middle ear cholesteatoma


Summary: A mass of KERATIN-producing squamous EPITHELIUM that resembles an inverted (suck-in) bag of skin in the MIDDLE EAR. It arises from the eardrum (TYMPANIC MEMBRANE) and grows into the MIDDLE EAR causing erosion of EAR OSSICLES and MASTOID that contains the INNER EAR.

Top Publications

  1. Yamamoto Fukuda T, Hishikawa Y, Shibata Y, Kobayashi T, Takahashi H, Koji T. Pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma: a new model of experimentally induced cholesteatoma in Mongolian gerbils. Am J Pathol. 2010;176:2602-6 pubmed publisher
    b>Middle ear cholesteatoma is characterized by enhanced proliferation of epithelial cells with aberrant morphological characteristics...
  2. De Foer B, Vercruysse J, Pilet B, Michiels J, Vertriest R, Pouillon M, et al. Single-shot, turbo spin-echo, diffusion-weighted imaging versus spin-echo-planar, diffusion-weighted imaging in the detection of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2006;27:1480-2 pubmed
    Diagnosis of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma on MR imaging is mostly done on late postgadolinium T1-weighted MR images and/or echo-planar (EPI) diffusion-weighted (DWI) MR images...
  3. Jung M, Lee J, Cho J, Jung H, Hwang S, Chae S. Expressions of caspase-14 in human middle ear cholesteatoma. Laryngoscope. 2008;118:1047-50 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression patterns and localizations of caspase- 14 in cholesteatoma and in normal external auditory canal (EAC) epithelium...
  4. Olszewska E, Borzym Kluczyk M, Olszewski S, Rogowski M, Zwierz K. Hexosaminidase as a new potential marker for middle ear cholesteatoma. Clin Biochem. 2006;39:1088-90 pubmed
    ..The study aim was to investigate the activities of hexosaminidase (HEX) in cholesteatoma tissue compared with that in normal skin...
  5. Sone M, Mizuno T, Sugiura M, Naganawa S, Nakashima T. Three-dimensional fluid-attenuated inversion recovery magnetic resonance imaging investigation of inner ear disturbances in cases of middle ear cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:1029-33 pubmed
    To investigate the cause of inner ear disturbances in cases of middle ear cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula.
  6. De Foer B, Vercruysse J, Bernaerts A, Maes J, Deckers F, Michiels J, et al. The value of single-shot turbo spin-echo diffusion-weighted MR imaging in the detection of middle ear cholesteatoma. Neuroradiology. 2007;49:841-8 pubmed
    ..imaging (MRI) is a non echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique recently reported for the evaluation of middle ear cholesteatoma. We prospectively evaluated a SS TSE DW sequence in detecting congenital or acquired middle ear ..
  7. Ikeda M, Nakazato H, Onoda K, Hirai R, Kida A. Facial nerve paralysis caused by middle ear cholesteatoma and effects of surgical intervention. Acta Otolaryngol. 2006;126:95-100 pubmed
    ..The outcome of facial paralysis was good. Poor outcomes were observed in cases with petrosal cholesteatoma and in those who underwent surgery > or = 2 months after the onset of paralysis...
  8. Miyao M, Shinoda H, Takahashi S. Caspase-3, caspase-8, and nuclear factor-kappaB expression in human cholesteatoma. Otol Neurotol. 2006;27:8-13 pubmed
    ..Nuclear factor-kappaB is a transcription factor known to inhibit apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor-alpha...
  9. Yoshikawa M, Kojima H, Wada K, Tsukidate T, Okada N, Saito H, et al. Identification of specific gene expression profiles in fibroblasts derived from middle ear cholesteatoma. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;132:734-42 pubmed
    ..To investigate the role of fibroblasts in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma...

