animal protozoan infections


Summary: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.

Top Publications

  1. Skirpstunas R, Hergert J, Baldwin T. Detection of early stages of Myxobolus cerebralis in fin clips from rainbow trout (Orynchus mykiss). J Vet Diagn Invest. 2006;18:274-7 pubmed
    ..Since detection of M. cerebralis infection using caudal fin samples coupled with nested PCR is an effective method for detection of early parasite stages, use of this technique provides for accurate, nonlethal testing. ..
  2. Rodning S, Wolfe D, Carson R, Wright J, Stockdale H, Pacoli M, et al. Prevalence of Tritrichomonas foetus in several subpopulations of Alabama beef bulls. Theriogenology. 2008;69:212-7 pubmed
    ..Of the 374 bulls included in the retrospective analysis, only 1 (0.27%) was confirmed positive by a PCR-based assay. ..
  3. Subramanian B, Sriraman R, Rao N, Raghul J, Thiagarajan D, Srinivasan V. Cloning, expression and evaluation of the efficacy of a recombinant Eimeria tenella sporozoite antigen in birds. Vaccine. 2008;26:3489-96 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data indicate recombinant EtMIC1 is able to impart partial protection against homologous challenge in chicken. Inclusion of more invasion proteins may improve the efficacy of prophylactic vaccine against Coccidiosis...
  4. Holzer A, Sommerville C, Wootten R. Molecular identity, phylogeny and life cycle of Chloromyxum schurovi Shul'man & Ieshko 2003. Parasitol Res. 2006;99:90-6 pubmed
    ..schurovi clusters with representatives of other myxozoan genera which inhabit the urinary system, whereas the other Chloromyxum species form a more basic clade together with another gall bladder parasite. ..
  5. Xu D, Klesius P, Shoemaker C. Apoptosis in Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is associated with expression of the Fas receptor of theronts. J Fish Dis. 2006;29:225-32 pubmed
    ..The data indicated that theront apoptosis induced by immune cutaneous antibody appears to be positively correlated with the expression of Fas on the surface of Ich theronts...
  6. Bleyen N, Ons E, De Gussem M, Goddeeris B. Passive immunization against Histomonas meleagridis does not protect turkeys from an experimental infection. Avian Pathol. 2009;38:71-6 pubmed publisher
    ..It is, however, possible that the concentration of antibodies at the mucosal site is insufficient. Therefore, further investigation on mucosal immune responses is necessary. ..
  7. Rubini A, Paduan K, Martins T, Labruna M, O Dwyer L. Acquisition and transmission of Hepatozoon canis (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) by the tick Amblyomma ovale (Acari: Ixodidae). Vet Parasitol. 2009;164:324-7 pubmed publisher
    ..canis by DNA sequencing. The results obtained indicated A. ovale ticks as potential vector of H. canis in rural areas of Brazil. ..
  8. Cone D, Marcogliese D, Barse A, Burt M. The myxozoan fauna of Fundulus diaphanus (Cyprinodontidae) from freshwater localities in eastern North America: prevalence, community structure, and geographic distribution. J Parasitol. 2006;92:52-7 pubmed
    ..As such, these types of myxozoans, though they are autogenic, having their entire life cycle normally completed within the aquatic environment, behave more like allogenic parasites that rely on birds and mammals as definitive hosts. ..
  9. Bunbury N, Barton E, Jones C, Greenwood A, Tyler K, Bell D. Avian blood parasites in an endangered columbid: Leucocytozoon marchouxi in the Mauritian Pink Pigeon Columba mayeri. Parasitology. 2007;134:797-804 pubmed
    ..Species for which long-term life-history data are available for every individual serve as valuable models for dissecting the contribution of particular pathogens to species decline. ..

More Information

Publications118 found, 100 shown here

  1. Santiago Alarcon D, Whiteman N, Parker P, Ricklefs R, Valkiunas G. Patterns of parasite abundance and distribution in island populations of Galápagos endemic birds. J Parasitol. 2008;94:584-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Prevalence (up to 100%) and infection intensity (parasitemias up to 12.7%) of Haemoproteus sp. parasites varied little across island populations. ..
  2. Pozio E. Epidemiology and control prospects of foodborne parasitic zoonoses in the European Union. Parassitologia. 2008;50:17-24 pubmed
  3. Martinez J, Martínez de la Puente J, Herrero J, Del Cerro S, Lobato E, Rivero DE Aguilar J, et al. A restriction site to differentiate Plasmodium and Haemoproteus infections in birds: on the inefficiency of general primers for detection of mixed infections. Parasitology. 2009;136:713-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Specific primers for each species and study area should be designed until a new method can efficiently discriminate both parasites...
