Summary: An abnormally disproportionate increase in the sensation of loudness in response to auditory stimuli of normal volume. COCHLEAR DISEASES; VESTIBULOCOCHLEAR NERVE DISEASES; FACIAL NERVE DISEASES; STAPES SURGERY; and other disorders may be associated with this condition.

Top Publications

  1. Khalfa S, Dubal S, Veuillet E, Perez Diaz F, Jouvent R, Collet L. Psychometric normalization of a hyperacusis questionnaire. ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec. 2002;64:436-42 pubmed
    Clinical hyperacusis consists of a marked intolerance to ordinary environmental sounds, while hearing thresholds are quite often normal...
  2. Schwartz P, Leyendecker J, Conlon M. Hyperacusis and misophonia: the lesser-known siblings of tinnitus. Minn Med. 2011;94:42-3 pubmed
    b>Hyperacusis (decreased sound tolerance) and misophonia (fear of sound) are two conditions about which little is known. Consequently, physicians often struggle when they encounter patients who are affected by them...
  3. Mahoney C, Rohrer J, Goll J, Fox N, Rossor M, Warren J. Structural neuroanatomy of tinnitus and hyperacusis in semantic dementia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2011;82:1274-8 pubmed publisher
    Tinnitus and hyperacusis are common symptoms of excessive auditory perception in the general population; however, their anatomical substrates and disease associations continue to be defined...
  4. Meeus O, Spaepen M, Ridder D, Heyning P. Correlation between hyperacusis measurements in daily ENT practice. Int J Audiol. 2010;49:7-13 pubmed publisher
    The aim of this study was to investigate hyperacusis measurement tools and to assess the correlation between diagnostic methods for hyperacusis in daily ENT practice...
  5. Zazzio M. Pain threshold improvement for chronic hyperacusis patients in a prospective clinical study. Photomed Laser Surg. 2010;28:371-7 pubmed publisher
    ..therapy in combination with pulsed electromagnetic field therapy/repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and the control of reactive oxygen species (ROS) would lead to positive treatment results for hyperacusis patients.
  6. Weber H, Pfadenhauer K, Stohr M, Rosler A. Central hyperacusis with phonophobia in multiple sclerosis. Mult Scler. 2002;8:505-9 pubmed
    Hearing disorders are a well-described symptom in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Unilateral or bilateral hyperacusis or deafness in patients with normal sound audiometry is often attributed to demyelinating lesions in the central ..
  7. Attias J, Zwecker Lazar I, Nageris B, Keren O, Groswasser Z. Dysfunction of the auditory efferent system in patients with traumatic brain injuries with tinnitus and hyperacusis. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol. 2005;16:117-26 pubmed
    Tinnitus, hyperacusis and difficulty listening in background noise are common symptoms reported by patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI)...
  8. Turner J, Parrish J. Gap detection methods for assessing salicylate-induced tinnitus and hyperacusis in rats. Am J Audiol. 2008;17:S185-92 pubmed publisher
    ..These options are briefly reviewed, followed by data suggesting that gap detection procedures might be used to efficiently measure acute, salicylate-induced tinnitus and possibly hyperacusis in rats.
  9. Coelho C, Sanchez T, Tyler R. Hyperacusis, sound annoyance, and loudness hypersensitivity in children. Prog Brain Res. 2007;166:169-78 pubmed
    The objective of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of hyperacusis among school-aged children. We define hyperacusis as lowered loudness discomfort levels (LDL) associated with an abnormal annoyance to sounds...

More Information


  1. Zeng F. An active loudness model suggesting tinnitus as increased central noise and hyperacusis as increased nonlinear gain. Hear Res. 2013;295:172-9 pubmed publisher
    The present study uses a systems engineering approach to delineate the relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis as a result of either hearing loss in the ear or an imbalanced state in the brain...