More Information


  1. Song J, Chae S, Woo J, Lee H, Jung H, Hwang S. Differential expression of human beta defensin 2 and human beta defensin 3 in human middle ear cholesteatoma. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007;116:235-40 pubmed
    The purpose of this study was to investigate the differential expressions of human beta defensin (hBD) 2 and hBD-3 in human middle ear cholesteatoma epithelium.
  2. Welkoborsky H, Jacob R, Hinni M. Comparative analysis of the epithelium stroma interaction of acquired middle ear cholesteatoma in children and adults. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:841-8 pubmed
  3. Yune T, Byun J. Expression of PTEN and phosphorylated Akt in human cholesteatoma epithelium. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:501-6 pubmed publisher
    ..The negative correlation between cholesteatoma PTEN and p-Akt may suggest that cellular survival mechanisms may be involved in cholesteatoma epithelial hyperplasia...
  4. Hamajima Y, Komori M, Preciado D, Choo D, Moribe K, Murakami S, et al. The role of inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id1) in hyperproliferation of keratinocytes: the pathological basis for middle ear cholesteatoma from chronic otitis media. Cell Prolif. 2010;43:457-63 pubmed publisher
    ..The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular proliferation and keratin production of keratinocytes under the influence of Id1, a candidate transcription factor to cell proliferation...
  5. De Foer B, Vercruysse J, Bernaerts A, Meersschaert J, Kenis C, Pouillon M, et al. Middle ear cholesteatoma: non-echo-planar diffusion-weighted MR imaging versus delayed gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging--value in detection. Radiology. 2010;255:866-72 pubmed publisher
  6. Jeong J, Park C, Tae K, Lee S, Shin D, Kim K, et al. Expression of RANKL and OPG in middle ear cholesteatoma tissue. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1180-4 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to investigate how the expression of the RANK-RANKL-OPG system mediates the formation and differentiation of osteoclasts and causes bone resorption in cholesteatoma...
  7. Tokuriki M, Noda I, Saito T, Narita N, Sunaga H, Tsuzuki H, et al. Gene expression analysis of human middle ear cholesteatoma using complementary DNA arrays. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:808-14 pubmed
    ..To identify genes regulated in human cholesteatoma compared with normal skin tissue using complementary DNA arrays...
  8. el Bitar M, Choi S, Emamian S, Vezina L. Congenital middle ear cholesteatoma: need for early recognition--role of computed tomography scan. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:231-5 pubmed
    ..There is controversy regarding the best way to delineate CC preoperatively. More specifically, the need to obtain preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan in all cases of CC is debated...
  9. Ueda H, Nakashima T, Nakata S. Surgical strategy for cholesteatoma in children. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2001;28:125-9 pubmed
    ..We reviewed our experience with childhood cholesteatoma in children under 15 years old. Based on cumulative postoperative data, we propose a modified canal-wall-up technique in conjunction with a planned, staged operation...
  10. Schmidt M, Grünsfelder P, Hoppe F. Up-regulation of matrix metalloprotease-9 in middle ear cholesteatoma--correlations with growth factor expression in vivo?. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2001;258:472-6 pubmed
    The role of matrix metalloproteases and their regulation in the pathology of middle ear cholesteatoma is still unclear...
  11. Nomura K, Iino Y, Hashimoto H, Suzuki J, Kodera K. Hearing results after tympanoplasty in elderly patients with middle ear cholesteatoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2001;121:919-24 pubmed
    ..reconstruction tympanoplasty was assessed in 236 consecutive ears of 213 patients > 20 years old with middle ear cholesteatoma. The elderly group (n = 34), defined as patients > or = 60 years old, was compared to the younger ..
  12. Darrouzet V, Duclos J, Portmann D, Bebear J. Congenital middle ear cholesteatomas in children: our experience in 34 cases. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2002;126:34-40 pubmed
    ..To evaluate clinical data, extensions, residual disease rate, and functional results in cases of congenital cholesteatoma in pediatric patients compared with cases of acquired forms...