  4. Xenoulis P, Saridomichelakis M, Read S, Suchodolski J, Steiner J. Detection of Tritrichomonas foetus in cats in Greece. J Feline Med Surg. 2010;12:831-3 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study confirms for the first time the presence of T foetus in cats in Greece and suggests that T foetus infection is often asymptomatic in older cats...
  5. Concannon R, Wynn Owen K, Simpson V, Birtles R. Molecular characterization of haemoparasites infecting bats (Microchiroptera) in Cornwall, UK. Parasitology. 2005;131:489-96 pubmed
    ..The study demonstrates the utility of molecular methods for detecting haemoparasites in dead bats and provides, for the first time, tangible identities for bat-associated Babesia and Bartonella species...
  6. Arsan E, Atkinson S, Hallett S, Meyers T, Bartholomew J. Expanded geographical distribution of Myxobolus cerebralis: first detections from Alaska. J Fish Dis. 2007;30:483-91 pubmed
    ..This paper presents DNA sequence data from the Alaska M. cerebralis isolates, provides a brief history of the fish and facility of origin, and discusses implications of different testing methods on asymptomatic fish populations. ..
  7. Kallert D, Ponader S, Eszterbauer E, El Matbouli M, Haas W. Myxozoan transmission via actinospores: new insights into mechanisms and adaptations for host invasion. Parasitology. 2007;134:1741-50 pubmed
    ..An updated summary of the sequential course of events during host recognition and invasion by actinospores is given. ..
  8. Abdel Ghaffar F, Ali M, Al Quraishy S, Entzeroth R, Abdel Baki A, Al Farraj S, et al. Zschokkella helmii n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea), a new parasite of marbled spinefoot Siganus rivulatus (Forsskal 1775), Red Sea, Egypt: light and transmission electron microscopy. Parasitol Res. 2008;102:183-92 pubmed
    ..2 microm (2.0-3.0) and have five filaments. Ultrastructure of the plasmodial wall and sporogenesis of the present species followed the usual pattern valid for most studied myxosporean species. ..
  9. Raffel T, Bommarito T, Barry D, Witiak S, Shackelton L. Widespread infection of the Eastern red-spotted newt (Notophthalmus viridescens) by a new species of Amphibiocystidium, a genus of fungus-like mesomycetozoan parasites not previously reported in North America. Parasitology. 2008;135:203-15 pubmed
    ..We also describe the widespread and seasonal distribution of this parasite in red-spotted newt populations and provide evidence of mortality due to infection...
  10. Susta L, Torres Velez F, Zhang J, Brown C. An in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical study of cytauxzoonosis in domestic cats. Vet Pathol. 2009;46:1197-204 pubmed publisher
  11. Bleyen N, De Gussem K, Pham A, Ons E, Van Gerven N, Goddeeris B. Non-curative, but prophylactic effects of paromomycin in Histomonas meleagridis-infected turkeys and its effect on performance in non-infected turkeys. Vet Parasitol. 2009;165:248-55 pubmed publisher
    ..In conclusion, paromomycin can be used as a new prophylactic measure in the control of histomonosis in turkeys...
  12. Gericota B, Garner M, Barr B, Nordhausen R, Larsen R, Lowenstine L, et al. Morphologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular characterization of a novel Lankesterella protozoan in two White's tree frogs (Litoria caerulea). J Zoo Wildl Med. 2010;41:242-8 pubmed
    ..A causal relationship between frog morbidity and protozoal parasitism was not determined. This is the first report of Lankesterella sp. in White's tree frogs...
  13. Casal G, Matos E, Azevedo C. A new myxozoan parasite from the Amazonian fish Metynnis argenteus (Teleostei, Characidae): light and electron microscope observations. J Parasitol. 2006;92:817-21 pubmed
    ..Based on the morphological differences and host specificity, we propose that the parasite is a new species named Myxobolus metynnis n. sp. ..
  14. Valkiunas G, Zickus T, Shapoval A, Lezhova T. Effect of Haemoproteus belopolskyi (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) on body mass of the blackcap Sylvia atricapilla. J Parasitol. 2006;92:1123-5 pubmed
    ..Clinical symptoms of the infection were not recorded. All birds from both groups survived until the end of the experiment...
  15. da Silva P, Hégaret H, Lambert C, Wikfors G, Le Goïc N, Shumway S, et al. Immunological responses of the Manila clam (Ruditapes philippinarum) with varying parasite (Perkinsus olseni) burden, during a long-term exposure to the harmful alga, Karenia selliformis, and possible interactions. Toxicon. 2008;51:563-73 pubmed publisher
    ..Initial exposure of P. olseni-infected clams to K. selliformis appeared to modify the host-parasite interaction by causing effects in both organisms. ..
  16. Gill H, Paperna I. Leucocytozoonosis in the Israeli sparrow, Passer domesticus biblicus Hartert 1904. Parasitol Res. 2005;96:373-7 pubmed
    ..Geographically, it is confined to habitats presumably supporting vectors. ..