  2. Knipper M, van Dijk P, Nunes I, Ruttiger L, Zimmermann U. Advances in the neurobiology of hearing disorders: recent developments regarding the basis of tinnitus and hyperacusis. Prog Neurobiol. 2013;111:17-33 pubmed publisher
    ..Afferent neuronal degeneration has been suggested to be involved in hyperacusis (over sensitivity to sound) and tinnitus (a phantom sound percept)...
  3. Chen G, Lee C, Sandridge S, Butler H, Manzoor N, Kaltenbach J. Behavioral evidence for possible simultaneous induction of hyperacusis and tinnitus following intense sound exposure. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2013;14:413-24 pubmed publisher
    Many human subjects suffering from chronic tinnitus also suffer from hyperacusis, a heightened perception of loudness at moderate to intense sound levels...
  4. Gothelf D, Farber N, Raveh E, Apter A, Attias J. Hyperacusis in Williams syndrome: characteristics and associated neuroaudiologic abnormalities. Neurology. 2006;66:390-5 pubmed
    b>Hyperacusis and phonophobia are common, debilitating symptoms in Williams syndrome (WS), yet little is known about their underlying audiologic and neurologic processes.
  5. Jüris L, Andersson G, Larsen H, Ekselius L. Psychiatric comorbidity and personality traits in patients with hyperacusis. Int J Audiol. 2013;52:230-5 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperacusis, defined as unusual intolerance of ordinary environmental sounds, is a common problem. In spite of this, there is limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms...
  6. Blomberg S, Rosander M, Andersson G. Fears, hyperacusis and musicality in Williams syndrome. Res Dev Disabil. 2006;27:668-80 pubmed
    The study investigated the prevalence of fear and hyperacusis and the possible connections between fear, hyperacusis and musicality in a Swedish sample of individuals with Williams syndrome (WS)...
  7. Ison J, Allen P, O Neill W. Age-related hearing loss in C57BL/6J mice has both frequency-specific and non-frequency-specific components that produce a hyperacusis-like exaggeration of the acoustic startle reflex. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2007;8:539-50 pubmed
    ..This hyperacusis-like effect appeared in all mice but was especially pronounced in mice with more serious hearing loss...
  8. Levitin D, Cole K, Lincoln A, Bellugi U. Aversion, awareness, and attraction: investigating claims of hyperacusis in the Williams syndrome phenotype. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2005;46:514-23 pubmed
    ..Previously published reports indicate that people with WS experience hyperacusis, yet careful examination reveals that the term 'hyperacusis' has been used indiscriminately in the literature ..
  9. Blaesing L, Kroener Herwig B. Self-reported and behavioral sound avoidance in tinnitus and hyperacusis subjects, and association with anxiety ratings. Int J Audiol. 2012;51:611-7 pubmed publisher
    The purpose of the study was to analyse the role of sound avoidance and anxiety in tinnitus subjects with hyperacusis, defined as hypersensitivity to low to moderate intensity sounds.
  10. Schaaf H, Klofat B, Hesse G. [Hyperacusis, phonophobia, and recruitment. Abnormal deviations of hearing associated with hypersensitivity to sound]. HNO. 2003;51:1005-11 pubmed
    ..One can distinguish between recruitment accompanying inner ear hearing loss, hyperacusis with a general hypersensitivity to sound of any frequency, and phonophobia as an anxious sensitivity towards ..
  11. Baguley D. Hyperacusis. J R Soc Med. 2003;96:582-5 pubmed
  12. Eggermont J. Hearing loss, hyperacusis, or tinnitus: what is modeled in animal research?. Hear Res. 2013;295:140-9 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, the synaptic mechanisms underlying spontaneous firing rate changes may be different from those involved in driven neural activity...
  13. Johnson L, Comeau M, Clarke K. Hyperacusis in Williams syndrome. J Otolaryngol. 2001;30:90-2 pubmed
    To define hyperacusis in audiologic parameters and to further elucidate central and peripheral auditory pathways.