  13. Mallet Y, Nouwen J, Lecomte Houcke M, Desaulty A. Aggressiveness and quantification of epithelial proliferation of middle ear cholesteatoma by MIB1. Laryngoscope. 2003;113:328-31 pubmed
    ..To assess an easy method that predicts cholesteatoma aggressiveness...
  14. Kazahaya K, Potsic W. Congenital cholesteatoma. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;12:398-403 pubmed
  15. Lin J, Ho K, Kuo W, Wang L, Chai C, Tsai S. Incidence of dehiscence of the facial nerve at surgery for middle ear cholesteatoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2004;131:452-6 pubmed
    ..To identify the incidence of dehiscence of the facial nerve in patients undergoing surgery for cholesteatoma and to describe its relevance with iatrogenic facial nerve injury...
  16. Ottaviani F, Neglia C, Berti E. Cytokines and adhesion molecules in middle ear cholesteatoma. A role in epithelial growth?. Acta Otolaryngol. 1999;119:462-7 pubmed
    ..These data support the hypothesis that the epithelial cells in middle ear cholesteatoma are in an activated state and that their hyperproliferation is mediated through cytokines and adhesion ..
  17. Gocmen H, Kilic R, Ozdek A, Kizilkaya Z, Safak M, Samim E. Surgical treatment of cholesteatoma in children. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2003;67:867-72 pubmed
    ..To present our experience in the surgical treatment of cholesteatoma in children...
  18. Chi H, Ho K, Chai C, Ta C, Wang L, Lee K, et al. Epidermal growth factor expression in middle ear cholesteatoma. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2004;20:6-11 pubmed
    b>Middle ear cholesteatoma is destructive to auditory ossicles and temporal bone, and treatment usually requires surgical removal of all epithelial content...
  19. Chen B, Yin S, Shen P. The feasibility of the retrofacial approach to the pediatric sinus tympani. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2005;133:780-5 pubmed
    ..0 mm provided an accessible approach to the pediatric ST. The retrofacial approach can be used in selected pediatric cases. This approach plays its individual role to eradicate cholesteatoma in a difficult-to-reach pediatric ST. B-2. ..
  20. Ndoye N, Hossini A, Ba M, Faye M, Thiam A, Tine I, et al. [Abscess of the posterior cranial fossa. Report of 4 cases]. Med Trop (Mars). 2007;67:485-9 pubmed
    ..Because of the small size of the posterior cerebral fossa, abscess in that location requires emergency treatment. Delay can be life-threatening due to the risk of obstructive hydrocephaly and tonsillar herniation. ..
  21. Rosito L, Canali I, Teixeira A, Silva M, Selaimen F, Costa S. Cholesteatoma labyrinthine fistula: prevalence and impact. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2018;: pubmed publisher
    ..This retrospective cohort study included patients with an acquired middle ear cholesteatoma in at least one ear with no prior surgery, who underwent audiometry and tomographic examination of the ..
  22. Inokuchi G, Okuno T, Hata Y, Baba M, Sugiyama D. Congenital cholesteatoma: posterior lesions and the staging system. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2010;119:490-4 pubmed
    ..A routine second-look procedure may be unnecessary in the early stages, whereas reexploration would be better performed in advanced stages. Endoscopy might reduce residual disease and the need for reexploration in the near future. ..
  23. Hidaka H, Ishida E, Kaku K, Nishikawa H, Kobayashi T. Congenital cholesteatoma of mastoid region manifesting as acute mastoiditis: case report and literature review. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:810-5 pubmed publisher
    ..We report an extremely rare case of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region, presenting as acute mastoiditis. We also review the 16 previously reported cases of congenital cholesteatoma of the mastoid region...
  24. Toran K, Shrestha S, Kafle P, Deyasi S. Surgical management of sinus tympani cholesteatoma. Kathmandu Univ Med J (KUMJ). 2004;2:297-300 pubmed
    ..But one should require thorough knowledge and surgical expertise to work in this difficult area of posterior mesotympanum. ..
