A, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in sheep and goats in Rahim Yar Khan (Punjab), Pakistan. Trop Anim Health Prod. 2009;41:1225-9 pubmed publisher
    ..75; 99% C.I. = 0.47, 6.51) as compared to the group less than one year of age followed by the 2-2.5 years age group (OR = 1.63; 99% C.I. = 0.50, 5.74) whereas group with more than 3 years of age least seropositive. ..
  23. Spilovská S, Reiterová K, Kovácová D, Bobáková M, Dubinsky P. The first finding of Neospora caninum and the occurrence of other abortifacient agents in sheep in Slovakia. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:320-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The first survey of neosporosis in aborting sheep from eastern Slovakia revealed a low prevalence resulting in a lower impact on reproduction losses in these small ruminants. ..
  24. Jokelainen P, Näreaho A, Knaapi S, Oksanen A, Rikula U, Sukura A. Toxoplasma gondii in wild cervids and sheep in Finland: north-south gradient in seroprevalence. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:331-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Thus, the Finnish wild cervids and sheep are commonly exposed to T. gondii, especially in the southern part of the country. ..
  25. Park C, Ikadai H, Yoshida E, Isomura H, Inukai H, Oyamada T. Cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a female Japanese cat. Vet Pathol. 2007;44:683-7 pubmed
    ..gondii. Polymerase chain reaction and deoxyribonucleic acid sequence analysis was consistent with T. gondii infection. This is the first report of cutaneous toxoplasmosis in a Japanese cat. ..
  26. Klun I, Djurkovic Djakovic O, Thulliez P. Comparison of a commercial ELISA with the modified agglutination test for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii infection in naturally exposed sheep. Zoonoses Public Health. 2007;54:165-8 pubmed
    ..Thus, the ELISA Toxotest may be used for quick diagnosis of T. gondii infection in sheep in the field, i.e. for the differential diagnosis of ovine abortion storms. ..
  27. Chtanova T, Schaeffer M, Han S, van Dooren G, Nollmann M, Herzmark P, et al. Dynamics of neutrophil migration in lymph nodes during infection. Immunity. 2008;29:487-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data provide insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying neutrophil swarming and suggest new roles for neutrophils in shaping immune responses. ..
  28. Dubey J, Lopez B, Alvarez M, Mendoza C, Lehmann T. Isolation, tissue distribution, and molecular characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from free-range chickens from Guatemala. J Parasitol. 2005;91:955-7 pubmed
    ..Genotyping of these 8 isolates with the SAG2 locus indicated that 5 were type III and 3 were type 1. This is the first report of isolation of T. gondii from chickens from Guatemala. ..
  29. Las R, Shivaprasad H. An outbreak of toxoplasmosis in an aviary collection of Nicobar pigeons (Caloenas nicobaria). J S Afr Vet Assoc. 2008;79:149-52 pubmed
    ..Feral cats were known to be a problem at the facility. Clinical toxoplasmosis is rarely reported in pigeons and this is believed to be the 1st report of toxoplasmosis in Nicobar pigeons. ..
  30. Zhou P, Nie H, Zhang L, Wang H, Yin C, Su C, et al. Genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from pigs in China. J Parasitol. 2010;96:1027-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first report of genetic typing of T. gondii isolates from pigs in central China. The results have implications for the prevention and control of T. gondii infections in humans and other animals. ..
  31. Dubey J, Felix T, Kwok O. Serological and parasitological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild birds from Colorado. J Parasitol. 2010;96:937-9 pubmed publisher
    ..This is the first time T. gondii has been isolated from the barn owl, ferruginous hawk, rough-legged hawk, and Swainson's hawk. ..
  32. Dautu G, Munyaka B, Carmen G, Zhang G, Omata Y, Xuenan X, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: DNA vaccination with genes encoding antigens MIC2, M2AP, AMA1 and BAG1 and evaluation of their immunogenic potential. Exp Parasitol. 2007;116:273-82 pubmed
    ..Therefore, the AMA1 gene appears to generate a strong specific immune response and also provides effective protection against toxoplasmosis more than the MIC2, M2AP and BAG1 genes. ..