  14. Wagenaar O, Wieringa M, Verschuure H. A cognitive model of tinnitus and hyperacusis; a clinical tool for patient information, appeasement and assessment. Int Tinnitus J. 2010;16:66-72 pubmed
    Tinnitus and hyperacusis are both aggravating audiological symptoms. Their underlying mechanisms are not fully understood, but the pathophysiology involves a central mechanism rather than a peripheral one. There is no curative treatment...
  15. Sun W, Deng A, Jayaram A, Gibson B. Noise exposure enhances auditory cortex responses related to hyperacusis behavior. Brain Res. 2012;1485:108-16 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperacusis, a marked intolerance to normal environmental sound, is a common symptom in patients with tinnitus, Williams syndrome, autism, and other neurologic diseases...
  16. Hébert S, Carrier J. Sleep complaints in elderly tinnitus patients: a controlled study. Ear Hear. 2007;28:649-55 pubmed
    ..Sleep difficulties are among the most frequent complaints associated with tinnitus. Yet most studies reporting on this problem are rather succinct, and all of them lack proper age- and health-matched control subjects...
  17. de Klaver M, van Rijn M, Marinus J, Soede W, de Laat J, van Hilten J. Hyperacusis in patients with complex regional pain syndrome related dystonia. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 2007;78:1310-3 pubmed
    ..We noted that more severely affected patients may experience hyperacusis, which may also reflect central involvement...
  18. Hwang J, Chou P, Wu C, Chen J, Liu T. Brain activation in patients with idiopathic hyperacusis. Am J Otolaryngol. 2009;30:432-4 pubmed publisher
    The neural network associated with idiopathic hyperacusis is still not well known...
  19. Elsabbagh M, Cohen H, Cohen M, Rosen S, Karmiloff Smith A. Severity of hyperacusis predicts individual differences in speech perception in Williams Syndrome. J Intellect Disabil Res. 2011;55:563-71 pubmed publisher
    ..Individuals with WS display an unusual sensitivity to noise, known as hyperacusis.
  20. Kelman L, Tanis D. The relationship between migraine pain and other associated symptoms. Cephalalgia. 2006;26:548-53 pubmed
    ..Taste abnormality and osmophobia are better correlated with headache duration rather than headache intensity...
  21. Katzenell U, Segal S. Hyperacusis: review and clinical guidelines. Otol Neurotol. 2001;22:321-6; discussion 326-7 pubmed
    To review the current known causes of hyperacusis and the different hypotheses concerning its etiology, and to suggest clinical guidelines.
  22. Nelson J, Chen K. The relationship of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss. Ear Nose Throat J. 2004;83:472-6 pubmed
    The triad of tinnitus, hyperacusis, and hearing loss remains an often-underdiagnosed combination of symptoms that causes physical, mental, and emotional distress for millions of patients...
  23. Pace E, Zhang J. Noise-induced tinnitus using individualized gap detection analysis and its relationship with hyperacusis, anxiety, and spatial cognition. PLoS ONE. 2013;8:e75011 pubmed publisher
    Tinnitus has a complex etiology that involves auditory and non-auditory factors and may be accompanied by hyperacusis, anxiety and cognitive changes...
  24. Guimarães A, Carvalho G, Voltolini M, Zappelini C, Mezzalira R, Stoler G, et al. Study of the relationship between the degree of tinnitus annoyance and the presence of hyperacusis. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2014;80:24-8 pubmed publisher
    b>Hyperacusis can be defined as a manifestation of an increased of central auditory pathways gain and can be considered a pre-tinnitus state. In some cases tinnitus can be caused by such increased gain.
  25. Dauman R, Bouscau Faure F. Assessment and amelioration of hyperacusis in tinnitus patients. Acta Otolaryngol. 2005;125:503-9 pubmed
    Tinnitus can be bothersome even without hyperacusis. The good correlation found in this study between the multiple-activity scale for hyperacusis (MASH) score and the overall annoyance of hyperacusis score supports the reliability of ..