  25. Oudidi A, Hachimi H, Ridal M, el Alami M. [Actinomycosis of the middle ear: case report]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2005;126:29-32 pubmed
    ..The antibiotherapy containing penicillin is the essential element, either separately, or in complement of gestures of surgical drainage. ..
  26. Massuda E, Oliveira J. A new experimental model of acquired cholesteatoma. Laryngoscope. 2005;115:481-5 pubmed
    ..The theory of epithelial migration in the genesis of cholesteatomas was confirmed by our observations in rats. The latex induced an acute and chronic inflammatory reaction when in contact with the mucosa of the middle ear. ..
  27. Dankuc D, Vlaski L, Komazec Z. [Techniques end results of surgical treatment cholesteatoma of middle ear]. Med Pregl. 2008;61 Suppl 2:13-20 pubmed
    Basic surgical techniques in the treatment of middle ear cholesteatoma include the intact-canal-wall and canal-wall-down tympanoplasty and combined method, i.e. the "mobile-bridge" tympanoplasty...
  28. Colnaghi S, Pichiecchio A, Bastianello S, Versino M. SPIR MRI usefulness for steroid treatment management in Tolosa-Hunt syndrome. Neurol Sci. 2006;27:137-9 pubmed
    A 40-year-old man underwent surgery for a right middle ear cholesteatoma. One month later, he presented with a subacute ocular pain that was followed one day later by the appearance of vertical diplopia attributable to a right superior ..
  29. Streitberger C, Perotti M, Beltrame M, Giarbini N. Vibrant Soundbridge for hearing restoration after chronic ear surgery. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2009;130:83-8 pubmed
    ..The objective of this study was to evaluate MED-EL Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) implantation in patients with severe conductive and mixed hearing loss occurring after middle ear surgery for cholesteatoma or chronic otitis media (COM)...
  30. Sudhoff H, Tos M. Pathogenesis of sinus cholesteatoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:1137-43 pubmed
    ..2) The proliferation stage of the retraction pocket, subdivided in (a) Cone formation, (b) Cone fusion. (3) Expansion stage of attic cholesteatoma. (4) Bone resorption. ..
  31. Plouin Gaudon I, Bossard D, Fuchsmann C, Ayari Khalfallah S, Froehlich P. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging for evaluation of pediatric recurrent cholesteatomas. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2010;74:22-6 pubmed publisher
    ..CT scan remains the first choice imaging technique. In case of doubtful CT scan, diffusion-weighted MRI could confirm a recurrence or, when negative, avoid second-look surgery. ..
  32. Goudy S, Lott D, Canady J, Smith R. Conductive hearing loss and otopathology in cleft palate patients. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2006;134:946-8 pubmed
    ..Assess incidence of conductive hearing loss, ear pathology, and associated communicative disorders in cleft palate patients...
  33. Marchioni D, Alicandri Ciufelli M, Molteni G, Artioli F, Genovese E, Presutti L. Selective epitympanic dysventilation syndrome. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:1028-33 pubmed publisher
  34. Kojima H, Tanaka Y, Yaguchi Y, Miyazaki H, Murakami S, Moriyama H. Endoscope-assisted surgery via the middle cranial fossa approach for a petrous cholesteatoma. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008;35:469-74 pubmed publisher
    ..In such case, we performed endoscope-assisted surgery via the middle cranial fossa approach to preserve cochlear and its function...
  35. Heran F, Williams M, Ayache D. [MRI of the temporal bone]. J Radiol. 2006;87:1783-94 pubmed
    ..This study also includes the main aspects of facial nerve lesions and vascular abnormalities of the area on MRI. The conclusion summarizes the main indications of temporal bone MRI...
  36. Morales D, Penido N, da Silva I, Stavale J, Guilherme A, Fukuda Y. Matrix metalloproteinase 2: an important genetic marker for cholesteatomas. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;73:51-7 pubmed
    ..3% (3 cases), with Fishers exact test indicating a significant difference (p=0.015). Cholesteatoamas express MMP2 and Invasive cholesteatomas had high MMP2 compared to latent cholesteatomas. ..
