Summary: A benzodiazepine used in the treatment of anxiety, alcohol withdrawal, and insomnia.

Top Publications

  1. Gerra G, Zaimovic A, Giusti F, Moi G, Brewer C. Intravenous flumazenil versus oxazepam tapering in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Addict Biol. 2002;7:385-95 pubmed
    ..In the present experiment, FLU (treatment A) was compared with oxazepam tapering (treatment B) and placebo (treatment C) in the control of BZD withdrawal symptoms in three groups of BZD ..
  2. Irving R, Dickson S. The detection of sedatives in hair and nail samples using tandem LC-MS-MS. Forensic Sci Int. 2007;166:58-67 pubmed
    Drug screening methods were developed to detect alprazolam, clobazam, clonazepam, diazepam, midazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, triazolam, zopiclone, and selected metabolites in human hair and nail samples employing liquid-liquid extraction ..
  3. Deutsch W, Kukreja A, Shane B, Hegde V. Phenobarbital, oxazepam and Wyeth 14,643 cause DNA damage as measured by the Comet assay. Mutagenesis. 2001;16:439-42 pubmed
    Although phenobarbital, oxazepam and Wyeth 14,643 are carcinogens that do not form DNA adducts, they induce mutations in the Big Blue transgenic mouse model...
  4. Schmider J, Standhart H, Deuschle M, Drancoli J, Heuser I. A double-blind comparison of lorazepam and oxazepam in psychomotor retardation and mutism. Biol Psychiatry. 1999;46:437-41 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of LO and oxazepam (OX), benzodiazepines with comparable pharmacokinetics, on psychomotor retardation and mutism associated with ..
  5. Court M, Duan S, Guillemette C, Journault K, Krishnaswamy S, von Moltke L, et al. Stereoselective conjugation of oxazepam by human UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGTs): S-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B15, while R-oxazepam is glucuronidated by UGT2B7 and UGT1A9. Drug Metab Dispos. 2002;30:1257-65 pubmed
    R,S)-Oxazepam is a 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is metabolized primarily by hepatic glucuronidation. In previous studies, S-oxazepam (but not R-oxazepam) was shown to be polymorphically glucuronidated in humans...
  6. He X, Hesse L, Hazarika S, Masse G, Harmatz J, Greenblatt D, et al. Evidence for oxazepam as an in vivo probe of UGT2B15: oxazepam clearance is reduced by UGT2B15 D85Y polymorphism but unaffected by UGT2B17 deletion. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2009;68:721-30 pubmed publisher
    Although in vitro studies indicate that oxazepam is an isoform-selective substrate probe for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase 2B15, the utility of this drug as an in vivo probe is uncertain...
  7. Flodin P, Gospic K, Petrovic P, Fransson P. Effects of L-dopa and oxazepam on resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity: a randomized, cross-sectional placebo study. Brain Connect. 2012;2:246-53 pubmed publisher
    ..magnetic resonance imaging study where a single dose of commonly prescribed amounts of either benzodiazepine (oxazepam), L-dopa, or placebo was given to 81 healthy subjects...
  8. Ziegler G, Ploch M, Miettinen Baumann A, Collet W. Efficacy and tolerability of valerian extract LI 156 compared with oxazepam in the treatment of non-organic insomnia--a randomized, double-blind, comparative clinical study. Eur J Med Res. 2002;7:480-6 pubmed
    ..randomised parallel group comparison with either 600 mg/die valerian extract LI 156 (Sedonium) or 10 mg/die oxazepam taken for 6 weeks. A total of 202 outpatients with a mean duration of insomnia of 3...
  9. Voshaar R, Verkes R, van Luijtelaar G, Edelbroek P, Zitman F. Effects of additional oxazepam in long-term users of oxazepam. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2005;25:42-50 pubmed
    ..The effects of an additional 20-mg dosage oxazepam were assessed in a double-blind, balanced-order, crossover randomized study comparing 16 long-term users of ..

More Information


  1. van der Meer J, Schuttelaar M, Toth G, Kardaun S, Beerthuizen G, de Jong M, et al. Successful dexamethasone pulse therapy in a toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) patient featuring recurrent TEN to oxazepam. Clin Exp Dermatol. 2001;26:654-6 pubmed
    ..female patient is described who developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) after medication with phenytoin and oxazepam. Initially phenytoin was discontinued and dexamethasone pulse therapy (1...
