Summary: Inflammation of the ear, which may be marked by pain (EARACHE), fever, HEARING DISORDERS, and VERTIGO. Inflammation of the external ear is OTITIS EXTERNA; of the middle ear, OTITIS MEDIA; of the inner ear, LABYRINTHITIS.

Top Publications

  1. Melhus A. Effects of amoxicillin on the expression of cytokines during experimental acute otitis media caused by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;48:397-402 pubmed
    Antibiotics are frequently prescribed when a diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) is made in childhood, but the effects of antibiotics on host-parasite interactions in the middle ear are not well defined...
  2. May E, Hnilica K, Frank L, Jones R, Bemis D. Isolation of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma, or both. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 2005;227:928-31 pubmed
    To determine the frequency of isolation and susceptibility patterns of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma, or both that had or had not received antimicrobial treatment.
  3. Fagan M. [Is otitis and tonsillitis handled in the same way within normal working hours and out-of-hours?]. Tidsskr Nor Laegeforen. 2008;128:2340-2 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study is to see whether physicians use diagnostic testing and prescribe antibiotics differently for acute otitis media (AOM) and tonsillitis when they work within normal working hours and out-of-hours.
  4. Okeson D, Coke R, Kochunov P, Davis M. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in a red kangaroo (Macropus rufus) with otitis. J Zoo Wildl Med. 2008;39:667-70 pubmed
    ..MRI revealed findings consistent with otitis and possible osteomyelitis of the temporal and mastoid bones...
  5. Lamm C, Munson L, Thurmond M, Barr B, George L. Mycoplasma otitis in California calves. J Vet Diagn Invest. 2004;16:397-402 pubmed
    A retrospective study of Mycoplasma otitis in California calves submitted for necropsy between 1993 and 2002 was conducted to characterize the demographic features of the disease and the pathologic findings associated with infection...
  6. Lipshutz G, Dow A, Pham P, Pham P. CMV otitis: a rare presentation in an adult transplant recipient. Transplantation. 2008;85:1870-71 pubmed publisher
  7. Aguilera I, Pedersen M, Garcia Esteban R, Ballester F, Basterrechea M, Esplugues A, et al. Early-life exposure to outdoor air pollution and respiratory health, ear infections, and eczema in infants from the INMA study. Environ Health Perspect. 2013;121:387-92 pubmed publisher
    ..Prenatal and early-life periods may be critical windows for harmful effects of air pollution on infant health...
  8. Heckenberg S, Brouwer M, van der Ende A, Hensen E, van de Beek D. Hearing loss in adults surviving pneumococcal meningitis is associated with otitis and pneumococcal serotype. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2012;18:849-55 pubmed publisher
    ..Predisposing conditions for pneumococcal meningitis were present in the majority of patients (64%), most commonly otitis (36%)...
  9. Nason R, Jung J, Chole R. Lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastogenesis from mononuclear precursors: a mechanism for osteolysis in chronic otitis. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2009;10:151-60 pubmed publisher
    ..out bone resorption and therefore are responsible for the osteolysis seen in infectious diseases such as chronic otitis media and infected cholesteatoma...

More Information


  1. Hawkins C, Harper D, Burch D, Anggård E, Soothill J. Topical treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa otitis of dogs with a bacteriophage mixture: a before/after clinical trial. Vet Microbiol. 2010;146:309-13 pubmed publisher
    ..evaluation of a bacteriophage treatment for infection, ten dogs were included with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa otitis. Each received, directly into the auditory canal of one ear, a single dose of a topical preparation containing ..
  2. Zielnik Jurkiewicz B. [Upper respiratory tract infections in children caused by atypical bacteria]. Pol Merkur Lekarski. 2008;25:415-9 pubmed
  3. Verocai G, Fernandes J, Correia T, Melo R, Alves P, Scott F. [Bovine parasitic otitis due to rhabditiform nematodes in Gyr cows from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil]. Rev Bras Parasitol Vet. 2007;16:105-7 pubmed
    The aim of this report was to describe the occurrence of the bovine parasitic otitis caused by rhabditiform nematodes in Gyr cows breed from the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
  4. Russo G, Stefani S, Oliveri S. Significance of Haemophilus spp. and Branhamella catarrhalis in upper respiratory tract infections. J Chemother. 1991;3 Suppl 1:15-8 pubmed
    ..catarrhalis, together with S. pneumoniae, are the most common bacteria responsible for upper respiratory tract infections, namely otitis and sinusitis. The activity of these bacteria in the onset of otitis and sinusitis is reported.