  37. Arsovic N, Radulovic R, Jesic S, Krejović Trivić S, Stankovic P, Djukic V. [Surgery of cholesteatoma: surgical technique and cholesteatoma recurrences]. Acta Chir Iugosl. 2004;51:103-7 pubmed
    ..The indications for CWD technique are the initial spread of cholesteatoma, possibility of complete removal of cholesteatoma and postoperative follow-up of patients. ..
  38. Presutti L, Alicandri Ciufelli M, Mattioli F, Marchioni D, Costantini M. A case of syryngocystadenoma papilliferum (SCAP) involving middle ear, presenting with otomastoiditis and cerebral abscess. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2008;35:401-3 pubmed
  39. Strehl M, Scheich M, Ott I, Muller Hermelink H, Hagen R, Volker H. [Middle ear adenoma/middle ear carcinoid--an unproblematic tumor?]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2009;88:186-90 pubmed publisher
    ..Therefore, a well-planned and comprehensive surgical management with a high frequency of follow-up examinations should be chosen. In complicated individual cases adjuvant radiotherapy can be helpful. ..
  40. Gultekin G, Olgun L, Kandogan T, Alper S, Eryilmaz Z, Cerci U, et al. [Long-term results of functional surgery for attic cholesteatoma]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2005;14:1-4 pubmed
    ..Canal wall-down tympanoplasty is associated with very low incidences of residual or recurrent cholesteatoma in the majority of patients. ..
  41. Takahashi H, Iwanaga T, Kaieda S, Fukuda T, Kumagami H, Takasaki K, et al. Mastoid obliteration combined with soft-wall reconstruction of posterior ear canal. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2007;264:867-71 pubmed
    ..Mastoid obliteration with bone powder in combination with soft-wall reconstruction of the posterior ear canal appeared a useful method for obliterating mastoidectomized cavity especially for prevention of postoperative pocket formation. ..
  42. De Corso E, Marchese M, Sergi B, Rigante M, Paludetti G. Role of ossiculoplasty in canal wall down tympanoplasty for middle-ear cholesteatoma: hearing results. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:324-8 pubmed
    ..Our functional results are comparable with those of other authors. In the present study, we show that hearing improvement is possible following cholesteatoma surgery with canal wall down tympanoplasty and ossicular chain reconstruction. ..
  43. Nin T, Sakagami M, Sone Okunaka M, Muto T, Mishiro Y, Fukazawa K. Taste function after section of chorda tympani nerve in middle ear surgery. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2006;33:13-7 pubmed
    ..These findings help explain the potential complications to the patients before surgery, although the number of cases was small in this series. ..
  44. Aslan A, Aslan G. Considerations of isolated destruction of the short process of the incus in a case of cholesteatoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2005;262:844-6 pubmed
    ..The short process of the incus may contribute to hearing up to 10-15 dB. It is also possible that it plays a role in epitympanic aeration by supplying an attachment surface to the incudal folds. ..
  45. Smith J, Danner C. Complications of chronic otitis media and cholesteatoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2006;39:1237-55 pubmed
    ..As medical (antibiotic) therapy continues to improve, and new imaging techniques are introduced, less invasive treatment modalities may be shown to be as effective as the classic, time-tested, surgical options. ..
  46. Ghanem M, Monroy A, Alizade F, Nicolau Y, Eavey R. Butterfly cartilage graft inlay tympanoplasty for large perforations. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:1813-6 pubmed
    ..The closure rate exceeded 90% with no graft displacement, postoperative adverse events were respectably low, and hearing results improved or remained stable despite the need for concurrent mastoidectomy in the majority of patients. ..
  47. Alzoubi F, Odat H, Al Balas H, Saeed S. The role of preoperative CT scan in patients with chronic otitis media. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:807-9 pubmed publisher
    ..We concluded that CT scan could not be relied on to differentiate cholesteatoma from chronic mucosal disease. It should be used selectively in the preoperative preparation only if complications of the disease suspected. ..