  2. Lahousse S, Hoenerhoff M, Collins J, Ton T, Masinde T, Olson D, et al. Gene expression and mutation assessment provide clues of genetic and epigenetic mechanisms in liver tumors of oxazepam-exposed mice. Vet Pathol. 2011;48:875-84 pubmed publisher
    ..using global gene expression and mutation analysis to define the mechanisms of carcinogenesis in mice exposed to oxazepam. Five hepatocellular adenomas and 5 hepatocellular carcinomas from male B6C3F1 mice exposed to 5000 ppm oxazepam ..
  3. Singh V, Ganesh L, Cunningham M, Shane B. Comparison of the mutant frequencies and mutation spectra of three non-genotoxic carcinogens, oxazepam, phenobarbital, and Wyeth 14,643, at the lambdacII locus in Big Blue transgenic mice. Biochem Pharmacol. 2001;62:685-92 pubmed
    b>Oxazepam (OX), a widely used benzodiazepine anxiolytic, phenobarbital (PHE), a drug used for convulsive disorders, and Wyeth 14,643 (WY; [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio]acetic acid), a hypolipidemic agent, are all ..
  4. Duthel J, Constant H, Vallon J, Rochet T, Miachon S. Quantitation by gas chromatography with selected-ion monitoring mass spectrometry of "natural" diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam in normal human serum. J Chromatogr. 1992;579:85-91 pubmed
    ..here a method for the specific and sensitive measurement of serum levels of diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam and oxazepam by gas chromatography with selected-ion monitoring mass spectrometry in twenty human volunteers without ..
  5. Court M, Hao Q, Krishnaswamy S, Bekaii Saab T, Al Rohaimi A, von Moltke L, et al. UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 2B15 pharmacogenetics: UGT2B15 D85Y genotype and gender are major determinants of oxazepam glucuronidation by human liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004;310:656-65 pubmed
    b>Oxazepam is a commonly used 1,4-benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug that is polymorphically metabolized in humans. However, the molecular basis for this phenomenon is currently unknown...
  6. Iida M, Anna C, Hartis J, Bruno M, Wetmore B, Dubin J, et al. Changes in global gene and protein expression during early mouse liver carcinogenesis induced by non-genotoxic model carcinogens oxazepam and Wyeth-14,643. Carcinogenesis. 2003;24:757-70 pubmed
    ..from B6C3F1 mice following dietary treatment with two rodent carcinogens, the benzodiazepine anti-anxiety drug oxazepam (2500 p.p.m.) and the hypolipidemic agent Wyeth (Wy)-14,643 (500 p.p.m.) compared with livers from untreated mice...
  7. Johannes S, Wieringa B, Nager W, Dengler R, Münte T. Oxazepam alters action monitoring. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2001;155:100-6 pubmed
    b>Oxazepam has been demonstrated to slow reaction times and increase the rate of omission errors in attentional experiments. This suggests that action monitoring might also be impaired...
  8. Akhondzadeh S, Naghavi H, Vazirian M, Shayeganpour A, Rashidi H, Khani M. Passionflower in the treatment of generalized anxiety: a pilot double-blind randomized controlled trial with oxazepam. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2001;26:363-7 pubmed
    Passionflower (Passiflora incarnata) is a folk remedy for anxiety. A double-blind randomized trial compared the efficacy of Passiflora incarnata extract with oxazepam in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder.
  9. Stewart P, Liu J. The influence of aggregate microenvironment on the dissolution of oxazepam in ternary surfactant interactive mixtures. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2002;54:1181-7 pubmed
    The purpose of this research was to test the hypothesis that the dissolution rate of oxazepam in interactive mixtures was dependent on the influence of surfactant within the microenvironment of mixed oxazepam-surfactant aggegrates ..
  10. Marin S, McMillin G. LC-MS/MS analysis of 13 benzodiazepines and metabolites in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;603:89-105 pubmed publisher
    ..alpha-hydroxytriazolam, alprazolam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, clonazepam and 7-aminoclonazepam in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium...
  11. Yeniceli D, Dogrukol Ak D, Tuncel M. Determination of leflunomide in tablets by high performance liquid chromatography. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;40:197-201 pubmed
    ..Chromatographic separation of leflunomide and oxazepam as an internal standard was carried out on a C(18) column (50 mm, 3 mm i.d...
  12. Magrini L, Cappiello A, Famiglini G, Palma P. Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS)-UHPLC-UV: A simple and efficient method for the determination of five benzodiazepines in an alcoholic beverage. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016;125:48-53 pubmed publisher
    ..quantification of five benzodiazepines (BDZ) in an alcoholic grappa drink (chlordiazepoxide; lorazepam; diazepam; oxazepam; medazepam)...