  26. Gold S, Formby C, Gray W. Celebrating a decade of evaluation and treatment: the University of Maryland Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Center. Am J Audiol. 2000;9:69-74 pubmed
    The University of Maryland Tinnitus & Hyperacusis Center in Baltimore was the first center in the United States dedicated to the evaluation and treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis patients implementing an habituation-based protocol ..
  27. Hannula S, Bloigu R, Majamaa K, Sorri M, Maki Torkko E. Self-reported hearing problems among older adults: prevalence and comparison to measured hearing impairment. J Am Acad Audiol. 2011;22:550-9 pubmed publisher
    ..between self-reported hearing difficulties and measured hearing thresholds is unclear and, according to our knowledge, there are no previous population-based studies reporting hearing thresholds among subjects with hyperacusis.
  28. Andersson G, Lindvall N, Hursti T, Carlbring P. Hypersensitivity to sound (hyperacusis): a prevalence study conducted via the Internet and post. Int J Audiol. 2002;41:545-54 pubmed
    The present study explored the prevalence and descriptive characteristics of hyperacusis, defined as unusual intolerance of ordinary environmental sounds...
  29. Yuen H, Boeddinghaus R, Eikelboom R, Atlas M. 15th Yahya Cohen Memorial Lecture - the relationship between the air-bone gap and the size of superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2011;40:59-64 pubmed
    ..These findings highlight the effect of the dehiscence size on conductive hearing loss in SSCD and contribute to a better understanding of the symptomatology of patients with SSCD. ..
  30. Langhagen T, Landgraf M, Huppert D, Heinen F, Jahn K. Vestibular Migraine in Children and Adolescents. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2016;20:67 pubmed
    ..There is still insufficient research on VM in children and adolescents; future studies on clinical presentation, evolvement, and specific treatment are necessary. ..
  31. Wallén M, Hasson D, Theorell T, Canlon B. The correlation between the hyperacusis questionnaire and uncomfortable loudness levels is dependent on emotional exhaustion. Int J Audiol. 2012;51:722-9 pubmed
    To validate the hyperacusis questionnaire (HQ) in different strata of emotional exhaustion (EE)...
  32. Park J, Cederroth C, Basinou V, Meltser I, Lundkvist G, Canlon B. Identification of a Circadian Clock in the Inferior Colliculus and Its Dysregulation by Noise Exposure. J Neurosci. 2016;36:5509-19 pubmed publisher
    ..on the inferior colliculus (IC), which plays an important role in noise-induced pathologies such as tinnitus, hyperacusis, and audiogenic seizures...
  33. Brookler K. Electronystagmography in a 13-year-old boy with dizziness and hyperacusis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2003;82:424-6 pubmed
  34. Pawlaczyk Łuszczyńska M, Dudarewicz A, Zamojska M, Sliwinska Kowalska M. [Risk assessment of hearing loss in orchestral musicians]. Med Pr. 2010;61:493-511 pubmed
    ..Nearly every fifth musician complained of tinnitus while almost half (48%) of them--of hyperacusis. However, only 14% of musicians declared present or past usage of hearing protective devices (HPDs) while over ..
  35. Orekhova E, Stroganova T, Prokofyev A, Nygren G, Gillberg C, Elam M. Sensory gating in young children with autism: relation to age, IQ, and EEG gamma oscillations. Neurosci Lett. 2008;434:218-23 pubmed publisher
    ..02), but not in control group. The data suggest that ineffective inhibitory control of sensory processing is characteristic for retarded children with autism and may reflect excitation/inhibition imbalance in this clinical group. ..
  36. Neal C, Kennon McGill S, Freemyer A, Shum A, Staecker H, Durham D. Hair cell counts in a rat model of sound damage: Effects of tissue preparation & identification of regions of hair cell loss. Hear Res. 2015;328:120-32 pubmed publisher
    ..hearing loss, but it can also be involved in the initiation of other auditory disorders such as tinnitus or hyperacusis. In this study we quantify changes in HC number following exposure to one of four sound damage paradigms...