  17. Jones H, Sehgal R, Smith T. Leucocytozoon (Apicomplexa: Leucocytozoidae) from West African birds, with descriptions of two species. J Parasitol. 2005;91:397-401 pubmed
  18. Funk V, Raap M, Sojonky K, Jones S, Robinson J, Falkenberg C, et al. Development and validation of an RNA- and DNA-based quantitative PCR assay for determination of Kudoa thyrsites infection levels in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;75:239-49 pubmed
    ..A logistic regression analysis comparing diagnostic data with a visual assessment of post-mortem flesh quality indicated that histology was the single best predictor of flesh quality, followed by DNA QPCR and then RNA QPCR. ..
  19. Woo P. Protective immunity in fish against protozoan diseases. Parassitologia. 2007;49:185-91 pubmed
    ..The live Cryptobia vaccine protects salmonids from infections while the DNA-vaccine stimulates production of antibodies to neutralize the disease causing factor (metalloprotease) in cryptobiosis; hence infected fish recover more rapidly...
  20. Frey C, Schild M, Hemphill A, Stünzi P, Muller N, Gottstein B, et al. Intestinal Tritrichomonas foetus infection in cats in Switzerland detected by in vitro cultivation and PCR. Parasitol Res. 2009;104:783-8 pubmed publisher
    ..A total homology with published T. foetus sequences was confirmed in all of the cases. T. foetus therefore appears to range among those organisms that can cause chronic diarrhea in cats in Switzerland...
  21. Pérez Tris J, Hasselquist D, Hellgren O, Krizanauskiene A, Waldenstrom J, Bensch S. What are malaria parasites?. Trends Parasitol. 2005;21:209-11 pubmed
  22. Pennycott T, Wood A, MacIntyre C, MacIntyre D, Patterson T. Deaths in aviary birds associated with protozoal megaloschizonts. Vet Rec. 2006;159:499-500 pubmed
  23. Petrópolis D, Fernandes Rodrigues J, da Rocha Azevedo B, Costa e Silva Filho F. The binding of Tritrichomonas foetus to immobilized laminin-1 and its role in the cytotoxicity exerted by the parasite. Microbiology. 2008;154:2283-90 pubmed publisher
    ..foetus. Binding of T. foetus to LMN-1 rendered the parasite toxic to HeLa cell monolayers. Thus, LMN-1 appears to provide signalling cues that mediate important cell functions in T. foetus concerning its interaction with host cells. ..
  24. Vojta L, Mrljak V, Curković S, Zivicnjak T, Marinculic A, Beck R. Molecular epizootiology of canine hepatozoonosis in Croatia. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1129-36 pubmed publisher
    ..canis that infect European dogs are genetically very heterogeneous. ..
  25. Criado Fornelio A, Rey Valeiron C, Buling A, Barba Carretero J, Jefferies R, Irwin P. New advances in molecular epizootiology of canine hematic protozoa from Venezuela, Thailand and Spain. Vet Parasitol. 2007;144:261-9 pubmed
    ..In addition, it was found that the PCR assay was able as well to detect Hepatozoon infections. Thirty five percent of the foxes were infected with two different H. canis isolates showing 99.8-100% identity to Curupira 1 from Brazil. ..
  26. Yang T, Chen A, Chen W, Li A, Yan Y. Parasitic diseases of cultured marine finfishes and their surveillance in China. Parassitologia. 2007;49:193-9 pubmed
  27. Zabransky C, Webb S, Fedynich A, Bryan A. Blood parasites in wood storks (Mycteria americana) from the southeastern United States. J Parasitol. 2008;94:1178-9 pubmed publisher
    ..and microfilariae were not observed. Mean intensity of H. crumenium was 4.4 +/- 0.7 (SE) per 2,000 erythrocytes counted. All infected wood storks were subadult or adult and were from postbreeding dispersal sites in Mississippi. ..
  28. Earnhart C, Kaattari S. Potential novel epitopes in the extracellular products of oyster homogenate-supplemented Perkinsus marinus cells are not detected by subtractive immunization. J Parasitol. 2005;91:689-91 pubmed
    ..These findings suggest that, because no unique epitopes can be found within ECPs generated following exposure of P. marinus to host homogenates, the changes to ECPs are greatly constrained. ..
  29. Eiras J, Júnior J, Sampaio L, Robaldo R, Abreu P. Myxobolus sp. can cause in vivo myoliquefaction in the host Paralichthys orbignyanus (Osteichthyes, Paralichthydae). Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;77:255-8 pubmed
    ..since the fish were not infected by myxosporeans which are usually associated with this condition (Kudoa spp.), and other causes (bacteria, fungi) were not found. The histopathology of the infection is described. ..