  5. Guillot J, Bond R. Malassezia pachydermatis: a review. Med Mycol. 1999;37:295-306 pubmed
    ..pachydermatis for susceptible humans. In the future, the development of efficient typing systems should allow better understanding of the transmission mechanisms...
  6. Weisshaar E, Kallen U, Klintworth N, Zenk J. [Pruritus, erythema and others. Dermatology of the ear]. HNO. 2011;59:301-9; quiz 310 pubmed publisher
    ..Therapy comprises treatment of the underlying disease and symptomatic anti-pruritic treatment...
  7. Delattre J, Roger G. [Otalgia and otitis in children and adults]. Rev Prat. 2003;53:89-95 pubmed
  8. Cafarchia C, Otranto D. Association between phospholipase production by Malassezia pachydermatis and skin lesions. J Clin Microbiol. 2004;42:4868-9 pubmed
    ..of Malassezia pachydermatis strains isolated from healthy dogs versus those from dogs with dermatitis and otitis. A high percentage of strains of M. pachydermatis obtained from lesion sites (93...
  9. Hijikata Y, Yasuhara A, Sahashi Y. Effect of an herbal formula containing Ganoderma lucidum on reduction of herpes zoster pain: a pilot clinical trial. Am J Chin Med. 2005;33:517-23 pubmed
  10. Findlay L, Janz T. Health of First Nations children living off reserve and Métis children younger than age 6. Health Rep. 2012;23:31-9 pubmed
    ..Differences in health status may be associated with family and social conditions, lifestyle or behaviour, and cultural factors...
  11. Pino Rivero V, Pardo Romero G, Iglesias González R, Rodriguez Carmona M, del Castillo Beneyto F. [Kartagener sindrome (primary ciliary dyskinesia). Report of a case and literature review]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 2007;34:251-6 pubmed
    ..We report one case described in a 8 years old boy who besides presented a seromucous otitis and bronchitis of repetition...
  12. Vo Tan D, Portmann D, Carrat X. [From barotrauma otitis to a fulminant meningitis]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2010;131:229-32 pubmed
    To report the case of a patient who in the follow-up of a barotrauma otitis presented a fulminant meningitis.
  13. Conley M, Howard V. Clinical findings leading to the diagnosis of X-linked agammaglobulinemia. J Pediatr. 2002;141:566-71 pubmed
    ..Recurrent otitis was seen in almost all of the patients with sporadic XLA who were older than 12 months at the time of diagnosis...
  14. Cakar M, Demirbas S, Yıldızoğlu U, Arslan E, Balta S, Kara K, et al. First report of endocarditis by Alloiococcus otitidis spp. in a patient with a history of chronic otitis. J Infect Public Health. 2013;6:494-5 pubmed publisher
  15. Fortun C, Martins Carvalho C, Marianowski R. [Otalgia and otitis in children and adults]. Rev Prat. 2006;56:95-102 pubmed
  16. Eeten E, Faber H, Kunst D. Surgical Treatment for Epstein-Barr Virus Otomastoiditis Complicated by Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Case Report of Two Young Brothers and Review of Literature. J Int Adv Otol. 2017;13:143-146 pubmed publisher
    ..Although rare and relatively unknown, EBV should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with FNP of unknown cause. Surgical intervention may be a viable therapy with good recovery. ..
  17. Bralley E, Hargrove J, Greenspan P, Hartle D. Topical anti-inflammatory activities of Vitis rotundifolia (muscadine grape) extracts in the tetradecanoylphorbol acetate model of ear inflammation. J Med Food. 2007;10:636-42 pubmed
    ..It can be concluded that muscadine skin, seed, and combination skin/seed extracts exhibit significant topical anti-inflammatory properties...