  33. Jost C, Reiter Owona I, Liesenfeld O. The timing of sulfadiazine therapy impacts the reactivation of latent Toxoplasma infection in IRF-8-/- mice. Parasitol Res. 2007;101:1603-9 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, the timing of sulfadiazine therapy is of utmost importance for the course of infection in immunocompromised mice. ..
  34. Tait E, Jordan K, Dupont C, Harris T, Gregg B, Wilson E, et al. Virulence of Toxoplasma gondii is associated with distinct dendritic cell responses and reduced numbers of activated CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2010;185:1502-12 pubmed publisher
    ..Together, these data are consistent with a model of immunity to T. gondii in which strain-dependent DC responses shape the generation of Ag-specific CD8(+) T cells and determine the outcome of infection. ..
  35. Bartova E, Sedlak K, Syrová M, Literak I. Neospora spp. and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in horses in the Czech Republic. Parasitol Res. 2010;107:783-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Antibodies against T. gondii were found in 125 (23%) horses. This is the first serologic survey for Neospora spp. antibodies performed on horses in the Czech Republic. ..
  36. Teshale S, Dumètre A, Darde M, Merga B, Dorchies P. Serological survey of caprine toxoplasmosis in Ethiopia: prevalence and risk factors. Parasite. 2007;14:155-9 pubmed
    ..The high prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Ethiopian goats suggests a high risk of human infections. Further epidemiological investigation, isolation and genotyping of T. gondii are planned. ..
  37. Dabritz H, Miller M, Packham A, Rejmanek D, Leutenegger C, Gardner I, et al. Experimental infection of Peromyscus californicus with Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1360-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Parasites were detected most commonly by IHC in spleen (8/8) and brain (6/8). DNA amplification by PCR was most successful from brain, heart, and spleen. ..
  38. Freyre A, Fialho C, Bigatti L, Araujo F, Falcón J, Mendez J, et al. Toxoplasma gondii: congenital transmission in a hamster model. Exp Parasitol. 2009;122:140-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Only 1 of 17 females transmitted the parasite exclusively via milk. It was concluded that the hamster is a promising species for a model of transmission of congenital toxoplasmosis. ..
  39. Yin G, Meng X, Ma G, Ma X. [Intranasal immunization with mucosal complex vaccine protects mice against Toxoplasma gondii]. Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi. 2007;25:290-4 pubmed
    ..Intranasal inoculation with mucosal complex vaccine effectively induces the mucosal and systemic immune response, and protects mice against Toxoplasma gondii. ..
  40. Zhao Y, Rohde C, Lilue J, Könen Waisman S, Khaminets A, Hunn J, et al. Toxoplasma gondii and the Immunity-Related GTPase (IRG) resistance system in mice: a review. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009;104:234-40 pubmed
    ..We consider the possibility that this double disadvantage is compensated in wild populations by segregating alleles with different resistance and susceptibility properties in the IRG system. ..
  41. Wainwright K, Lagunas Solar M, Miller M, Barr B, Melli A, Packham A, et al. Radiofrequency-induced thermal inactivation of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in water. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:74-81 pubmed publisher
    ..The impact of factors such as water heating time, cooling time and the volume of water treated must be considered when evaluating the efficacy of RF power for oocyst inactivation. ..
  42. Torti D, Feldman S. Interleukin-12, interleukin-23, and psoriasis: current prospects. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007;57:1059-68 pubmed
    ..Larger and longer trials of anti IL-12/IL-23 therapies are needed to assess their clinical use and potential for infection and other adverse events. ..