  37. Mannix S, Skalicky A, Buse D, Desai P, Sapra S, Ortmeier B, et al. Measuring the impact of migraine for evaluating outcomes of preventive treatments for migraine headaches. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2016;14:143 pubmed
    ..These instruments must evaluate the concepts identified and be able to capture the variability of patients' experience. ..
  38. Laker S. Sports-Related Concussion. Curr Pain Headache Rep. 2015;19:41 pubmed publisher
    ..The article will also discuss issues regarding medical retirement, legislation, and future concepts in concussion diagnosis and management. ..
  39. Ramirez L, Ballesteros L, Sandoval G. Tensor tympani muscle: strange chewing muscle. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2007;12:E96-100 pubmed
    ..Common symptomatology is frequently observed in otic symptoms and temporomandibular disorders during daily practice; this should be understood by each discipline from a broad, anatomical and clinical perspective...
  40. Derry S, Moore R. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;:CD008040 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse events with paracetamol did not differ from placebo; serious and/or severe adverse events were slightly more common with sumatriptan than with paracetamol plus metoclopramide. ..
  41. Pfadenhauer K, Weber H, Rosler A, Stohr M. [Central hyperacusis with phonophobia in multiple sclerosis]. Nervenarzt. 2001;72:928-31 pubmed
    ..modulation which controls the regulation of sensitivity of incoming acoustic stimuli seems to be the cause of hyperacusis. All our patients developed clinically confirmed MS in the further course after suffering from phonophobia as ..
  42. Turner J, Larsen D. Effects of noise exposure on development of tinnitus and hyperacusis: Prevalence rates 12 months after exposure in middle-aged rats. Hear Res. 2016;334:30-6 pubmed publisher
    ..Rats were behaviorally tested for tinnitus and hyperacusis using gap-induced inhibition of the acoustic startle reflex (Gap) and prepulse inhibition (PPI) using 60-dB SPL ..
  43. Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;:CD008040 pubmed publisher
    ..Adverse events with paracetamol did not differ from placebo; "major" adverse events were slightly more common with sumatriptan than with paracetamol plus metoclopramide. ..
  44. Basta D, Gröschel M, Ernst A. [Central and peripheral aspects of noise-induced hearing loss]. HNO. 2018;66:342-349 pubmed publisher
    ..approaches are required, particularly for treatment of central nervous processing disorders and auditory synaptopathy, which contribute to audiological phenomena such as tinnitus, hyperacusis and poor speech perception in noise.
  45. Criddle M, Godfrey D, Kaltenbach J. Attenuation of noise-induced hyperactivity in the dorsal cochlear nucleus by pre-treatment with MK-801. Brain Res. 2018;1682:71-77 pubmed publisher
    ..They further suggest that blockade of NMDA receptors may offer a useful therapeutic approach to preventing induction of noise-induced hyperactivity-related hearing disorders, such as tinnitus and hyperacusis.
  46. Carey J, Migliaccio A, Minor L. Semicircular canal function before and after surgery for superior canal dehiscence. Otol Neurotol. 2007;28:356-64 pubmed
    ..Middle fossa craniotomy and repair of SCD reduce the function of the operated superior canal but typically preserve the function of the other ipsilateral semicircular canals. ..
  47. Macedo A, Farre M, Banos J. A meta-analysis of the placebo response in acute migraine and how this response may be influenced by some of the characteristics of clinical trials. Eur J Clin Pharmacol. 2006;62:161-72 pubmed
    ..These data reinforce the need for knowing the magnitude of the placebo response in each specific situation during the planning of clinical trials on acute migraine. ..