  18. Fisher M, Eklund S, James S, Lin X. Adverse events associated with hepatitis B vaccine in U.S. children less than six years of age, 1993 and 1994. Ann Epidemiol. 2001;11:13-21 pubmed
  19. Watson P, Jiru X, Watabe M, Moore J. Purulent rhinitis and otitis caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in sheep showered with contaminated 'shower wash'. Vet Rec. 2003;153:704-7 pubmed
    ..Three crossbred lowland ewes developed a severe purulent rhinitis and another three ewes developed a severe purulent otitis externa/media after being showered with a wash that had been used 24 to 48 hours before on a separate group of ..
  20. Ennouri A, Bouzouita K, Bouzouaia N, Hajri H, Maamouri M, Marrekchi H. [Efficacy of Cefsulodin in pyocyanic otologic infections, apropos of 55 cases]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 1990;111:251-3 pubmed
    ..infection from the pyocyanic bacillus, and more specifically of 19 patients with a necrotizing malignant otitis, 24 patients with perichondritis and 12 patients suffering from a post-operative infection...
  21. Popova M, Molimard P, Courau S, Crociani J, Dufour C, Le Vacon F, et al. Beneficial effects of probiotics in upper respiratory tract infections and their mechanical actions to antagonize pathogens. J Appl Microbiol. 2012;113:1305-18 pubmed publisher
    ..that probiotics can be used as preventive and therapeutic agents in upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and otitis. Their mechanical properties allow them to aggregate and to compete with pathogens for nutrients, space and ..
  22. Rallis E, Balatsouras D, Kouskoukis C, Verros C, Homsioglou E. Drug eruptions in children with ENT infections. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;70:53-7 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to describe the common drug eruptions seen in children with ENT infections, suggesting an approach to this problem...
  23. Otremba M, Adam S, Price C, Hohuan D, Kveton J. Use of intravenous immunoglobulin to treat chronic bilateral otomastoiditis in the setting of rituximab induced hypogammaglobulinemia. Am J Otolaryngol. 2012;33:619-22 pubmed publisher
    ..Humoral immune defects can cause persistent acute and serous otitis media, with the development of chronic suppurative otitis media refractory to medical and surgical therapy (Sasaki ..
  24. Watts N, Roux C, Modlin J, Brown J, Daniels A, Jackson S, et al. Infections in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis treated with denosumab or placebo: coincidence or causal association?. Osteoporos Int. 2012;23:327-37 pubmed publisher
    ..Serious adverse events of infections in denosumab subjects had heterogeneous etiology, with no clear clinical pattern to suggest a relationship to time or duration of exposure to denosumab...
  25. Lelièvre G. [Treatment of otitis "Avoid at all costs therapeutic escalation". Interview by C. Maunand]. Presse Med. 2002;31:1828-30 pubmed
  26. Goodale E, Outerbridge C, White S. Aspergillus otitis in small animals--a retrospective study of 17 cases. Vet Dermatol. 2016;27:3-e2 pubmed publisher
    ..Although there have been case reports of Aspergillus otitis externa in dogs, to the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first retrospective case series describing ..
  27. Duarte E, Hamdan J. Susceptibility of yeast isolates from cattle with otitis to aqueous solution of povidone iodine and to alcohol-ether solution. Med Mycol. 2006;44:369-73 pubmed
    ..and Rhodotorula mucilaginosa have been associated with bovine parasitic otitis. This paper evaluated the susceptibility of 63 yeast isolates from cattle with otitis to a povidone iodine aqueous ..
  28. Aneja K, Sharma C, Joshi R. Antimicrobial activity of Terminalia arjuna Wight & Arn.: an ethnomedicinal plant against pathogens causing ear infection. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2012;78:68-74 pubmed
    ..Ear infection is one of the common diseases occurring throughout the world. Different etiological agents are responsible for ear infections...
  29. Maruyama N, Abe Y, Hisajima T, Hayama K, Abe S. [Suppression of experimental inflammation by anti-fungal agent liranaftate in mice]. Nihon Ishinkin Gakkai Zasshi. 2010;51:7-11 pubmed
    ..From these results, we discussed that liranaftate might suppress inflammatory symptoms caused by trychophytosis in a clinical condition...
  30. Pettigrew M, Khodaee M, Gillespie B, Schwartz K, Bobo J, Foxman B. Duration of breastfeeding, daycare, and physician visits among infants 6 months and younger. Ann Epidemiol. 2003;13:431-5 pubmed
    ..To describe the association between duration of breastfeeding and an illness requiring a visit to a health care provider within the past 30 days (IRHP) among infants </= 6 months...