  30. Beauchamp K, El Matbouli M, Gay M, Georgiadis M, Nehring R, Hedrick R. The effect of cohabitation of Tubifex tubifex (Oligochaeta: Tubificidae) populations on infections to Myxobolus cerebralis (Myxozoa: Myxobolidae). J Invertebr Pathol. 2006;91:1-8 pubmed
    ..cerebralis by absorbing or inactivating the parasite and may also show greater survival compared to susceptible oligochaetes in certain whirling disease enzootic habitats. ..
  31. Gozlan R, Whipps C, Andreou D, Arkush K. Identification of a rosette-like agent as Sphaerothecum destruens, a multi-host fish pathogen. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:1055-8 pubmed publisher
  32. Murcia S, Kerans B, MacConnell E, Koel T. Myxobolus cerebralis infection patterns in Yellowstone cutthroat trout after natural exposure. Dis Aquat Organ. 2006;71:191-9 pubmed
    ..Our results answer important questions in fish health and will aid in the development of diagnostic tools and management efforts against this pathogen in native cutthroat trout and other vulnerable salmonids. ..
  33. Crook K, Perkins S, Greiner E. Apparent absence of Parahaemoproteus lophortyx and other hematozoa in North Florida populations of bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). J Parasitol. 2009;95:1142-4 pubmed publisher
    ..This procedure may detect parasitemias too low to detect by microscopy. No PCR-positive samples were detected, however, adding support to the absence of hematozoa in Florida populations of bobwhite quail...
  34. Rolbiecki L, Rokicki J. Parasite fauna of the eel, Anguilla anguilla (Linnaeus, 1758), from the Polish part of the Vistula Lagoon. Wiad Parazytol. 2006;52:115-9 pubmed
    ..1746) than in those smaller than 50 cm (0.1734); in addition, only Anguillicola crassus-free fish showed a higher condition coefficient (0.1861), compared to the infected specimens (0.1715). ..
  35. Nieto N, Camann M, Foley J, Reiss J. Disease associated with integumentary and cloacal parasites in tadpoles of northern red-legged frog Rana aurora aurora. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;78:61-71 pubmed
    ..This study is the first reporting parasitism and disease in natural populations of northern red-legged frogs. ..
  36. Heiniger H, Gunter N, Adlard R. Relationships between four novel ceratomyxid parasites from the gall bladders of labrid fishes from Heron Island, Queensland, Australia. Parasitol Int. 2008;57:158-65 pubmed publisher
  37. Aragort W, Alvarez M, Leiro J, Sanmartin M. Blood protozoans in elasmobranchs of the family Rajidae from Galicia (NW Spain). Dis Aquat Organ. 2005;65:63-8 pubmed
    ..We did not detect any statistically significant differences in leucocyte percentages between infected and uninfected fish, between male and female fish, among species or among weight groups. ..
  38. Geurden T, Claerebout E, Vercruysse J. [Protozoan infection causes diarrhea in calves]. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd. 2005;130:734-7 pubmed
    ..Both for C. parvum and G. duodenalis immunological assays are available. Control measures must aim to reduce or prevent oocyst or cyst transmission, by combining management measures, desinfection and chemotherapeutic treatment. ..
  39. Smit N, Grutter A, Adlard R, Davies A. Hematozoa of teleosts from Lizard Island, Australia, with some comments on their possible mode of transmission and the description of a new hemogregarine species. J Parasitol. 2006;92:778-88 pubmed
    ..bigemina-like hemogregarine, contained hemogregarine gamonts and possibly young oocysts up to 3 days postfeeding, but no firm evidence that gnathiids transmit hemogregarines at Lizard Island was obtained...
  40. Sibaja Morales K, de Oliveira J, Jiménez Rocha A, Hernández Gamboa J, Prendas Gamboa J, Arroyo Murillo F, et al. Gastrointestinal parasites and ectoparasites of Bradypus variegatus and Choloepus hoffmanni sloths in captivity from Costa Rica. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2009;40:86-90 pubmed
    ..This is the first time that cestode strobilae and nematode eggs are reported in sloth feces and that Monezia benedeni and L. leptocephalus were found in captive sloths. ..
  41. Wang C, He H, Li M, Lei F, Root J, Wu Y, et al. Parasite species associated with wild plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) in southeastern Qinghai Province, China. J Wildl Dis. 2009;45:288-94 pubmed
    ..These data provide evidence of a natural biologic control mechanism of plateau pika on grassland habitats, and may be of use for identifying the mechanism of transmission of parasites between plateau pika, livestock, and humans. ..
  42. Huber K, Reynaud M, Callait M, Zenner L. Histomonas meleagridis in turkeys: dissemination kinetics in host tissues after cloacal infection. Poult Sci. 2006;85:1008-14 pubmed
    ..The parasite DNA was not detected in the blood, kidneys, pancreas, or muscle of the thigh. Results of the PCR were in agreement with the evolution of the clinical signs and of the cecal and liver lesions. ..