  48. Goldstein J, Hoffman H, Armellino J, Battikha J, Hamelsky S, Couch J, et al. Treatment of severe, disabling migraine attacks in an over-the-counter population of migraine sufferers: results from three randomized, placebo-controlled studies of the combination of acetaminophen, aspirin, and caffeine. Cephalalgia. 1999;19:684-91 pubmed
    ..The nonprescription combination of AAC was well tolerated and effective. ..
  49. Berninger E, Karlsson K, Alvan G. Quinine reduces the dynamic range of the human auditory system. Acta Otolaryngol. 1998;118:46-51 pubmed
    ..Its mechanism of action on the molecular level is likely to reveal further information on the physiology of hearing...
  50. Kamiyama M, Kuriyama S, Watanabe M. [A clinical study of pyridoxine treatment for pervasive developmental disorders with hypersensitivity to sound]. No To Hattatsu. 2006;38:277-82 pubmed
    ..Our results indicate there are PDD subgroups whose expressive language capabilities and hypersensitivity to sound can be improved by pyridoxine treatment...
  51. Moore B, Glasberg B. A revised model of loudness perception applied to cochlear hearing loss. Hear Res. 2004;188:70-88 pubmed
    ..Like the earlier model, the new model can account for the loudness recruitment and reduced loudness summation that are typically associated with cochlear hearing loss...
  52. Halmagyi G, McGarvie L, Aw S, Yavor R, Todd M. The click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex in superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Neurology. 2003;60:1172-5 pubmed
    ..Normal subjects had responses that were at least 10 times smaller. The click-evoked vestibulo-ocular reflex test is a simple, robust way to screen dizzy patients for symptomatic superior semicircular dehiscence...
  53. Rotenberg B, Busato G, Agrawal S. Endoscopic ligation of the patulous eustachian tube as treatment for autophony. Laryngoscope. 2013;123:239-43 pubmed publisher
    ..Our objective was to develop a novel endoscopic technique to assist these patients...
  54. Geweke L. Clinical pearls: can they be of more than anecdotal value?. Headache. 2005;45:763 pubmed
  55. Heinz M, Issa J, Young E. Auditory-nerve rate responses are inconsistent with common hypotheses for the neural correlates of loudness recruitment. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2005;6:91-105 pubmed
    ..Overall, these results suggest that loudness recruitment cannot be accounted for based on summed AN rate responses and may depend on neural mechanisms involved in the central representation of intensity...
  56. Westcott M, Sanchez T, Diges I, Saba C, Dineen R, McNeill C, et al. Tonic tensor tympani syndrome in tinnitus and hyperacusis patients: a multi-clinic prevalence study. Noise Health. 2013;15:117-28 pubmed publisher
    ..b>Hyperacusis is a dominant AS symptom...
  57. McFerran D, Baguley D. Acoustic shock. J Laryngol Otol. 2007;121:301-5 pubmed
    ..has not yet been proposed, but the potential utility of modern therapeutic techniques for tinnitus and hyperacusis are considered...
  58. Madeira G, Montmirail C, Decat M, Gersdorff M. [TRT: results after one year treatment]. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2007;128:145-8 pubmed
    ..As sleep forms a significant component of the distress associated with Tinnitus however, we hypothesised that night-time TRT could represent a useful tool in the treatment of this disabling condition...
  59. Laitinen H, Poulsen T. Questionnaire investigation of musicians' use of hearing protectors, self reported hearing disorders, and their experience of their working environment. Int J Audiol. 2008;47:160-8 pubmed publisher
    ..Furthermore, musicians can suffer from tinnitus, hyperacusis, and distortion, among other hearing disorders, which can affect their work more severely than a hearing loss...
  60. Irimia P, Cittadini E, Paemeleire K, Cohen A, Goadsby P. Unilateral photophobia or phonophobia in migraine compared with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias. Cephalalgia. 2008;28:626-30 pubmed publisher
    ..The presence of these unilateral symptoms may be clinically useful in the differential diagnosis of primary headaches...