  48. Chung J, Lee S, Park C, Kim K, Tae K, Kang S, et al. Expression of Apoptotic vs Antiapoptotic Proteins in Middle Ear Cholesteatoma. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015;153:1024-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The upregulation of c-FLIP together with unchanged p53 suggests an altered equilibrium between apoptosis and antiapoptosis, favoring antiapoptosis, and may play a role in the pathogenesis of cholesteatoma. ..
  49. Albera R, Nadalin J, Garzaro M, Lacilla M, Pecorari G, Canale A. Condition of the anterior part of the middle ear cleft in acquired cholesteatoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2008;128:634-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Otorrhea, cholesteatoma extension, and ossicular chain lesions were not significantly related to the status of the anterior part of the middle ear cleft (p>0.05). ..
  50. Kuczkowski J, Pawelczyk T, Bakowska A, Narozny W, Mikaszewski B. Expression patterns of Ki-67 and telomerase activity in middle ear cholesteatoma. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:204-7 pubmed
    ..066). Telomerase activation is a rare event in cholesteatoma. We assume that the absence of telomerase may lead to generation dysfunctional telomeres what in turn may impair the proliferative capacity of cholesteatoma. ..
  51. Cho Y, Hong S, Chung K, Hong S, Chung W, Park S. Revision surgery for chronic otitis media: characteristics and outcomes in comparison with primary surgery. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:18-22 pubmed publisher
    ..The characteristics and surgical outcome of recurrent COM must be fully understood for complete control of the disease. ..
  52. Ricciardiello F, Cavaliere M, Mesolella M, Iengo M. Notes on the microbiology of cholesteatoma: clinical findings and treatment. Acta Otorhinolaryngol Ital. 2009;29:197-202 pubmed
  53. Bogris K, Sylligardakis N, Stavropoulos N, Condilis N, Kalogridaki I. The treatment of the ears with advanced pathology using a composite graft of perichondrium and cartilage. Ann Ital Chir. 2009;80:281-5 pubmed
    ..Closure of the perforation in the tympanic membrane was successful in 94% of the procedures. An < or = 30 dB in 79% of the type III procedures. In conclusion, the PCCG is a reliable graft in cases of advances middle ear damage..
  54. Măru N, Pop F. Morphological considerations about middle ear cholesteatoma. Rom J Morphol Embryol. 2006;47:73-7 pubmed
    The aim of this study is to present various morphologic aspects of the middle ear cholesteatoma, concerning both container (tympanic cavity) and content (cholesteatoma)...
  55. Williams M, Ayache D. [Imaging in adult chronic otitis]. J Radiol. 2006;87:1743-55 pubmed
    ..The objective of this paper is to specify the indications, the results and the limits of pre- and postoperative imaging in COM...
  56. Hwang S, Kang H, Song J, Kang J, Woo J, Chae S, et al. Up-regulation of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor gamma in cholesteatoma. Laryngoscope. 2006;116:58-61 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the localization and expression of peroxidase proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma in cholesteatoma epithelium...
  57. Marchioni D, Alicandri Ciufelli M, Grammatica A, Mattioli F, Presutti L. Pyramidal eminence and subpyramidal space: an endoscopic anatomical study. Laryngoscope. 2010;120:557-64 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe retrotympanic endoscopic anatomy, especially the pyramidal eminence and contiguous spaces...
  58. Jeunen G, Desloovere C, Hermans R, Vandecaveye V. The value of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of residual or recurrent acquired cholesteatoma after canal wall-up tympanoplasty. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:16-8 pubmed publisher
    ..The value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of recurrent or residual cholesteatoma after canal wall-up tympanoplasty is studied in a retrospective cohort study at a tertiary referral center...