  43. Agnew D, Munson L, Cobo E, Olesen D, Corbeil L, BonDurant R. Comparative histopathology and antibody responses of non-Tritrichomonas foetus trichomonad and Tritrichomonas foetus genital infections in virgin heifers. Vet Parasitol. 2008;151:170-80 pubmed
    ..The NTfTs studied in this work only transiently infected the vagina and were associated with strictly mild inflammatory changes, which probably do not cause significant disease, i.e., pregnancy loss...
  44. Fellous S. Positive correlation between hemosporidian parasitemia and likelihood of PCR detection in co-infected birds. J Parasitol. 2009;95:472-3 pubmed publisher
  45. Bleyen N, De Gussem K, De Gussem J, Goddeeris B. Specific detection of Histomonas meleagridis in turkeys by a PCR assay with an internal amplification control. Vet Parasitol. 2007;143:206-13 pubmed
    ..In conclusion, our PCR offers the use of the internal control to detect false negative results and an increased sensitivity, and thus should be useful for routine diagnosis of H. meleagridis in poultry. ..
  46. Sitja Bobadilla A, Diamant A, Palenzuela O, Alvarez Pellitero P. Effect of host factors and experimental conditions on the horizontal transmission of Enteromyxum leei (Myxozoa) to gilthead sea bream, Sparus aurata L., and European sea bass, Dicentrarchus labrax (L.). J Fish Dis. 2007;30:243-50 pubmed
  47. Bailey C, Kramer J, Mejia A, Mackey J, Mansfield K, Miller A. Systemic spironucleosis in 2 immunodeficient rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Vet Pathol. 2010;47:488-94 pubmed publisher
    ..This report is the first of extraintestinal infection with Spironucleus sp in higher mammals and expands the list of opportunistic infections found in immunocompromised rhesus macaques...
  48. Singh A, Weissenbock H, Hess M. Histomonas meleagridis: immunohistochemical localization of parasitic cells in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections of experimentally infected turkeys demonstrates the wide spread of the parasite in its host. Exp Parasitol. 2008;118:505-13 pubmed
    ..Altogether, the technique developed can be used to study the sequential pathogenesis of histomonosis in turkeys and to obtain new insights into the mechanisms of interaction with the host tissues...
  49. Thompson K. Use of site occupancy models to estimate prevalence of Myxobolus cerebralis infection in trout. J Aquat Anim Health. 2007;19:8-13 pubmed publisher
    ..89 (right halves) for polymerase chain reaction. The occupancy models used in this study may be extended to large-scale monitoring of M. cerebralis to estimate expansion or contraction of the parasite's range over time...
  50. Pan B, Zhang Y, Suo X, Xue Y. Effect of subcutaneously administered diclazuril on the output of Eimeria species oocysts by experimentally infected rabbits. Vet Rec. 2008;162:153-5 pubmed
    ..The burden of oocysts in the livers of the therapeutic groups (4000 to 9000) were significantly lower (P<0.05) than in the inoculated but untreated control group (23,000), but higher than in the prophylactic groups (around 1000)...
  51. Lukins H, Zale A, Barrows F. A packed-bed filtration system for collection of Myxobolus cerebralis triactinomyxons. J Aquat Anim Health. 2007;19:234-41 pubmed publisher
    ..7-1.4/L. The packed-bed filtration system has the potential to quickly determine the temporal and spatial variation in infection risk and to test the efficacy of various management strategies...
  52. Telford S, Norton T, Moler P, Jensen J. A new Haemogregarina species of the alligator snapping turtle, Macrochelys temminckii (Testudines: Chelydridae), in Georgia and Florida that produces macromeronts in circulating erythrocytes. J Parasitol. 2009;95:208-14 pubmed publisher
    ..In tissues of the Placobdella spp. leech vectors, merogony occurs directly from sporozoites, forming merozoites that presumably are infective for the turtle host...
  53. Beck R, Vojta L, Mrljak V, Marinculic A, Beck A, Zivicnjak T, et al. Diversity of Babesia and Theileria species in symptomatic and asymptomatic dogs in Croatia. Int J Parasitol. 2009;39:843-8 pubmed
    ..Finally, the identities of the tick vectors transmitting T. annae and B. caballi remain to be elucidated...
  54. Dube A, Gupta R, Singh N. Reporter genes facilitating discovery of drugs targeting protozoan parasites. Trends Parasitol. 2009;25:432-9 pubmed publisher
  55. Kuchel R, Aladaileh S, Birch D, Vella N, Raftos D. Phagocytosis of the protozoan parasite, Marteilia sydneyi, by Sydney rock oyster (Saccostrea glomerata) hemocytes. J Invertebr Pathol. 2010;104:97-104 pubmed publisher
    ..Overall, the data suggest that Sydney rock oyster hemocytes can recognise and phagocytose M. sydneyi, and that resistance against QX disease may be associated with enhanced phagolysosomal activity in QXR oysters...