  43. Welter A, Mineo J, de Oliveira Silva D, Lourenço E, Vieira Ferro E, Roque Barreira M, et al. BALB/c mice resistant to Toxoplasma gondii infection proved to be highly susceptible when previously infected with Myocoptes musculinus fur mites. Int J Exp Pathol. 2007;88:325-35 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that infection with these two contrasting parasites, M. musculinus and T. gondii, may convert an immunocompetent host into a susceptible one, and such a host will develop severe toxoplasmosis...
  44. Hill D, Haley C, Wagner B, Gamble H, Dubey J. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in the US swine herd using sera collected during the National Animal Health Monitoring Survey (Swine 2006). Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:53-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Production practices which eliminate these sources of exposure can reduce the risk of Toxoplasma infection in pigs, and reduce the likelihood of human infection from consumption of infected pork. ..
  45. Hide G, Morley E, Hughes J, Gerwash O, Elmahaishi M, Elmahaishi K, et al. Evidence for high levels of vertical transmission in Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitology. 2009;136:1877-85 pubmed publisher
    ..8%. The results presented in these studies differ from those of other published studies and suggest that vertical transmission may be much more important than previously thought. ..
  46. Freyre A, Falcon J, Mendez J, Gonzalez M. Toxoplasma gondii: protection against colonization of the brain and muscles in a rat model. Exp Parasitol. 2008;119:252-5 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii oocysts of strain M-7741, died. These results encourage further research towards achieving vaccinal protection against the formation of T. gondii tissue cysts in meat animals and people. ..
  47. Wilson D, Grotenbreg G, Liu K, Zhao Y, Frickel E, Gubbels M, et al. Differential regulation of effector- and central-memory responses to Toxoplasma gondii Infection by IL-12 revealed by tracking of Tgd057-specific CD8+ T cells. PLoS Pathog. 2010;6:e1000815 pubmed publisher
  48. Gatkowska J, Gasior A, Kur J, Dlugonska H. Toxoplasma gondii: chimeric Dr fimbriae as a recombinant vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:266-70 pubmed
    ..The results are promising and should be confirmed in further study on farm animals by use of less aggressive than Freund's adjuvant preparations. ..
  49. Youssefi M, Sefidgar S, Ghaffari S. Seroepidemiology of sheep toxoplasmosis in Babol northern Iran 2004. Pak J Biol Sci. 2007;10:1147-8 pubmed
    ..The most positive cases observed by 1:200 titer. According to the researches in other parts of this country, the prevalence rate in this area is more than the others. ..
  50. Gerhold R, Yabsley M. Toxoplasmosis in a red-bellied woodpecker (Melanerpes carolinus). Avian Dis. 2007;51:992-4 pubmed
    ..Sequence analysis of the SAG2 locus disclosed that the T gondii detected was the Type III genotype. This is apparently the first report of clinical neural toxoplasmosis in any species in the order Piciformes. ..
  51. Dubey J, Pas A. Toxoplasma gondii infection in Blanford's fox (Vulpes cana). Vet Parasitol. 2008;153:147-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Protozoal tachyzoites reacted positively with T. gondii-specific polyclonal antibodies. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 10 of 12 V. cana assayed by the latex agglutination or the modified direct agglutination test. ..
  52. Jones J, Dubey J. Waterborne toxoplasmosis--recent developments. Exp Parasitol. 2010;124:10-25 pubmed publisher
    ..The present paper examines the possible importance of T. gondii transmission by water...
  53. Gaydos J, Conrad P, Gilardi K, Blundell G, Ben David M. Does human proximity affect antibody prevalence in marine-foraging river otters (Lontra canadensis)?. J Wildl Dis. 2007;43:116-23 pubmed
  54. Reichel M, Ellis J, Dubey J. Neosporosis and hammondiosis in dogs. J Small Anim Pract. 2007;48:308-12 pubmed
    ..Treatment with clindamycin and potentiated sulphonamides may be useful in cases where muscular atrophy and fibrosis are absent. Feeding of raw meat is a potential risk factor for infection of dogs and should be discouraged...