  13. Blanchard N, Hewitt N, Silber P, Jones H, Coassolo P, Lave T. Prediction of hepatic clearance using cryopreserved human hepatocytes: a comparison of serum and serum-free incubations. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2006;58:633-41 pubmed
    ..in-vivo hepatic clearance of six compounds (phenazone (antipyrine), bosentan, mibefradil, midazolam, naloxone and oxazepam)...
  14. Singh D, Forlano R. Olanzapine and delirium: lesson from clinical practice. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2008;42:433-4 pubmed
  15. Reis M, Prochazka J, Sitsen A, Ahlner J, Bengtsson F. Inter- and intraindividual pharmacokinetic variations of mirtazapine and its N-demethyl metabolite in patients treated for major depressive disorder: a 6-month therapeutic drug monitoring study. Ther Drug Monit. 2005;27:469-77 pubmed
    ..To help clinicians improve their treatment of patients with major depressive disorder, the possible implications on the PK with a long-term treatment are important to study. ..
  16. Olofsson J, Gospic K, Petrovic P, Ingvar M, Wiens S. Effects of oxazepam on affective perception, recognition, and event-related potentials. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2011;215:301-9 pubmed publisher
    ..The present study investigated effects of oxazepam (20 mg p.o...
  17. Noctor T, Wainer I, Hage D. Allosteric and competitive displacement of drugs from human serum albumin by octanoic acid, as revealed by high-performance liquid affinity chromatography, on a human serum albumin-based stationary phase. J Chromatogr. 1992;577:305-15 pubmed
    ..The enantioselective binding to HSA exhibited by warfarin, suprofen and ketoprofen was found to be due to differential binding of the enantiomers at Site I; the primary binding site for suprofen and ketoprofen was not enantioselective. ..
  18. Palmada M, Bohmer C, Centelles J, Kinne R. Effect of benzodiazepines on the epithelial and neuronal high-affinity glutamate transporter EAAC1. J Neurochem. 1999;73:2389-96 pubmed
    ..Thus, in vivo low concentrations of benzodiazepines may reduce synaptic glutamate concentrations by increased uptake, providing an additional mechanism to modulate neuronal excitability. ..
  19. Kolarević S, Kračun Kolarević M, Kostić J, Slobodnik J, Liška I, Gačić Z, et al. Assessment of the genotoxic potential along the Danube River by application of the comet assay on haemocytes of freshwater mussels: The Joint Danube Survey 3. Sci Total Environ. 2016;540:377-85 pubmed publisher
    ..in mussels correlated with concentrations of compounds from the group of hazardous priority substances (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), persistent organic pollutants (dioxins) and emerging pollutants (Oxazepam, Chloridazon-desphenyl).
  20. Sordet M, Berlioz Barbier A, Buleté A, Garric J, Vulliet E. Quantification of emerging micropollutants in an amphipod crustacean by nanoliquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry using multiple reaction monitoring cubed mode. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1456:217-25 pubmed publisher
    ..crustacean (Gammarus fossarum) of three micropollutants regarded as anthropic-pollution markers: carbamazepine, oxazepam, and testosterone...
  21. Lord H, Rajabi M, Safari S, Pawliszyn J. Development of immunoaffinity solid phase microextraction probes for analysis of sub ng/mL concentrations of 7-aminoflunitrazepam in urine. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;40:769-80 pubmed
    ..This simplification makes the technique more amenable for use by both professionals and non-professionals. ..
  22. Liu J, Zhang Y. [Determination of N-demethyldiazepam and its metabolite oxazepam in plasma by HPLC and their pharmacokinetics in rats]. Yao Xue Xue Bao. 1995;30:655-61 pubmed
    A simple rapid and sensitive HPLC method for simultaneous determination of N-demethyldiazepam and its metabolite oxazepam in both human and rat plasma was described...
  23. Franck M, Foulon V, Van Vaerenbergh L. ABOP, the automatic patient information leaflet optimizer: evaluation of a tool in development. Patient Educ Couns. 2011;83:411-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Two leaflets (one for oxazepam and one for tetracycline) were revised with the ABOP tool and both the original versions and ABOP versions were ..
  24. Rorarius M, Mennander S, Suominen P, Rintala S, Puura A, Pirhonen R, et al. Gabapentin for the prevention of postoperative pain after vaginal hysterectomy. Pain. 2004;110:175-81 pubmed
    ..postoperative opioid sparing effect of gabapentin in humans), we gave 1200 mg of gabapentin or 15 mg of oxazepam (active placebo) 2...
  25. Kintz P, Cirimele V, Vayssette F, Mangin P. Hair analysis for nordiazepam and oxazepam by gas chromatography--negative-ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1996;677:241-4 pubmed
    A procedure is presented for the identification of nordiazepam and its metabolite, oxazepam, in human hair. The method involves decontamination of hair with dichloromethane, incubation in phosphate buffer (pH 7...