  56. Corbeil L, Campero C, Rhyan J, Anderson M, Gershwin L, Agnew D, et al. Uterine mast cells and immunoglobulin-E antibody responses during clearance of Tritrichomonas foetus. Vet Pathol. 2005;42:282-90 pubmed
    ..Released cytokines may account for production of predominantly Th2 (IgG1 and IgE) and IgA antibody responses, which are related to clearance of the infection...
  57. Yokoyama H, Itoh N, Tanaka S. Henneguya pagri n. sp. (Myxozoa: Myxosporea) causing cardiac henneguyosis in red sea bream, Pagrus major (Temminck & Schlegel). J Fish Dis. 2005;28:479-87 pubmed
    ..Partial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequences of H. pagri are closely related to those of H. lateolabracis infecting the bulbus arteriosus of Chinese sea bass, Lateolabrax sp...
  58. Putignani L, Russo C, Alano P, Pozio E. Papers from the COST Action 857 Workshop V Biodiversity and population genetics of the Apicomplexa (Congress Centre of the Bambino Gesu Hospital, Rome, November 8-9, 2004). Parassitologia. 2005;47:183-4 pubmed
  59. Silva E, Diniz J, Lainson R, DaMatta R, de Souza W. Ultrastructural study of the gametocytes and merogonic stages of Fallisia audaciosa (Haemosporina: Garniidae) that infect neutrophils of the lizard Plica umbra (Reptilia: Iguanidae). Protist. 2006;157:13-9 pubmed
    ..The unusual presence of a parasitic protozoan within neutrophils, in some way interfering with or modulating the microbicidal activity of such cells, is discussed...
  60. Valkiunas G, Krizanauskiene A, Iezhova T, Hellgren O, Bensch S. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of circumnuclear hemoproteids (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) of sylviid birds, with a description of Haemoproteus parabelopolskyi sp. nov. J Parasitol. 2007;93:680-7 pubmed
    ..This study establishes the value of both PCR and morphology in identification of avian hemoproteids...
  61. Shutler D, Lowe A, Robinson S. Relationships between circulating leucocytes and Leucocytozoon simondi in mallard, Anas platyrhynchos, ducklings. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2010;156:46-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Collectively, our results did not reveal tight links between leucocyte profiles and parasitism by L. simondi. Our data suggest that L. simondi was relatively benign to our wild ducks...
  62. van der Heijden H, Stegeman A, Landman W. Development of a blocking-ELISA for the detection of antibodies against Histomonas meleagridis in chickens and turkeys. Vet Parasitol. 2010;171:216-22 pubmed publisher
    ..meleagridis blocking-ELISA were high. The new blocking-ELISA is a promising tool for experimental studies; however, further validation of this test with field samples is necessary before it can be used for diagnostic purposes...
  63. Millet C, Cable J, Lloyd D. The diplomonad fish parasite Spironucleus vortens produces hydrogen. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2010;57:400-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Metronidazole (1 mM) inhibited H(2) production by 50%, while CO(2) production was not affected. This suggests that metronidazole may be reduced by an enzyme of the H(2) pathway, thus competing for electrons with H(+)...
  64. Goodyear K, Threlfall E. Use of veterinary antiprotozoal products in the UK, 1998-2002. Int J Antimicrob Agents. 2005;25:279-81 pubmed
  65. Bondy P, Cohn L, Tyler J, Marsh A. Polymerase chain reaction detection of Cytauxzoon felis from field-collected ticks and sequence analysis of the small subunit and internal transcribed spacer 1 region of the ribosomal RNA gene. J Parasitol. 2005;91:458-61 pubmed
    ..This is the first known report of ITS-1 gene identification and sequencing for C. felis. It is also the first published investigation of genetic variation in C. felis...
  66. Hunter P, Thompson R. The zoonotic transmission of Giardia and Cryptosporidium. Int J Parasitol. 2005;35:1181-90 pubmed
    ..However, for both parasites there is a need for molecular epidemiological studies to be undertaken in well-defined foci of transmission in order to fully determine the frequency and importance of zoonotic transmission...
  67. Lopez J, Abarca K, Paredes P, Inzunza E. [Intestinal parasites in dogs and cats with gastrointestinal symptoms in Santiago, Chile]. Rev Med Chil. 2006;134:193-200 pubmed
    ..There is an increasing importance of pet-transmitted infections, some of those are considered emerging infections...
  68. Levy M, Poore M, Colorni A, Noga E, Vandersea M, Litaker R. A highly specific PCR assay for detecting the fish ectoparasite Amyloodinium ocellatum. Dis Aquat Organ. 2007;73:219-26 pubmed
    ..Thus, our findings do not eliminate the possibility that different strains are in fact 'subspecies' or lower taxa, which may also differ in pathogenic and immunogenic characteristics, environmental tolerance, and other features...