  55. Lopes W, Santos T, da Silva R, Rossanese W, de Souza F, de Faria Rodrigues J, et al. Seroprevalence of and risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii in sheep raised in the Jaboticabal microregion, São Paulo State, Brazil. Res Vet Sci. 2010;88:104-6 pubmed publisher
    ..T. gondii seropositivity in sheep was significantly associated with gender of the sheep, pasturing system, contact with cats, and the use of mineral supplements and the type of feed...
  56. Degrandi D, Hoffmann R, Beuter Gunia C, Pfeffer K. The proinflammatory cytokine-induced IRG1 protein associates with mitochondria. J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2009;29:55-67 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, this study identifies 35 genes that constitute the IFN-gamma/TNF-triggered effector program in innate immunity...
  57. Masek K, Fiore J, Leitges M, Yan S, Freedman B, Hunter C. Host cell Ca2+ and protein kinase C regulate innate recognition of Toxoplasma gondii. J Cell Sci. 2006;119:4565-73 pubmed
    ..Together these data identify host cell Ca(2+) and PKC as crucial regulators of the innate immune response to microbial stimuli, including T. gondii...
  58. Lindsay S, Barrs V, Child G, Beatty J, Krockenberger M. Myelitis due to reactivated spinal toxoplasmosis in a cat. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12:818-21 pubmed publisher
    ..The clinical and pathological findings are supportive of CNS inflammation due to reactivation of latent tissue T gondii cysts...
  59. Galvan Ramirez M, Madriz Elisondo A, Rico Torres C, Luna Pastén H, Rodríguez Pérez L, Rincón Sánchez A, et al. Frequency of Toxoplasma gondii in pork meat in Ocotlán, Jalisco, Mexico. J Food Prot. 2010;73:1121-3 pubmed
    ..gondii were detected in 1 of the 48 inoculated mice, reflecting a frequency of 2.1% positive pork meat, which is lower than expected but similar to that found in other regions...
  60. Westling K, Jorup Rönström C, Evengard B. Toxoplasmosis not transmitted by cat bite, but high prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii in patients bitten by their own cat. Scand J Infect Dis. 2010;42:687-90 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii significantly more often than those bitten by a foreign cat; 30% and 5%, respectively (p = 0.02). This suggests that regular contact with cats may contribute to the transmission of the parasite...
  61. Dubey J, Crutchley C. Toxoplasmosis in wallabies (Macropus rufogriseus and Macropus eugenii): blindness, treatment with atovaquone, and isolation of Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol. 2008;94:929-33 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii from wallabies in the United States...
  62. Sakamoto C, da Costa A, Gennari S, Pena H, Toniollo G, Lopes W, et al. Experimental infection of pregnant queens with two major Brazilian clonal lineages of Toxoplasma gondii. Parasitol Res. 2009;105:1311-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Experimental infection with tissue cysts from a type BrI and type BrIII isolates of T. gondii developed similar reproductive disturbance in primary infected pregnant queens...
  63. Yildiz K, Kul O, Babur C, Kilic S, Gazyagci A, Celebi B, et al. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in dairy cattle ranches with high abortion rate: special emphasis to serologic co-existence with Toxoplasma gondii, Brucella abortus and Listeria monocytogenes. Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:306-10 pubmed publisher
    ..As a result, the comprehensive data generated through this study can significantly contribute to understanding of serologic association of N. caninum with T. gondii, B. abortus and L. monocytogenes in pregnant and aborted dairy cows...
  64. Dubey J, Velmurugan G, Morales J, Arguedas R, Su C. Isolation of Toxoplasma gondii from the keel-billed toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) from Costa Rica. J Parasitol. 2009;95:467-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The isolate designated TgRsCrl was found to be non-clonal with Type I, II, and III alleles at different loci. This is the first isolation of T. gondii from this host...