  26. Kampman K, Pettinati H, Lynch K, Xie H, Dackis C, Oslin D, et al. Initiating acamprosate within-detoxification versus post-detoxification in the treatment of alcohol dependence. Addict Behav. 2009;34:581-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Outcome measures during the DP included: treatment retention, alcohol withdrawal, alcohol consumption, and oxazepam used. Outcome measures during the RP included: treatment retention and alcohol consumption...
  27. Bird S. An unusual case of diarrhoea. Aust Fam Physician. 2005;34:281-2 pubmed
    ..Medication errors in general practice are relatively common. This article describes a medication error that led to a patient complaint and claim. ..
  28. Peltenburg H, Timmer N, Bosman I, Hermens J, Droge S. Sorption of structurally different ionized pharmaceutical and illicit drugs to a mixed-mode coated microsampler. J Chromatogr A. 2016;1447:1-8 pubmed publisher
    ..In addition, sorption data for three neutral benzodiazepines (diazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) and the anionic NSAID diclofenac were collected to determine the efficiency to sample non-basic drugs...
  29. Djeridane Y, Touitou Y. Effects of diazepam and its metabolites on nocturnal melatonin secretion in the rat pineal and Harderian glands. A comparative in vivo and in vitro study. Chronobiol Int. 2003;20:285-97 pubmed
    We investigated the effects of diazepam (DZP) and its three metabolites: nordiazepam (NZP), oxazepam (OZP), and temazepam (TZP) on pineal gland nocturnal melatonin secretion...
  30. Björklund E, Svahn O, Bak S, Bekoe S, Hansen M. Pharmaceutical Residues Affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike Wetlands: Sources and Sinks. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2016;71:423-36 pubmed publisher
    ..Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed...
  31. Brodin T, Fick J, Jonsson M, Klaminder J. Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations. Science. 2013;339:814-5 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in ..
  32. Muir D, Simmons D, Wang X, Peart T, Villella M, Miller J, et al. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and personal care product chemicals in fish exposed to wastewater effluent in an urban wetland. Sci Rep. 2017;7:16999 pubmed publisher
    ..In carp, ?Diazepam (diazepam and oxazepam) had the highest BAFP (927?L/kg)...
  33. Heynen M, Fick J, Jonsson M, Klaminder J, Brodin T. Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Environ Toxicol Chem. 2016;35:930-7 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common ..
  34. Pirnay S, Hervé F, Bouchonnet S, Perrin B, Baud F, Ricordel I. Liquid chromatographic-electrospray ionization mass spectrometric quantitative analysis of buprenorphine, norbuprenorphine, nordiazepam and oxazepam in rat plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2006;41:1135-45 pubmed
    ..determination of buprenorphine, nordiazepam and their pharmacologically active metabolites, norbuprenorphine and oxazepam, in rat plasma...
  35. Gicquel T, Hugbart C, Le Devehat F, Lepage S, Baert A, Bouvet R, et al. Death related to consumption of Rauvolfia sp. powder mislabeled as Tabernanthe iboga. Forensic Sci Int. 2016;266:e38-e42 pubmed publisher
    ..2ng/mL in bile. Moreover, systematic toxicological analyses of biological samples showed the presence of oxazepam at therapeutic concentration and cannabinoids...
  36. Gospic K, Mohlin E, Fransson P, Petrovic P, Johannesson M, Ingvar M. Limbic justice--amygdala involvement in immediate rejection in the Ultimatum Game. PLoS Biol. 2011;9:e1001054 pubmed publisher
    ..Our results also prompt an ethical discussion as we demonstrated that a commonly used drug influences core functions in the human brain that underlie individual autonomy and economic decision making. ..
  37. Svahn O, Björklund E. Describing sorption of pharmaceuticals to lake and river sediments, and sewage sludge from UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike by chromatographic asymmetry factors and recovery measurements. J Chromatogr A. 2015;1415:73-82 pubmed publisher
    ..Among the neutral compounds bendroflumethiazide, carbamazepine and oxazepam, weaker forces, such as van der Waals, aromatic electron donor-acceptor interactions, and hydrogen forces, seemed ..
  38. Mangelings D, Maftouh M, Massart D, Vander Heyden Y. Enantioseparations by capillary electro-chromatography: differences exhibited by normal- and reversed-phase versions of polysaccharide stationary phases. Electrophoresis. 2004;25:2808-16 pubmed
    ..Here, a phosphate buffer is preferred as electrolyte because of its buffering capacities. However, if coupling to mass spectrometry is wanted, the more volatile ammonium bicarbonate electrolyte can be used as an alternative. ..