  69. Murata K, Tamada A, Ichikawa Y, Hagihara M, Sato Y, Nakamura H, et al. Geographical distribution and seasonality of the prevalence of Leucocytozoon lovati in Japanese rock ptarmigans (Lagopus mutus japonicus) found in the alpine regions of Japan. J Vet Med Sci. 2007;69:171-6 pubmed
    ..Maejohnen-dake. It is necessary to continue surveying the relationship between the population dynamics of the ptarmigan and the density of the arthropod vector from the perspective of in situ conservation of this endangered species...
  70. Vaz V, D Andrea P, Jansen A. Effects of habitat fragmentation on wild mammal infection by Trypanosoma cruzi. Parasitology. 2007;134:1785-93 pubmed
    ..Furthermore, an extremely mild controlled infection by T. cruzi was detected since no patent parasitaemia could be detected in fresh blood samples, and no parasites were isolated by haemoculture...
  71. Foott J, Stone R, Wiseman E, True K, Nichols K. Longevity of Ceratomyxa shasta and Parvicapsula minibicornis actinospore infectivity in the Klamath River. J Aquat Anim Health. 2007;19:77-83 pubmed publisher
    ..minibicornis) or the prevalence of infection for both parasites. Actinospores of these myxosporean parasites have the potential to infect salmonids for at least 7 d after release from the alternate polychaete host...
  72. Marchetti V, Lubas G, Baneth G, Modenato M, Mancianti F. Hepatozoonosis in a dog with skeletal involvement and meningoencephalomyelitis. Vet Clin Pathol. 2009;38:121-5 pubmed publisher
    ..This is an unusual case of canine hepatozoonosis involving neurologic signs and a periosteal reaction more typical of H. americanum infection and rarely reported in dogs infected with H. canis...
  73. Loiseau C, Iezhova T, Valkiunas G, Chasar A, Hutchinson A, Buermann W, et al. Spatial variation of haemosporidian parasite infection in African rainforest bird species. J Parasitol. 2010;96:21-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Environmental conditions here can either favor or reduce parasite infection. We discuss the implications of these discrepancies for conservation and ecological studies of infectious diseases in natural populations...
  74. Ito A, Gotanda T. A rapid assay for detecting antibody against leucocytozoonosis in chickens with a latex agglutination test using recombinant R7 antigen. Avian Pathol. 2005;34:15-9 pubmed
    ..This study has shown that LA using the rR7 antigen is a simple, quick, and useful method for detecting antibody against L. caulleryi...
  75. Gross K, Powell M, Butler R, Morrison R, Nowak B. Changes in the innate immune response of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., exposed to experimental infection with Neoparamoeba sp. J Fish Dis. 2005;28:293-9 pubmed
    ..There was an increase in the chemotactic response of anterior kidney macrophages isolated from exposed fish relative to control fish at 8 dpe. Total protein and lysozyme levels were not affected by Neoparamoeba sp. exposure...
  76. Bermudez R, Vigliano F, Marcaccini A, Sitja Bobadilla A, Quiroga M, Nieto J. Response of Ig-positive cells to Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa) experimental infection in turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.): A histopathological and immunohistochemical study. Fish Shellfish Immunol. 2006;21:501-12 pubmed
    ..The results obtained in this study indicate that the infection by E. scophthalmi in turbot induced an immune response that involved changes in the number and distribution of Ig+ cells...
  77. Parama A, Castro R, Lamas J, Sanmartin M, Santamarina M, Leiro J. Scuticociliate proteinases may modulate turbot immune response by inducing apoptosis in pronephric leucocytes. Int J Parasitol. 2007;37:87-95 pubmed
    ..dicentrarchi may induce host leucocyte programmed cell death via the production of cysteine proteinases, as a mechanism of pathogenesis and evasion of the turbot innate immune response...
  78. Levy M, Litaker R, Goldstein R, Dykstra M, Vandersea M, Noga E. Piscinoodinium, a fish-ectoparasitic dinoflagellate, is a member of the class dinophyceae, subclass gymnodiniphycidae: convergent evolution with Amyloodinium. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1006-15 pubmed publisher
  79. Burreson E. Hemoflagellates of Oregon marine fishes with the description of new species of Trypanosoma and Trypanoplasma. J Parasitol. 2007;93:1442-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Trypanoplasma bobolsoni n. sp. was found in E. jordani, L. exilis, and P. vetulus, and survived in 2 other species after intraperitoneal injection. A distinct, but unnamed trypanoplasm, was found in P. vetulus...