  65. Elbez Rubinstein A, Ajzenberg D, Dardé M, Cohen R, Dumètre A, Yera H, et al. Congenital toxoplasmosis and reinfection during pregnancy: case report, strain characterization, experimental model of reinfection, and review. J Infect Dis. 2009;199:280-5 pubmed publisher
  66. Millan J, Cabezón O, Pabón M, Dubey J, Almeria S. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum in feral cats (Felis silvestris catus) in Majorca, Balearic Islands, Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:323-6 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii infection with important implications for public health on the island since the seropositive cats are likely to have already shed T. gondii oocysts in the environment...
  67. Moura L, Kelly P, Krecek R, Dubey J. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in cats from St. Kitts, West Indies. J Parasitol. 2007;93:952-3 pubmed
    ..This is the first report of the prevalence of T. gondii infections in cats on St. Kitts and suggests widespread contamination of the environment with oocysts...
  68. Elmore S, Jones J, Conrad P, Patton S, Lindsay D, Dubey J. Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention. Trends Parasitol. 2010;26:190-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Because of their fastidious nature, the passing of non-infective oocysts, and the short duration of oocyst shedding, direct contact with cats is not thought to be a primary risk for human infection...
  69. Ge Y, Zhang L, Zhang G, Wu J, Tan M, Hu E, et al. In pregnant mice, the infection of Toxoplasma gondii causes the decrease of CD4+CD25+ -regulatory T cells. Parasite Immunol. 2008;30:471-81 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii can be independent of vertical infection and that the decrease of CD4+CD25+-regulatory T cells during infection may represent a previously unrecognized mechanism for the pathogenesis of abortion caused by this parasite...
  70. Di Guardo G, Proietto U, Di Francesco C, Marsilio F, Zaccaroni A, Scaravelli D, et al. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) stranded along the Ligurian Sea coast of Italy. Vet Pathol. 2010;47:245-53 pubmed publisher
    ..Morbillivirus infection was not considered to have contributed to death of these animals...
  71. Dunay I, Fuchs A, Sibley L. Inflammatory monocytes but not neutrophils are necessary to control infection with Toxoplasma gondii in mice. Infect Immun. 2010;78:1564-70 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, these observations demonstrate the critical role of inflammatory monocytes during the acute infection with the parasite T. gondii and reveal that neutrophils are not protective but rather contribute to the pathology...
  72. Zhang H, Zhou D, Zhou P, Lun Z, Chen X, Lin R, et al. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in stray and household cats in Guangzhou, China. Zoonoses Public Health. 2009;56:502-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Integrated control strategies and measures should be implemented to prevent and control T. gondii infection in both stray and household cats, which will have significant implications for the control of human infection with T. gondii...
  73. Parameswaran N, O Handley R, Grigg M, Wayne A, Thompson R. Vertical transmission of Toxoplasma gondii in Australian marsupials. Parasitology. 2009;136:939-44 pubmed publisher
    ..Results of the study suggest that vertical transmission of T. gondii can occur in chronically infected Australian marsupials. ..
  74. Liu Q, Shang L, Jin H, Wei F, Zhu X, Gao H. The protective effect of a Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 plasmid DNA vaccine in mice is enhanced with IL-18. Res Vet Sci. 2010;89:93-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, codelivery of the IL-18-secreting plasmid potentiates the induction and maintenance of the type 1 helper T-cell immune response and may be a potent strategy for enhancing the protective efficacy of vaccines against T. gondii...
  75. Dubey J. Toxoplasma gondii infections in chickens (Gallus domesticus): prevalence, clinical disease, diagnosis and public health significance. Zoonoses Public Health. 2010;57:60-73 pubmed publisher
    ..A very high prevalence of the parasite was found in chickens raised in backyards (up to 100%) and free-range organic (30-50%) establishments...