  31. Kadkhodayan Y, Shetty V, Blackburn S, Reynolds M, Cross D, Moran C. Pipeline embolization device and subsequent vessel sacrifice for treatment of a bleeding carotid pseudoaneurysm at the skull base: a case report. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013;5:e31 pubmed publisher
    ..A 50-year-old woman with malignant otitis externa and bilateral temporal bone osteomyelitis presented with brisk bleeding from her left ear...
  32. Hinkle D, Dacey M, Mandelcorn E, Kalyani P, Mauro J, Bates J, et al. Bilateral uveitis associated with fluoroquinolone therapy. Cutan Ocul Toxicol. 2012;31:111-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Retrospective case series, database study and literature review. Forty case reports are described...
  33. MacNeil S, Westerberg B, Romney M. Toward the development of evidence-based guidelines for the management of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus otitis. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009;38:483-94 pubmed
  34. Llor C, Cots J, Boada A, Bjerrum L, Gahrn Hansen B, Munck A, et al. [Variability of antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections in two European countries]. Enferm Infecc Microbiol Clin. 2005;23:598-604 pubmed
    ..The aim of this study was to compare the antibiotics prescribed by general practitioners (GPs) for RTIs between Spain and Denmark...
  35. Moreno B, Chacon G, Villa A, Fernandez A, Vela A, Fernandez Garayzabal J, et al. Nervous signs associated with otitis and cranial osteomyelitis and with Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale infection in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa). Avian Pathol. 2009;38:341-7 pubmed publisher
    A case of nervous signs in red-legged partridges (Alectoris rufa) associated with a severe otitis and osteomyelitis is reported...
  36. Guillemard E, Tondu F, Lacoin F, Schrezenmeir J. Consumption of a fermented dairy product containing the probiotic Lactobacillus casei DN-114001 reduces the duration of respiratory infections in the elderly in a randomised controlled trial. Br J Nutr. 2010;103:58-68 pubmed publisher
    ..casei DN-114 001 in elderly was associated with a decreased duration of CID in comparison with the control group, especially for URTI such as rhinopharyngitis...
  37. Collins M, Hoyles L, Lawson P, Falsen E, Robson R, Foster G. Phenotypic and phylogenetic characterization of a new Corynebacterium species from dogs: description of Corynebacterium auriscanis sp. nov. J Clin Microbiol. 1999;37:3443-7 pubmed
    ..On the basis of phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a new species, Corynebacterium auriscanis. The type strain of C. auriscanis is CCUG 39938(T)...
  38. Lateef T, Merikangas K, He J, Kalaydjian A, Khoromi S, Knight E, et al. Headache in a national sample of American children: prevalence and comorbidity. J Child Neurol. 2009;24:536-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Recurrent headache in childhood is common and has significant medical comorbidity. Further research is needed to understand biologic mechanisms and identify more homogeneous subgroups in clinical and genetic studies. ..
  39. Pence M, Sharon J, McElvania TeKippe E, Pakalniskis B, Ford B, Burnham C. Two cases of Kerstersia gyiorum isolated from sites of chronic infection. J Clin Microbiol. 2013;51:2001-4 pubmed publisher
    ..Both isolates were resistant to ciprofloxacin, which has not been previously reported...
  40. Roland P. Summary of the findings of a joint consensus panel on the use of potentially ototoxic ototopicals. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:13-4 pubmed
  41. May E, Kinyon J, Noxon J. Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus schleiferi from healthy dogs and dogs with otitis, pyoderma or both. Vet Microbiol. 2012;160:443-8 pubmed publisher
    ..schleiferi from healthy dogs as well as dogs with otitis and/or pyoderma, a prospective study including 24 dogs with healthy ears and skin, 27 dogs with healthy ears and ..
  42. Rusan M, Klug T, Ovesen T. An overview of the microbiology of acute ear, nose and throat infections requiring hospitalisation. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2009;28:243-51 pubmed publisher
    ..Further research on the microbiological variations with age and gender is recommended to better target culturing and treatment, and enhance our understanding of the pathogenesis of ear, nose and throat infections. ..