  80. Iwanowicz L, Iwanowicz D, Pote L, Blazer V, Schill W. Morphology and 18S rDNA of Henneguya gurlei (Myxosporea) from Ameiurus nebulosus (Siluriformes) in North Carolina. J Parasitol. 2008;94:46-57 pubmed publisher
    ..Morphologically, this species is similar to other species of Henneguya that are known to infect ictalurids. Based on SSU rDNA sequences, this species is most closely related to H. exilis and H. ictaluri, which infect Ictalurus punctatus...
  81. Labes E, Hegglin D, Grimm F, Nurcahyo W, Harrison M, Bastian M, et al. Intestinal parasites of endangered orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus) in Central and East Kalimantan, Borneo, Indonesia. Parasitology. 2010;137:123-35 pubmed publisher
    ..Ranging patterns of wild orangutans, overcrowding in captivity and a shift of age composition in favour of immatures seemed to be the most likely factors leading to these results...
  82. Kearns S. Infectious hepatopathies in dogs and cats. Top Companion Anim Med. 2009;24:189-98 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, this article includes a description of common bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal, protozoal, parasitic, and rickettsial diseases in dogs and cats...
  83. Kim Y, Kim H, Cho S, Cheun H, Yu J, Lee S. PCR detection and molecular characterization of Pentatrichomonas hominis from feces of dogs with diarrhea in the Republic of Korea. Korean J Parasitol. 2010;48:9-13 pubmed publisher
    ..hominis 18S rRNA genes in 3 of the 14 puppies (1 female and 2 males; 1 aged 2 months and 2 aged 9 months). This phylogenetic analysis established that P. hominis belonged to the 1st clade, which is comprised of Bos taurus and Felines...
  84. El Matbouli M, Soliman H. Rapid diagnosis of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (PKD) in salmonid fish by a novel DNA amplification method, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP). Parasitol Res. 2005;96:277-84 pubmed
    ..The developed assay is simple, rapid, cost-effective, specific and highly sensitive. The assay is also characterized by its field applicability, as it does not require the use of sophisticated equipment or skilled personnel...
  85. Amo L, Lopez P, Martin J. Prevalence and intensity of haemogregarine blood parasites and their mite vectors in the common wall lizard, Podarcis muralis. Parasitol Res. 2005;96:378-81 pubmed
    ..Parasite load was higher in lizards with better body condition, which could be reflecting the mortality of infected lizards with poor condition...
  86. Gordon A, Marshall H, Shumway S, Coyne K, Lewitus A, Mallin M, et al. Characterization of Pfiesteria ichthyocidal activity. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2005;71:6463; author reply 6464 pubmed
  87. Yabsley M, Murphy S, Cunningham M. Molecular detection and characterization of Cytauxzoon felis and a Babesia species in cougars from Florida. J Wildl Dis. 2006;42:366-74 pubmed
    ..and that some individuals are infected with both organisms. The infectivity and pathogenicity of this Babesia sp. for domestic cats is unknown. This represents the first report of a feline Babesia sp. in North America...
  88. Bearham D, Spiers Z, Raidal S, Jones J, Nicholls P. Molecular characterisation of a haplosporidian parasite infecting rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata in north Western Australia. J Invertebr Pathol. 2007;95:33-40 pubmed
    ..Haplosporidia: Haplosporidiidae) associated with mortalities among rock oysters Saccostrea cuccullata in north Western Australia. Dis. Aquat. Organ. 51, 123-13], in archived rock oyster tissues from the same coastline...
  89. Gookin J, Stauffer S, Coccaro M, Marcotte M, Levy M. Optimization of a species-specific polymerase chain reaction assay for identification of Pentatrichomonas hominis in canine fecal specimens. Am J Vet Res. 2007;68:783-7 pubmed
    ..To determine the optimum reaction conditions and detection limits of PCR assay for identification of Pentatrichomonas hominis in DNA extracted from canine feces...
  90. Paperna I, Martelli P. Haemosporidian infections in captive exotic glossy starling Lamprotornis chalybaeus in Hong Kong. Folia Parasitol (Praha). 2008;55:7-12 pubmed pastoris reported from a myna (Acridotheres tristis) in Singapore. Mynas are also common in Hong Kong, which suggests a possible cross-transmission of infection between these two starlings...
  91. Brown H, Modaresi S, Cook J, Latimer K, Peterson D. Genetic variability of archived Cytauxzoon felis histologic specimens from domestic cats in Georgia, 1995-2007. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2009;21:493-8 pubmed
    ..The findings of the current study document the existence of genetically distinct C. felis populations in historical samples and, together with data from contemporary samples, demonstrate a diverse population structure for C. felis...
  92. Quiroga M, Redondo M, Sitja Bobadilla A, Palenzuela O, Riaza A, Macias A, et al. Risk factors associated with Enteromyxum scophthalmi (Myxozoa) infection in cultured turbot, Scophthalmus maximus (L.). Parasitology. 2006;133:433-42 pubmed