  61. Balaban C. Migraine, vertigo and migrainous vertigo: Links between vestibular and pain mechanisms. J Vestib Res. 2011;21:315-21 pubmed publisher
  62. Derry S, Rabbie R, Moore R. Diclofenac with or without an antiemetic for acute migraine headaches in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012;:CD008783 pubmed publisher
    ..Co-therapy with an antiemetic should help to reduce the nausea and vomiting commonly associated with migraine...
  63. Sztuka A, Pospiech L, Gawron W, Dudek K. DPOAE in estimation of the function of the cochlea in tinnitus patients with normal hearing. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2010;37:55-60 pubmed publisher
    ..for the analysis of cochlear function in the patients, emphasizing those most useful in localizing tinnitus generators, and determine the hypothetical influence of hyperacusis and misophony on DPOAE parameters in tinnitus patients.
  64. Rosenhall U, Nordin V, Sandstrom M, Ahlsen G, Gillberg C. Autism and hearing loss. J Autism Dev Disord. 1999;29:349-57 pubmed
    ..b>Hyperacusis was common, affecting 18.0% of the autism group and 0% in an age-matched nonautism comparison group...
  65. Sherlock L, Formby C. Estimates of loudness, loudness discomfort, and the auditory dynamic range: normative estimates, comparison of procedures, and test-retest reliability. J Am Acad Audiol. 2005;16:85-100 pubmed
  66. Fioretti A, Fusetti M, Eibenstein A. Association between sleep disorders, hyperacusis and tinnitus: evaluation with tinnitus questionnaires. Noise Health. 2013;15:91-5 pubmed publisher
    ..The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between age, gender, sleep disorders, hyperacusis and tinnitus annoyance and to demonstrate the utility of tinnitus questionnaires as screening tools for sleep ..
  67. Hesse G, Schaaf H, Laubert A. Specific findings in distortion product otoacoustic emissions and growth functions with chronic tinnitus. Int Tinnitus J. 2005;11:6-13 pubmed
    ..Regarding therapeutic approaches, these central functions can be trained by hearing therapy, as we know from patients' rehabilitation...
  68. Sanchez Legaza E, Ciges Juan M, Gonzalez Perez M, Miranda Caravallo J. [Recruitment in presbycusis]. An Otorrinolaringol Ibero Am. 2006;33:183-91 pubmed
    ..We analyse variables and their possible interrelations with recruitment in 241 presbycusic patients...
  69. Toppila E, Koskinen H, Pyykko I. Hearing loss among classical-orchestra musicians. Noise Health. 2011;13:45-50 pubmed publisher
    ..Music deteriorates hearing, but by less than what ISO 1999-1990 predicted. The low number of individual susceptibility factors explained the difference, but only reduced hearing loss and not the prevalence of tinnitus...
  70. Jansen E, Helleman H, Dreschler W, de Laat J. Noise induced hearing loss and other hearing complaints among musicians of symphony orchestras. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2009;82:153-64 pubmed publisher
  71. Rinaldi V, Portmann D. Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials after superior semicircular canal obliteration. Rev Laryngol Otol Rhinol (Bord). 2011;132:85-7 pubmed
    ..To analyse vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) characteristics in patients with superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) after surgical plugging...
  72. Winter A, Berger K, Buring J, Kurth T. Body mass index, migraine, migraine frequency and migraine features in women. Cephalalgia. 2009;29:269-78 pubmed publisher
    ..Our data confirm previous findings that the association between BMI with migraine is limited to migraine frequency and specific migraine features...
  73. Connor K, Shapiro R, Diener H, Lucas S, Kost J, Fan X, et al. Randomized, controlled trial of telcagepant for the acute treatment of migraine. Neurology. 2009;73:970-7 pubmed publisher
    ..In this large phase 3 clinical trial, we sought to confirm the efficacy of telcagepant, the first orally bioavailable CGRP receptor antagonist...