  39. Musteata F, Musteata M, Pawliszyn J. Fast in vivo microextraction: a new tool for clinical analysis. Clin Chem. 2006;52:708-15 pubmed
    ..The proposed technique has several advantages and is suitable for fast clinical analyses. This approach could be used not only for drugs, but for any other endogenous or exogenous compounds. ..
  40. van de Merbel N, Teule J, Lingeman H, Brinkman U. Dialysis as an on-line sample-pretreatment technique for column liquid chromatography: influence of experimental variables upon the determination of benzodiazepines in human plasma. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1992;10:225-33 pubmed
    ..Diazepam, nitrazepam and oxazepam are used as model compounds...
  41. Lile J, Stoops W, Wagner F, Glaser P, Rush C. Oxazepam does not modulate the behavioral effects of d-amphetamine in humans. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2005;82:270-9 pubmed
    ..In the present study, the ability of oxazepam, which may have less abuse potential compared to some other benzodiazepines, to attenuate the discriminative-..
  42. Popović G, Sladic D, Stefanović V, Pfendt L. Study on protolytic equilibria of lorazepam and oxazepam by UV and NMR spectroscopy. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2003;31:693-9 pubmed
    Protolytic equilibria in homogeneous and heterogeneous systems of lorazepam and oxazepam, which are sparingly soluble ampholytes from the class of 1,4-benzodiazepines, were studied at 25 degrees C and ionic strength of 0.1 M...
  43. Millot M, Sebille B, Mangin C. Enantiomeric properties of human albumin immobilized on porous silica supports coated with polymethacryloyl chloride. J Chromatogr A. 1997;776:37-44 pubmed
    ..The higher amount of HSA bound using the later method, resulted in higher retention of the enantiomers and better enantioselectivity. ..
  44. Hriscu A, Gherase F, Năstasă V, Hriscu E. [An experimental study of tolerance to benzodiazepines]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. 2002;106:806-11 pubmed
    ..phenomenon after repeated administration of three of the most used benzodazepines (BDZ): Diazepam, Alprazolam and Oxazepam using three pharmacological tests, which monitored the neuromotor coordination, the myorelaxing and the ..
  45. Mozayani A, Carter J, Nix R. Distribution of topiramate in a medical examiner's case. J Anal Toxicol. 1999;23:556-8 pubmed
    ..Other drugs identified in this case were 0.45 mg/L nordiazepam and 0.05 mg/L oxazepam in blood. No alcohol was detected in any of the specimens...
  46. Chin P, Jensen B, Larsen H, Begg E. Adult age and ex vivo protein binding of lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in healthy subjects. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2011;72:985-9 pubmed publisher
    To see if adult age correlates with ex vivo protein binding of lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in healthy subjects. Sixty healthy drug free subjects were recruited in the age groups 18-39, 40-64 and ?65 years...
  47. Gajewska M, Glass G, Slezak D. [Spectrofluorometric analysis of select 1,4-benzodiazepine derivatives]. Acta Pol Pharm. 1992;49:5-9 pubmed
    The optimal conditions for spectrofluorimetric determination of oxazepam and nitrazepam in substance and pharmaceutical preparations were determined. Simultaneous comparison with spectrophotometric method was performed.
  48. Wilhelm B, Kellert R, Schnell R, Lüdtke H, Petrini O. Lack of sedative effects after vespertine intake of oxazepam as hypnotic in healthy volunteers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009;205:679-88 pubmed publisher
    ..Primary end point was the Pupillary Unrest Index (lnPUI). Oxazepam 10 mg did not increase PUI...
  49. Klockowski P, Levy G. Kinetics of drug action in disease states. XXIV. Pharmacodynamics of diazepam and its active metabolites in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;244:912-8 pubmed
    ..was to determine the relative contribution of diazepam and its active metabolites (desmethyldiazepam, oxazepam and temazepam) to the hypnotic activity of this benzodiazepine drug and to assess the role of rate of drug ..
  50. Marin S, Coles R, Merrell M, McMillin G. Quantitation of benzodiazepines in urine, serum, plasma, and meconium by LC-MS-MS. J Anal Toxicol. 2008;32:491-8 pubmed
    ..alpha-hydroxytriazolam, alprazolam, desalkylflurazepam, diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam, nordiazepam, oxazepam, temazepam, clonazepam, and 7-aminoclonazepam, was developed for three specimen types, urine, serum/plasma, and ..
  51. Goeders N, Guerin G. Effects of the combination of metyrapone and oxazepam on cocaine and food self-administration in rats. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2008;91:181-9 pubmed publisher
    ..g., metyrapone) and benzodiazepine receptor agonists (e.g., oxazepam)...