  59. Aslan Felek S, Islam A, Celik H, Demirci M, Samim E, Kose S. The functional and anatomical results of the canal wall down tympanoplasty in extensive cholesteatoma. Acta Otolaryngol. 2009;129:1388-94 pubmed publisher
    ..The positive effect of the presence of the stapes superstructure on hearing results is closely related to the quality of the mucosa...
  60. Lee J, Chae S, Cho J, Lee H, Hwang S, Jung H. Expression of secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor in middle ear cholesteatoma. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:1077-81 pubmed
    ..We undertook this study to investigate the expression of SLPI in human middle ear cholesteatoma tissue as compared with normal external auditory canal skin...
  61. Ott I, Tebben H, Losenhausen H, Issing P. [Anatomical course of the chorda tympani nerve in middle ear surgery: clinical classification and relevance for postoperative gustatory dysfunction]. Laryngorhinootologie. 2009;88:592-8 pubmed publisher
  62. Uslu C, Tek A, Tatlipinar A, Kiliçarslan Y, Durmus R, Ayöğredik E, et al. Cartilage reinforcement tympanoplasty: otological and audiological results. Acta Otolaryngol. 2010;130:375-83 pubmed publisher
    ..High risk perforations including total, subtotal, atelectatic perforations, those with cholesteatoma and revision cases can be treated efficiently with cartilage reinforcement tympanoplasty...
  63. Lin V, Daniel S, James A, Friedberg J. Bilateral cholesteatomas: the hospital for sick children experience. J Otolaryngol. 2004;33:145-50 pubmed
    ..We compare the presenting signs and symptoms and timing of ipsilateral and contralateral cholesteatomas and the initial audiometric findings...
  64. Tarabichi M. Transcanal endoscopic management of cholesteatoma. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:580-8 pubmed publisher
    ..To assess the advantages and disadvantages of using endoscopic technique in the management of cholesteatoma...
  65. Vercruysse J, De Foer B, Somers T, Casselman J, Offeciers E. Long-term follow up after bony mastoid and epitympanic obliteration: radiological findings. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:37-43 pubmed publisher
    ..The objective of this study was to report long-term follow-up radiological findings after performing a canal wall up bony obliteration technique procedure, in order to detect residual and/or recurrent cholesteatoma...
  66. Vlastos I, Kandiloros D, Manolopoulos L, Ferekidis E, Yiotakis I. Quality of life in children with chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;73:363-9 pubmed publisher
    ..To validate a disease-specific health related quality of life (HRQOL) instrument for children with chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma...
  67. Dhepnorrarat R, Wood B, Rajan G. Postoperative non-echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging changes after cholesteatoma surgery: implications for cholesteatoma screening. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:54-8 pubmed publisher
  68. Purohit N, Pratap R, Chawla O. Bitter sweet tympani. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:e3 pubmed
    ..During cholesteatoma surgery, the chorda tympani nerve must often be divided. We present an interesting case of a patient whose severe dysgeusia due to cholesteatoma resolved following section of the chorda tympani nerve...
  69. Ling S, Sader C, Lannigan F. First report of congenital cholesteatoma in an Indigenous Australian child. ANZ J Surg. 2007;77:492-3 pubmed
  70. Martínez Lázaro R, Cortes Blanco A, Moreno Selva A, Morote M. Follow-up of a carcinoid tumor in the middle ear by in-111 pentetreotide scintigraphy. Clin Nucl Med. 2007;32:466-7 pubmed
  71. Teschner M, Hinz K, Stover T, Lenarz T, Becker H. Diffusion-weighted MRI in the diagnosis of cholesteatomas. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2009;71:99-104 pubmed publisher
    ..The diagnosis of a cholesteatoma can be difficult in cases with an intact tympanic membrane. The aim of our study was to examine whether diffusion-weighted MRI can confirm the diagnosis of a cholesteatoma...