  43. Blumentals W, Schulman K. Impact of oseltamivir on the incidence of secondary complications of influenza in adolescent and adult patients: results from a retrospective population-based study. Curr Med Res Opin. 2007;23:2961-70 pubmed
    ..To assess the effectiveness of oseltamivir in reducing the risks of influenza-related secondary complications in otherwise healthy adolescent and adult patients aged > or = 13 years...
  44. McKay L, Rose C, Matousek J, Schmeitzel L, Gibson N, Gaskin J. Antimicrobial testing of selected fluoroquinolones against Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from canine otitis. J Am Anim Hosp Assoc. 2007;43:307-12 pubmed
    ..aeruginosa) isolates were collected over a 1.5-year period from cases of canine otitis. Sensitivities to enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, and orbifloxacin were determined using minimum inhibitory ..
  45. Rawool V, Colligon Wayne L. Auditory lifestyles and beliefs related to hearing loss among college students in the USA. Noise Health. 2008;10:1-10 pubmed
    ..Possible strategies could include improved education, experience with simulated hearing loss for extended periods and availability of cosmetically appealing or invisible HPDs with uniform attenuation across the frequency range...
  46. Bergroth E, Remes S, Pekkanen J, Kauppila T, Büchele G, Keski Nisula L. Respiratory tract illnesses during the first year of life: effect of dog and cat contacts. Pediatrics. 2012;130:211-20 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the effect of dog and cat contacts on the frequency of respiratory symptoms and infections during the first year of life...
  47. McCutcheon H, Fitzgerald M. The public health problem of acute respiratory illness in childcare. J Clin Nurs. 2001;10:305-10 pubmed
    ..Research to date is presented, and the role of public health nurses is discussed in relation to how they might assist in reducing the incidence/prevalence of acute respiratory illness in children attending childcare...
  48. Tapias Ledesma M, Jiménez R, Lamas F, Gonzalez A, Carrasco P, Gil de Miguel A. Factors associated with first molar dental enamel defects: a multivariate epidemiological approach. J Dent Child (Chic). 2003;70:215-20 pubmed
    ..The purpose of this study was to ascertain factors linked to developmental defects of tooth enamel (DDE) in first permanent molars...
  49. Ramoutsaki I, Dimitriou H, Markaki E, Kalmanti M. Management of childhood diseases during the Byzantine period: III-- respiratory diseases of childhood. Pediatr Int. 2002;44:460-2 pubmed
    ..veterinary and chemical substances used in various forms for respiratory problems of childhood such as acute otitis, acute tonsillitis and parotitis was investigated in the Byzantine medical treatizes, from the 4th to the 15th ..
  50. Kelm J, Ahlhelm F, Pitsch W, Kirn Jünemann U, Engel C, Kohn D, et al. [Sports injuries, sports damages and diseases of world class athletes practicing modern pentathlon]. Sportverletz Sportschaden. 2003;17:32-8 pubmed
    ..Mean number of health threatening incidents of each athlete had been 2 with 41% diseases such as otitis and pharyngitis, 23% injuries such as contusions and distortions and 33% damages such as tendinitis, periostitis ..
  51. Vanni M, Tognetti R, Pretti C, Crema F, Soldani G, Meucci V, et al. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus intermedius and Staphylococcus schleiferi isolated from dogs. Res Vet Sci. 2009;87:192-5 pubmed publisher
    ..intermedius emphasize the importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing of canine staphylococci to choose the most appropriate treatment of infections and to allow the prudent use of antimicrobial drugs in companion animals...
  52. Goyal A, Tyagi I, Syal R, Marak R, Singh J. Apophysomyces elegans causing acute otogenic cervicofacial zygomycosis involving salivary glands. Med Mycol. 2007;45:457-61 pubmed
    ..The case began after a trivial trauma in a diabetic patient and despite surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin B therapy, the patient died due to extensive involvement and metabolic/hemodynamic complications...
  53. Fricker M, Baumann A, Wermelinger F, Villiger P, Helbling A. A novel therapeutic option in Cogan diseases? TNF-alpha blockers. Rheumatol Int. 2007;27:493-5 pubmed
    ..Treatment with anti-TNF-alpha was started leading to a rapid and sustained clinical remission for over 2 respectively 3 years...