  52. St Pierre M, Pang K. Kinetics of sequential metabolism. I. Formation and metabolism of oxazepam from nordiazepam and temazepam in the perfused murine liver. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993;265:1429-36 pubmed
    ..NZ) are mainly metabolized via N-demethylation and C3-hydroxylation, respectively, to form a common metabolite, oxazepam (OZ), which is then glucuronidated...
  53. Chaturvedi A, Rao N, Baird J. A death due to self-administered fentanyl. J Anal Toxicol. 1990;14:385-7 pubmed
    ..Initial drug screening revealed the presence of fentanyl in the fluid from the syringe and diazepam/oxazepam in the urine...
  54. Miners J, Lillywhite K. Assessment of the drug inhibitor specificity of the human liver 4-methylumbelliferone UDP-glucuronosyltransferase activity. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991;41:838-41 pubmed
    ..However, confirmation of this ultimately requires studies to be performed with purified isozymes, cDNAs expressed in cell culture, or specific inhibitory antibodies. ..
  55. Uzun S, Kozumplik O. Reinforcement of irritability during therapy with benzodiazepines. Psychiatr Danub. 2011;23:129-30 pubmed
    ..The aim of this article is to report a case of a patient who was taking 15 tablets of oxazepam daily for a period of time, during which reinforcement of irritability occurred...
  56. Okamura T, Sugiura W, Miyazawa M. Reduction of oxazepam to desmethyldiazepam by human intestinal bacteria. Biol Pharm Bull. 1996;19:647-48 pubmed
    The biotransformation of oxazepam by Bifidobacterium bifidum was studied. The major metabolite was purified by chromatographic methods and found to be desmethyldiazepam using NMR, IR and other physicochemical data.
  57. Amini H, Aghayan S, Jalili S, Akhondzadeh S, Yahyazadeh O, Pakravan Nejad M. Comparison of mirtazapine and fluoxetine in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a double-blind, randomized trial. J Clin Pharm Ther. 2005;30:133-8 pubmed
    ..None of the differences in reported adverse events was statistically significant. In this study, mirtazapine and fluoxetine were equally effective and well tolerated after 6 weeks of treatment in patients with major depressive disorder. ..
  58. von Westphal V, Jacobsen P. [Time limits for gastrointestinal decontamination in poisoning]. Ugeskr Laeger. 2009;171:718 pubmed
    ..Respirator treatment was required for 24 hours and the course was complicated by aspiration pneumonia. The case challenges strict time limits and a restricted attitude towards gastric emptying in massive overdose. ..
  59. Chen J, Fitos I, Hage D. Chromatographic analysis of allosteric effects between ibuprofen and benzodiazepines on human serum albumin. Chirality. 2006;18:24-36 pubmed
    ..Based on these results, a model was proposed to explain the binding of benzodiazepines to HSA and their interactions with ibuprofen. This model gave good agreement with previous reports examining the binding of benzodiazepines to HSA. ..
  60. Griffin R, Burka L, Cunningham M. Activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes following oxazepam-dosed feed treatment in B6C3F1 mice. Toxicol Lett. 1995;76:251-6 pubmed
    b>Oxazepam has been determined to be a potent hepatocarcinogen in mice...
  61. Okiyama M, Ueno K, Ohmori S, Igarashi T, Kitagawa H. Imipramine treatment alters the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of diazepam. J Pharm Sci. 1987;76:880-5 pubmed
    ..of imipramine hydrochloride increased diazepam and desmethyldiazepam concentrations, but decreased temazepam and oxazepam concentrations in rat plasma. Diazepam plasma protein binding was unaltered...
  62. Mináriková M, Fojtikova V, Vyskocilova E, Sedlácek J, Šikut M, Bořek Dohalská L, et al. The capacity and effectiveness of diosmectite and charcoal in trapping the compounds causing the most frequent intoxications in acute medicine: A comparative study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2017;52:214-220 pubmed publisher
    ..acetylsalicylic acid, ?-amanitin, amlodipine, digoxin, phenobarbital, ibuprofen, imipramine, carbamazepine, oxazepam, promethazine, and theophylline...
  63. Morand Villeneuve N, Micheyl C, Gagnieu M, Lemoine P, Sebert P, Collet L, et al. Influence of benzodiazepines on auditory perception. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2003;28:778-86 pubmed
    ..Nine subjects were tested before, 1, 3, 7, and 24 h after a single-dose oxazepam vs placebo administration in a crossover design...