  72. Harar R, Abramovich S, Mace A, Panesar J, Benjamin E. How we do it: the Farrior-Olaizola mastoidectomy technique in the management of squamous chronic otitis media. Clin Otolaryngol. 2005;30:269-73 pubmed
  73. Segal L, Walker A, Marmor E, Stern E, Levental M, Glikstein R, et al. Altered mental status and a retro-auricular mass. Can J Neurol Sci. 2006;33:317-9 pubmed
  74. Cloutier J, Arcand P, Martinez J, Abela A, Quintal M, Guerguerian A. Subannular ventilation tubes: retrospective study. J Otolaryngol. 2005;34:312-6 pubmed
    ..To evaluate the efficiency of a subannular tube insertion technique in a group of pediatric patients with adhesive otitis or severe atelectasis of the tympanic membrane...
  75. Uçar C. [External auditory canal reconstruction and mastoid cavity obliteration with composite multifractured osteoperiosteal flap: a preliminary study]. Kulak Burun Bogaz Ihtis Derg. 2006;16:127-31 pubmed
    ..We used inferior pedicled composite multifractured osteoperiosteal flap, which is our original surgical approach to obliterate the mastoid cavity, reconstruct the external auditory canal (EAC), and to prevent open cavity problems...
  76. Le B, Roehm P. Petrous apex mucocele. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:102-3 pubmed publisher
  77. Schmerber S, Troussier J, Dumas G, Lavieille J, Nguyen D. Hearing results with the titanium ossicular replacement prostheses. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2006;263:347-54 pubmed
    ..The titanium Kurz prosthesis has been an effective implant at our institution for ossicular reconstruction...
  78. Mishiro Y, Sakagami M, Kitahara T, Kondoh K, Okumura S. The investigation of the recurrence rate of cholesteatoma using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. Otol Neurotol. 2008;29:803-6 pubmed publisher
    ..To investigate the recurrence rate of cholesteatoma using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis...
  79. Hellingman C, Dunnebier E. Cochlear implantation in patients with acute or chronic middle ear infectious disease: a review of the literature. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2009;266:171-6 pubmed publisher
    ..contraindicated in patients with acute (AOM) or chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM) with or without middle ear cholesteatoma, recent developments now make it possible to perform cochlear implantation in these patients...
  80. Louw L. Acquired cholesteatoma pathogenesis: stepwise explanations. J Laryngol Otol. 2010;124:587-93 pubmed publisher
    ..In retrospect, there is progress toward better understanding of all the pathological mechanisms involved, as expounded in this review...
  81. Hari C, Powell R, Weiner G. Time trend analysis of otological procedures performed in England, 1989 to 2005. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:1135-9 pubmed
    ..To observe trends in the number of major otological procedures performed in England, in the context of advances in the understanding of disease...
  82. Felek S, Celik H, Islam A, Elhan A, Demirci M, Samim E. Type 2 ossiculoplasty: prognostic determination of hearing results by middle ear risk index. Am J Otolaryngol. 2010;31:325-31 pubmed publisher
  83. Fayad J, House J. Silastic sheeting in the middle ear. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:732 pubmed
  84. Djalilian H, Rubinstein M, Wu E, Naemi K, Zardouz S, Karimi K, et al. Optical coherence tomography of cholesteatoma. Otol Neurotol. 2010;31:932-5 pubmed
    ..OCT relies on intrinsic differences in tissue optical properties for image contrast...
  85. Ozturk K, Yildirim M, Acar H, Cenik Z, Keles B. Evaluation of c-MYC status in primary acquired cholesteatoma by using fluorescence in situ hybridization technique. Otol Neurotol. 2006;27:588-91 pubmed
    ..The object of study was to investigate the status of c-MYC oncogene in primary acquired cholesteatoma...
  86. Roger G, Dupré M, Leboulanger N, Godey B, Thomas C, Gandemer V, et al. Cholesteatoma secondary to temporal bone involvement by Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a complication amenable to curative surgery. Otol Neurotol. 2009;30:190-3 pubmed publisher
    ..To describe secondary acquired cholesteatoma in patients previously treated for Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH). To focus on misleading symptoms suggesting LCH relapse...