  76. Dubey J, Stone D, Kwok O, Sharma R. Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum antibodies in dogs from Grenada, West Indies. J Parasitol. 2008;94:750-1 pubmed publisher
    ..Two of the 107 dogs had N. caninum antibodies (IFAT titers 1:100 and 1:400); these dogs had T. gondii titers of 1:1,600 and 1:50, respectively. Results indicate that these 2 structurally similar protozoa are antigenically different...
  77. Sibley L, Khan A, Ajioka J, Rosenthal B. Genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii in animals and humans. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009;364:2749-61 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii are associated with severe infections in humans in South America. Defining the population structure of T. gondii from new regions has important implications for transmission, immunogenicity and pathogenesis...
  78. Bartova E, Sedlak K, Literak I. Serologic survey for toxoplasmosis in domestic birds from the Czech Republic. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:317-20 pubmed publisher
    ..We found extremely high antibody prevalence in geese and ducks compared with gallinaceous birds. This is the first seroprevalence study in domestic birds by indirect fluorescent antibody test in Europe...
  79. Murao T, Omata Y, Kano R, Murata S, Okada T, Konnai S, et al. Serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in wild waterfowl in Chukotka, Kamchatka, Russia and Hokkaido, Japan. J Parasitol. 2008;94:830-3 pubmed publisher
    ..No specific bands were noted in samples for which antibody activity was not detected. These results suggest that wild waterfowl inhabiting Hokkaido, Chukotka, and Kamchatka may be exposed to T. gondii...
  80. Kikumura A, Fang H, Mun H, Uemura N, Makino M, Sayama Y, et al. Protective immunity against lethal anaphylactic reaction in Toxoplasma gondii-infected mice by DNA vaccination with T. gondii-derived heat shock protein 70 gene. Parasitol Int. 2010;59:105-11 pubmed publisher
    ..g.HSP70 gene vaccination. Thus, T.g.HSP70 gene vaccine induced protective immunity against T.g.HSP70-induced PAF-mediated lethal anaphylactic reaction in T. gondii-infected mice...
  81. Bartova E, Sedlak K, Pavlik I, Literak I. Prevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in wild ruminants from the countryside or captivity in the Czech Republic. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1216-8 pubmed publisher
    ..caninum. This is the first evidence of N. caninum infection in mouflon, the first N. caninum seroprevalence study in farmed red deer, and the first survey of N. caninum in wild ruminants from the Czech Republic...
  82. Velmurugan G, Dubey J, Su C. Genotyping studies of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from Africa revealed that the archetypal clonal lineages predominate as in North America and Europe. Vet Parasitol. 2008;155:314-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Taken together with recent studies of T. gondii isolates from Africa, it is clear that the three clonal lineages (Types I, II and III) predominate not only in North America and Europe, but also in Africa...
  83. Kent M. The cat with neurological manifestations of systemic disease. Key conditions impacting on the CNS. J Feline Med Surg. 2009;11:395-407 pubmed publisher
  84. Dubey J, Jenkins M, Kwok O, Zink R, Michalski M, Ulrich V, et al. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) from Iowa and Minnesota using four serologic tests. Vet Parasitol. 2009;161:330-4 pubmed publisher
    ..gondii and N. caninum were detected in 47 deer. Very high (84.9%) seropositivity of N. caninum in fawns suggests high rate of congenital transmission of the parasite. Seropositivity in each test at different titers is discussed...
  85. Tassi P. Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses. A review. Parassitologia. 2007;49:7-15 pubmed
  86. Golkar M, Shokrgozar M, Rafati S, Musset K, Assmar M, Sadaie R, et al. Evaluation of protective effect of recombinant dense granule antigens GRA2 and GRA6 formulated in monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) adjuvant against Toxoplasma chronic infection in mice. Vaccine. 2007;25:4301-11 pubmed
    ..This study shows the protective efficacy of recombinant GRA2 against chronic infection by T. gondii and confirms the utility of MPL adjuvant in enabling a vaccine candidate to induce a protective Th1 immune response...