  64. Reubsaet K, Ragnar Norli H, Hemmersbach P, Rasmussen K. Determination of benzodiazepines in human urine and plasma with solvent modified solid phase micro extraction and gas chromatography; rationalisation of method development using experimental design strategies. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1998;18:667-80 pubmed
    ..micro extraction (SPME) and gas chromatographic analysis was used for the analysis of several benzodiazepines (oxazepam, diazepam, nordiazepam, flunitrazepam and alprazolam) in human urine and plasma...
  65. Morand Villeneuve N, Veuillet E, Perrot X, Lemoine P, Gagnieu M, Sebert P, et al. Lateralization of the effects of the benzodiazepine drug oxazepam on medial olivocochlear system activity in humans. Hear Res. 2005;208:101-6 pubmed
    ..a decrease in medial olivocochlear (MOC) efferent system inhibitory activity, after oral intake of oxazepam--representative of the Bzd drug class. To date, this pharmacological effect was only assessed in the right ear...
  66. Toral M, Muñoz M, Orellana S. Simultaneous determination of N-butylscopolamine and oxazepam in pharmaceutical formulations by first-order digital derivative spectrophotometry. J AOAC Int. 2005;88:1173-8 pubmed
    A simple method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of N-butylscopolamine bromide and oxazepam in pharmaceutical formulations using first-order digital derivative spectrophotometry...
  67. Szczawinska K, Cenajek Musiał D, Nowakowska E, Chodera A. Decrease in [3H]flunitrazepam receptor binding in rats tolerant to the effects of nitrazepam. Eur J Pharmacol. 1988;147:7-11 pubmed
    ..The same experiments were also carried out with oxazepam. Since there were no signs of tolerance, the administration of the drug, 10 mg/kg once daily i.p...
  68. Pavlic M, Libiseller K, Hermann M, Hengster P, Margreiter R, Wurm M. Small human hepatocytes in rotary culture for treatment of alcohol addicts? A pilot study. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2007;31:729-36 pubmed
    ..were grown in a rotary cell culture system, and their potential to metabolize alcohol and the benzodiazepines oxazepam and diazepam was evaluated...
  69. Wala E, Martin W, Sloan J. Distribution of diazepam, nordiazepam, and oxazepam between brain extraneuronal space, brain tissue, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid in diazepam and nordiazepam dependent dogs. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1991;105:535-40 pubmed
    ..The brain-plasma distribution of total ND and oxazepam (OX) is about equal in ND dependent dogs but in DZ dependent dogs total ND and OX are about 2-fold higher in ..
  70. Zarghi A, Jenabi M. Assay of oxazepam in human plasma by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Boll Chim Farm. 2001;140:455-7 pubmed
    A rapid, selective and sensitive method for determination of oxazepam in plasma is described, based on reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The separation was performed on an analytical 300 x 3.9 mm i...
  71. Herz L, Volicer L, Ross V, Rheaume Y. A single-case-study method for treating resistiveness in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Hosp Community Psychiatry. 1992;43:720-4 pubmed
    ..Six patients completed the trials. Thiothixene was more effective than oxazepam and diphenhydramine...
  72. Valavani P, Atta Politou J, Panderi I. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic/electrospray ionization mass spectrometric method for the quantitation of prazepam and its main metabolites in human plasma. J Mass Spectrom. 2005;40:516-26 pubmed
    A method was developed and fully validated for the quantitation of prazepam and its major metabolites, oxazepam and nordiazepam, in human plasma. Sample pretreatment was achieved by solid-phase extraction using Oasis HLB cartridges...
  73. Bailes J, Mayoss S, Teale P, Soloviev M. Gold nanoparticle antibody conjugates for use in competitive lateral flow assays. Methods Mol Biol. 2012;906:45-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Here we describe the use of GNPs for visual detection in a lateral flow assay using benzodiazepine affinity assay to illustrate the methods. ..
  74. Dusci L, Good S, Hall R, Ilett K. Excretion of diazepam and its metabolites in human milk during withdrawal from combination high dose diazepam and oxazepam. Br J Clin Pharmacol. 1990;29:123-6 pubmed
    The excretion of diazepam, N-desmethyldiazepam, temazepam and oxazepam in breast milk was studied during withdrawal of a 22-year-old patient from combined high dose diazepam and oxazepam therapy...
  75. Gunn J, Kriger S, Terrell A. Simultaneous determination and quantification of 12 benzodiazepines in serum or whole blood using UPLC/MS/MS. Methods Mol Biol. 2010;603:107-19 pubmed publisher
    ..Analytes included alprazolam, temazepam, oxazepam, nordiazepam, clonazepam, lorazepam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, midazolam, flunitrazepam, 7-aminoclonazepam, and ..
  76. Cunningham M, Bucher J. Pharmacodynamic responses of F344 rats to the mouse hepatocarcinogen oxazepam in a 90-day feed study. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol. 1998;149:41-8 pubmed
    b>Oxazepam (Serax) is a widely used benzodiazepine anxiolytic agent and a metabolite of other benzodiazepines such as Valium and Librium...
  77. Yoshizawa K, Kissling G, Johnson J, Clayton N, Flagler N, Nyska A. Chemical-induced atrial thrombosis in NTP rodent studies. Toxicol Pathol. 2005;33:517-32 pubmed
    ..diethanolamine, 3,3'-dimethoxybenzidine dihydrochloride, hexachloroethane, isobutene, methyleugenol, oxazepam, C.I. Pigment Red 23, C.I. Acid Red 114, and 4,4'-thiobis(6-t-butyl-m-cresol)...
  78. Dou C, Bournique J, Zinda M, Gnezda M, McNally A, Salamone S. Comparison of the rates of hydrolysis of lorazepam-glucuronide, oxazepam-glucuronide and tamazepam-glucuronide catalyzed by E. coli beta-D-glucuronidase using the on-line benzodiazepine screening immunoassay on the Roche/Hitachi 917 analyzer. J Forensic Sci. 2001;46:335-40 pubmed
    The catalytic rates of hydrolysis of lorazepam-glucuronide, oxazepam-glucuronide, and temazepam-glucuronide when catalyzed by E. Coli...
  79. Vayssette F, Cirimele V, Kintz P, Mangin P. [Detection of nordiazepam in the hair of drug addicts]. Ann Pharm Fr. 1996;54:211-6 pubmed
    ..6 in presence of deuterated internal standards (Nordiazepam-d5 and Oxazepam-d5) and extracted by a mixture ether/chloroform (80:20, v/v) at pH 8.4...
  80. Berrueta L, Gallo B, Vicente F. Analysis of oxazepam in urine using solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection by post-column derivatization. J Chromatogr. 1993;616:344-8 pubmed
    A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method for oxazepam in human urine samples has been developed...
  81. McNicholas L, Martin W, Sloan J, Wala E. Precipitation of abstinence in nordiazepam- and diazepam-dependent dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1988;245:221-4 pubmed
  82. Marland A, Sarkar P, Leavitt R. The urinary elimination profiles of diazepam and its metabolites, nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam, in the equine after a 10-mg intramuscular dose. J Anal Toxicol. 1999;23:29-34 pubmed
    A method for the extraction of diazepam and its metabolites (nordiazepam, temazepam, and oxazepam) from equine urine and serum and their quantitation and confirmation by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry is presented...
  83. Naggar A, ElKaoutit M, Naranjo Rodriguez I, El Sayed A, de Cisneros J. Use of a Sonogel-Carbon electrode modified with bentonite for the determination of diazepam and chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride in tablets and their metabolite oxazepam in urine. Talanta. 2012;89:448-54 pubmed publisher
    ..Analysis was performed with better precision, very low detection limits, and faster than previously reported voltammetric techniques. ..
  84. Larsen H, Chin P, Begg E, Jensen B. Quantification of total and unbound concentrations of lorazepam, oxazepam and temazepam in human plasma by ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS. Bioanalysis. 2011;3:843-52 pubmed publisher
    A fast and sensitive assay for quantifying total and unbound concentrations of lorazepam (Lzp), oxazepam (Ozp) and temazepam (Tzp) in human plasma was needed for a plasma protein binding study...
  85. Castberg I, Skogvoll E, Spigset O. Quetiapine and drug interactions: evidence from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring service. J Clin Psychiatry. 2007;68:1540-5 pubmed
    ..044) and comedication with lamotrigine (p = .024), levomepromazine (p = .011), oxazepam (p < .001), or carbamazepine (p < .001) significantly decreased the serum concentrations...
  86. Cremers T, Dremencov E, Bosker F, Westerink B. Oxazepam and temazepam attenuate paroxetine-induced elevation of serotonin levels in guinea-pig hippocampus. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol. 2010;13:807-11 pubmed publisher
    ..This study aimed to assess, using in-vivo microdialysis, the effects of the benzodiazepines oxazepam or temazepan on the SSRI paroxetine-induced 5-HT increase in the hippocampus of freely moving guinea-pigs...
  87. Brodin T, Nordling J, Lagesson A, Klaminder J, Hellström G, Christensen B, et al. Environmental relevant levels of a benzodiazepine (oxazepam) alters important behavioral traits in a common planktivorous fish, (Rutilus rutilus). J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2017;80:963-970 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) on key behavioral traits in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) at concentrations similar to those encountered in ..